Council and Hierarchy: The Political Thought of William Durant the Younger

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Cambridge University Press, 09.05.2002 - 440 Seiten
In 1311, at the council of Vienne, William Durant the Younger (c. 1266-1330), the French bishop and count, demanded that general councils ought to meet every ten years in order to place effective limits on the papal plenitude of power because 'what touches all must be approved by all'. This is the first systematic interpretation of William Durant's remarkable project to transfer supreme legislative authority from the papacy to general councils. It suggests that the conciliar theory has a more ambivalent complexion than is sometimes recognized. It confirms, on the one hand, that constitutional ideas were deeply embedded in the tradition of the church, which enabled Durant to anticipate the council of Constance by more than a hundred years. On the other hand, Durant attributed an authority to ancient law that overrode his republican ideas, sapped their vitality, and launched him on a pursuit of the true meaning of the law that could end only in his transformation into an historian and a reluctant champion of monarchy. William Durant the Younger's ideas thus help us to understand both the origins of the conciliar theory and the transition from late medieval reform movements to early modern humanism and princely sovereignty.

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Inhalt

THE BISHOPS OF MENDS
31
The bishop and the nobility
34
Aldebert de Tournel 115187
39
William de Peyre 118701222
43
Stephen of Brioude 122247
45
Odilo de Mercoeur 124774
49
THE STATE OF THE CHURCH
55
The bishops between king and pope
57
Reform of the members
184
Reform of the head
200
The rule of universal reason
212
6 RES PUBLICA
217
The commonwealth of Rome
218
Truth and utility
223
Money work and force
230
The rule of the common good
241

William Durant the elder 128596
64
THE TWILIGHT OF AUTONOMY
73
Crisis
80
Political manoeuvres
83
The Pareage of Mende
86
Private property and public power
94
Durants ascendancy
95
LIBERTY AND COMPROMISE
101
THE ASSERTION OF JUSTICE
113
THE THEORY OF REFORM
115
Structure of the Tractatus Maior
118
Style of the Tractatus Maior
122
Reforms in head and members
129
Reform by law
132
Government bound by law
135
Government bound by reason and precedent
144
Reform by council
156
Dispensation and exemptions
168
MAGNUS ORDO DIFFERENTIE
177
Concord and schism
179
THE PERVERSION OF ORDER
247
History and sovereignty
256
Origins of conciliarism
267
LIBERTY AND LAW
277
THE INCIDENCE OF POWER
285
THE SUBLIMATION OF REFORM
287
Reception of the Tratatus Maior in Vienne
290
Tractatus Minor
294
THE ADVENT OF THE PRINCE
305
The turning point
307
The denouement
311
CONCLUSION
315
A note on texts and citations
321
Bibliography
326
Published sources
327
Secondary literature
332
Concordance
367
Index
376
2 Persons places and subjects
392
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