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THE

NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE. No. 49.]

FEBRUARY 1, 1818.

[VOL. IX.

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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

JOURNAL OF A Toue in ENGLAND, IN the English coast. Packets sail regularly 1815 and 1816,

every day for Dover, and this passage From the M. S. Notes of their Imperial is preferred to that of Calais. Highnesses the Archdukes JOHN & LEWIS The remains of Napoleon's camp are of AUSTRIA.

still to be seen. On the east side of the ON our arrival at Boulogne, October harbour are fortifications and batteries 21st, 1815, we alighted at the Hotel which mutually flank each other, and d'Angleterre, and the fişst thing we did have occasioned this part to be called the was to enquire for the captain com

iron coast.

At the extremity of the manding the royal yacht which was to heights to the north of Boulogne was convey us over. The yacht was in the the principal telegraph whicli correroad ; the next day was fixed for our sponded with others; along the coast. departure; but during the night a storm The scaffolding for the pyramid intended obliged all the vessels to leave the to bave been erected is still standing. barbour. We were therefore neces. It was on the strand that Napoleon sitated to postpone our departure for reviewed his troops. To the west the one day, and we availed ourselves of this heights are fortified. On either side interval to visit the environs of the there are forts, which at filond tide are town.

surrounded with water; they are built The port is formed by the small river of stone, and are placed upon different Liane, and by a basin of recent con- points of the coast. The basin of the struction. Two moles project into the harbour, and all the works that now exist sea; the eastern one is prolonged by a here, were the creation of Buona parte ; dyke to a wooden battery upon piles, and but in spite of them all, the entrance upon the western there is a battery into and departure from this port have adjoining to the dyke.

continued to be difficult; and it is easy The coast is steep: it is formed by a to conceive how much time it woud have series of bilis which exbibit calcareous taken for so great a number of vessels as strata. A sand-bank projects into the were here collected, to get out one by sea, and this has rendered it necessary to ove, as they would have been obliged to carry out the two stone dykes to facilitate do. All the boats were built in the the egress and prevent the mouth from basin, and along the river; liere too they being choked up. At ebb tide the were stationed, and two hundred thousand vessels are left aground in the mud; the soldiers were encamped on the heights. sand-bank is then dry to the extent of Of all these preparations nothing is now more than 200 fathoms; and it is fre- to be seen but the traces of the fortificaquented by women for the purpose of tions, the works of the port which are zawering the muscles deposited upon it no longer kept up, and two large halfby the sea. At food there is 14 feet rotten flat-bottomed boats. Such is all water in the port and against the that remains of the immense enterprize eastern dyke. We witnessed the diffi- which cost France upwards of three cuity there is in entering the harbour; lundred millions (12,500,0001). a vessel which had not sufficiently gained A great deal has been written both the wind for the purpose being obliged for and against the question whether the to stand out again to sea.

invasion of England would bave been Boulogne contains 13,000 inhabitants. practicable or not. So much is certain, It is built on the slope of the hills on the that it must have been attended with medit bank of the Liane. The town is very material difficulties. The embarkairregular, and the houses of a greyish tion could not have taken place without stone, which, together with the bareness being perceived; the vessels must have of the surrounding eminences, gives it quitted the port one after another, and a dull and dreary appearance. The drawn up in line in the road to risk the inhabitants are chiefly engaged in com- passage; during which they would have n.erce and the fisheries: the herring- had to cope with the English fiect, and isbery is very considerable, and is said after all to land the troops on a coast to produce 1,500,000 francs per annum. lined with rocks. Whoever is acIt is carried on in the Channel towards quainted with the advantages posNew MONTOLY MAG-No, 49,

VOL. IX,

B

2

Observations of the Archdukes of Austria

[Feb. 1,

over

sessed by a large ship at sea town. As it was low water we were small vessels will readily conceive what obliged to have recourse to the boat to would have been the issue of the confiict. enter the harbour. The quays and the Calm days are inoreover but rare, and whole shore were covered with a great such a one inust have been chosen to concourse of people. It is impossible deprive the English fieet of part of its to describe the first impression which a advantages. Lastly it would liave been stranger receives on arriving in this very difficult to cross with vessels without country. Ile fancies himself transported decks in stormy weather.

into another world: nothing there From all these considerations it is resembles what he has seen elsewhere. obvious that a landing could not bave Buildings, carriages, horses, men, dress, been effected in England but by a kind physiognomy—are all different from of iniracle--and then what immense what he has been accustomed to. He difficulties would there have been to perceives in the lowest classes a kind of enc junter in the country itself! Oi elegance both in person and costume; this all who have ever seen England must and their features retain an expression of We thoroughly convinced.

calmness and serenity even in numerous If the motive of Napoleon in this assemblages. enterprize was to ruin England, he The carriages that were in waiting completely failed, since the extraordinary conveyed us to our inn: it commands a arınaments which lie occasioned ber to view of the barbour, which was full of set on foot, proved fatal to him in Spain shipping. It is dry at ebb-tide. The and Portugal. He seems hiniself to entrance is narrow and obstructed by a have been aware of the difficulties which sand-bank, so that it cannot be passed opposed the execution of his plan, since except at bigh water. he eagerly seized the opportunity of We went to see the new citadel. directing his forces against a quarter The town is situated on the sea-shore at where he discovered, as he thought, a the entrance of a valley. The old castle probability of success.

of Dover lies to the east and the citadel There were several packets in the to the west. We remarked the beauty harbour; tiro sailed at noon with a of the bricks of the citadel.

The favourable wind. We saw them depart captain of engineers, who accompanied with regret, while etiquette obliged us to us and was very attentire, inforined us wait for the yaclit. At length about four that coal-ashes are mixed with the clay o'clock she appeared in the roads; but of which the bricks are made-a fact the captain determined not to sail till which was afterwards confirmed to us in the next morning, because the wind was London. The chalk found bere serves stormy, and he had orders, as he said, for making the lime employed in buildto land us at Dover in the day-time. ing.--The view from the height is mag,

Oct. 22. A five morning promised us nificent; the coasts of Boulogne and a favourable passage. The white chalk Calais are distinctly seen, cliffs of the English coast soon appeared Oct. 23. We started at nine o'clock. in sight. At 10 in the morning we The post-horses are excellent, the roads went on board the yacht, which is a very magnificent, the drivers safe, and pretty little vessel. As it belongs to the travelling extremely expeditious

. The Admiralty it is titted up with elegance. country is better cultivated than in It contains a sitting-room, a spacious France, which gives it an agreeable ap: eating-room, and a kitchen. The two pearance though not beautiful in itself. former are wainscoted sith mahogany, The soil is chalky, mixed with silex. and adorned with gilding; and the In front of almost all the houses is a furniture of the sitting room is of blue small patch filled with flowers and satin. At one end of this apartment is southern plants that pass the winter in a beautiful stove of polislied steel, aud at the

open air and afford a favourable idea the other a lanp the light of which falls of the mildness of the climate. The upon the stersman's compass.

Two wind-mills are numerous because there adjoining closets contain every con- is but little water in these parts. A venience for persons afflicted with sea- great number of villas of a peculiar and sickness. A plentiful breakfast was pleasing architecture, surrounded with provided in the cating-room, but nobody small parks, meadows clothed with the ventured to touch it for fear of sickness. most brilliant verdure, superb flocks,

At three o'clock we reached Dover and fields encompassed with quick road. The houses, which are almost all hedges and trees render the country black give a dull appearance to the truly charming,

1818.j during their Tour in England, in 1815 and 1810.

Canterbury, 16 miles from Dover is passes over this tunnel by means of a the first stage. It is situated in a valley, bridge 60 or 70 feet high. and its beautiful cathedral rises ma- The country is every where well culjestically above the houses. As we tivated. Silex and chalk abound in it. wished not to stop we deferred inspecting The latter is spread opon the fields to it till our return. The post-house is at render the soil inore friable. the same time an inn--a circumstance Chipping Barnet is the first stage and very common in England as well as in St. Alban's the second. At the latter Germany.

place we stopped at the White Hart, a Pursuing our route, we were surprized very good inn, where the traveller finds, at the great number of tornpikes where as indeed he does all over England, very toll most be paid. They consist of two clean apartments, excellent fare, and a small houses the road between which is polite reception. obstructed by a moveable bar; on either The abbey of St. Albans is an edifice side is a narrow passage for pedestrians, remarkable for its antiquity. The and in the middle of the road is a church, built of chalk, is situated on an machine for indicating the weight of eminence; its construction dates from carriages: the maintenance of these three different periods, and is conseroads is undertaken by private indi- quently very irregular. It is said to viduals, who pay an advance to the bave been begun by the Anglo-Saxons. state, and possess by act of parliament The architecture of the second period is the privilege of levying the tolls, which Gothic, and the third was about the time are regulated according to the expense of the Reformation. Henry VIII. and attending the repair of the road. These Elizabeth, when obliged to quit London turnpike roads admit only two carriages on account of the plague, held their abreast; on each side they have a path courts of justice in this church. Tiere raised two or three feet for foot pas- too is shown the tomb of the patron of sengers. The roads are kept in good England. order with broken silex.

On a slight eminence to the south of Night overtook us at Dartford, and it the town is the site of the ancient Roman was eight o'clock when we reached city of Verulumium : some vestiges of its London. The house of the Duke of St. walls still exist. Albans, which was provided for our In a neighbouring valley, near a small reception with every thing that can stream, is seen the silk-mill of Mr. render life agreeable and comfortable is Wootam. The machines employed here pleasantly situated in one of the best are on the same plan as these for spinquarters in Westminster, near the ning cotton. The silk goes through promenades. On the following days till twelve preparations. All the machinery the 3d of November, we were engaged is set in motion by water. We disa in visits of etiquette and others; in covered nothing very new in the manitaking notes for the journey which we pulation, except two contrivances. By intended to make in the country, and means of the one, if a thread of the for which we

not sufficiently spindle breaks, the machine stops of prepared ; and lastly in equipping our

itself. By the other, the silk is wound selves in the English fashion, that we more equally upon the bobbins than by might run about the town with greater the usual process. The proprietor of freedom.

this manufactory, who employs 120 At eight in the morning of the 3rd persons, has annexed to it a school for of November, we quitted London. The ihe children of the work-people. suburbs of this capital are daily ex- We arrived late in the evening at tending. Houses and whole streets are Beachwood, a fine mansion belonging built upon speculation and almost im- to Sir JouŇ SEBRIGHT. He is a great mediately occupied. The country soon farmer, and explained to us in detail the begins to rise, and the hills covered with agricultural system of the English and villas and gurdens are very picturesque. particularly the methods introduced by It is on the north side that you have the him on his own estate. The turnips finest view of London when the weather grow to a great size

at Beachwood. is clear. The road which about a year Sir John told us that he had once sent nigo passed over a steep hill, now scarcely to his sister nineteen partridges inclosed ascends at all, a cut having been made in the hollow of one of those roots. in the hill, which shortens the way three [llere the illustrious travellers dequarters of a mile, and is much less scribe several agricultural inachines, fatiguing for the horses. Another road which, though new to them, must

were

4 Observations on England by the Archdukes of Austria. [Feb. I, be well known to the majority of our present possessor of the title. Within readers. ]

it contains a cabinet, the ceiling of which Sir John Sebright possesses a flock of is gilt, and in which are placed the busts a thousand sheep.' They are of two of Fox and of bis friends, Gen. FITZPAkinds-merinos, and the native breed.- TRICK, and Lords LAUDERDALE, ROBERT As he keeps them principally to fatten, SPENCER, GREY, HOLLAND, and Harhe prefers the latter, which in this respect vey.* possesses many advantages over the me- There is a Chinese house fitted up rinos,

with Chinese and Japanese furniture and We passed the evening very agree- vases, and a menagerie which contains ably; the baronet's eldest daughter, who several very rare animals. devotes much of her time to the study of We had never seen a park so full of chemistry, showed us an experiment of deer as that of Woburn.' Those handWollaston's, which is now known, but some creatures are so tame as to come was then new to us, and which consists close under the windows of the mansion. in transforming a thimble into a small The farm is half a mile from the pringalvanic battery capable of heating a cipal habitations, and exhibits with all platinum wire red-hot.

its buildings, the appearance of a small We saw so many things at Beach- village. Here are found several things wood that it was impossible to make me worthy of notice, among others a steammorandums of them all; but Sir John engine which sets in motion a threshing promised to call upon us on our return machine and two mills. The manner in to London, and to give us a supplement which the motion is communicated is of notices of the greatest value to us.- highly ingenious, but a clear idea of it For the rest, be made such good use of cannot be given without a drawing. It the time we passed at his house, that we was the late Duke who was a celebrated gained more knowledge of him than we agriculturist, tbat erected all the buildcould have possibly collected elsewhere ings on this fine estate. in so short a space. He is the true model On leaving Woburn the country is of the English gentleman: possessing ex- rather uniform though well cultivated ; tensive information acquired in his but as soon as you enter Leicestershire travels, and speaking French and Ger- there is a change both in the aspect of man with equal fluency, he is capable of the country and in the cultivation. Its discussiog a great variety of subjects, situation is more elevated, and it is eviand always in an interesting manner. dent, from its consisting chiefly of mea

The mansion of the Duke of Bedrord dows and pasturage, that the keeping of at Woburn, where we stopped on the cattle is the principal occupation of the 5th of November, is with its gardens and inhabitants. park one of the most superb establish- We were at Leicester on the 6th. The ments in England. All those things that houses are built of brick of a very lively constitute in general the most pleasing red and the roofs slated, which produces ornaments of English country-houses are a very pleasing effect. Wilson's foundry here found in the highest perfection. — was the first manufactory that we saw The library is copious and selected with in this town. llere nothing is made but judgment. We received great pleasure very fine work and machines. The hofrom contemplating a great variety of rizontal wind-mills for which Wilson has fine paintings,especially by Vandyke, and obtained a patent are very beautiful.many portraits, among which we distin. KELLY's knitting manufactory is consiguished tbat of Anna Boleyn by Holbein. derable. There are fourteen large frames In the entrance hall is a bust of Napo- set in motion by a steam-engine. By leon in Carrara marble.

this method the manufacturer is enabled In nalking through the gardens we to furnish for 14 shillings what formerly were particularly struck with the beauty cost 40. The produce of this establishof a very spacious Orangery. In the ment is very great: it sells from 7 to 800 centre rise eight columns of white marble dozen pair of braces every week. Great which surround an antique vase of very part of these goods is exported to Amelarge dinensions, and adorned with rica. figures in relievo, and several small vases On the 7th we arrived at Beaudesert, also of white marble. In a niche is seen a fine country-seat belonging to the Mara copy of the Apollo Belvidere. At the quis of ANGIESEA. During our stay here end of the orangery is the entrance to a we gained some insight into the way in temple, supported by four columns of which the wealthy English proprietors live the 'Ionic order, crected in monory of

* May not this last be intended for HAR, the late Duke of Bedford, brother to the

VEX CHRISTIAN COOMBE?

re

1818.] New Applications of Mr. Lester's Convertor.

5 in the country. Nobody appears before you add to this the perfect liberty of 9 o'clock in ibe morning: at 10 the fa- living as you please, it will be evident mily assembles in the drawing-room to a how agreeable a residence in the councopious breakfast of tea, coffee, bread try must be; and it will be thought perand butter, toast, boiled egys, cutlets, fectly natural that the English nobility &c. Breakfast lasts an hour, after which and gentry should inhabit London only the company separate, and cach employs during the time that Parliament is asa or amuses himself as be please's till sembled. dinner, which is tised for six or seren in

(To be continued.) the evening. Half an hour earlier they again meet in the library or drawings

HAVING promised in one of your room. In the morning gentlemen may foriner numbers to give you what infor appear in boots, but in the evening they ination I could collect relative to the are expected to be dressed as in town.

adaptation of Mr. Lester's new meThe ladies also are full dressed.

chanic power the Convertor, I now beg Dinner presents the best of every thing leave to inform you that it is applied to that a good kitchen is capable of afford

a crane at the West India Docks with ing. The plate is very bandsome, fre the greatest advantage both as to secuquently silver gilt. Afier the soup, cold rity and dispatch. Six men sitting upon punch is served. It is customary next to

benches about 20 inches high, with their drink a glass of wine at the choice of the mistress of the house, and to her health : the waiermen use

feet set against stretchers similar to what

in their wberries, after which, every time you chuse to

three men on each side with their feet drink, it is usual to invite those whom opposite to each other, pulling alternately you know or who bappen to sit near you at a wooden bar like an auger handle, to drink with you. Each helps the rest from the dish that stands before him.- from 16 to 20 cwt. 40 feet high in 90

raise with facility a hogshead of sugar After the dessert ihe ladies rise, the ser- seconds, and this without any risk of vants retire, and the claret begins to cir

danger from a retrograde motion of the culate from right to left. The company

weight. Thus all accidents are then rejoin the ladies in the library or the

moved from the pale of probability by drawing-room. They enter into conver

the very nature and formation of the apsation, and each withdraws just when he

paratus, producing a sure guard not in pleases.

the least dependant upon the uncertain Riding, shooting, and hunting, are the

attention of inan, by which much human principal amusements. The ladies fre

life will be saved. It is clearly ascerquently take part in the former. Fos

tained that many hundred persons in a hunting is a very dangerous sport, be

year in the British Empire only lose their cause it is necessary to follow on horse

lives or limbs with cranes, handspikes, back, leaping hedges and ditches. The

and capstan bais, the whole of which achare is hunted in the same manner. The

cidents may be prevented by the genera! dogs are admirably trained, and the guns

adoption of this wonderful invention.excellent.

Although the weight is raised with this As all the opulent land-holders pass velocity, no more than the power of great part of the winter in the country,

three men is applied at once, as the relations and neighbours as emble and

other three at the return of the stroke form parties numerous enough to supply have a cessation of exertion. This alterthe place of those in town. The tone nate application of their force gives great which pervades them is highly agreeable, relief to the labourer, and enables him to, free and easy, but decent; and there is continue much longer at this work with a kind of simple and hearty hospitality

Jess fatigue than by any other motion, and politeness which cannot fail to charm and will in consequence ir hen applied to all who are capable of appreciating ships' pamps render the most essential them,

service to his Majesty's navy, as it will The private apartments are furnished ultimately sare from destruction many and arranged with the utmost conve, 'valuable ships' crews and cargoes. It apnience. In these mansions

you

find every thing that can contribute to physi. useful not only to cranes of all kinds, but

pears to be most happily and equally cal comfort, and the cultivation of the for working the capstan, windlasses, mind. The society of the feniales, who pumps, raising masts, yards, sails, &c. are in general very well informed, often and working a ship into and out of harindeed better than the gentlemen, affords bour, and all other purposes which have all the resources that can be desired, if hitherto been accomplished by the haul

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