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house of representatives, in general court assembled, that the State of Connecticut doth hereby renounce forever for the use and benefit of the United States, and of the several individual States, who may be therein concerned respectively, and of all those deriving claims or titles from them, or any of them, all territorial and jurisdictional claims whatever, under any grant, charter, or charters whatever, to the soil and jurisdiction of any and all lands whatever, lying westward, northwestward, and southwestward, of those counties in the State of Connecticut, which are bounded westwardly by the eastern line of the State of New York, as ascertained by agreement between Connecticut and New York, in the year one thousand seven hundred and thirty-three; excepting only from this renunciation, the claim of the said State of Connecticut, and of those claiming from or under the said State of Connecticut, to the soil of said tract of land, in said act of Congress described under the name of the Western Reserve of Connecticut. And be it further enacted, That the governor of this State for the time being, be, and hereby is, empowered, in the name and behalf of this State, to execute and deliver to the acceptance of the President of the United States, a deed of the form and tenor directed by the said act of Congress, expressly releasing to the United States the jurisdictional claims of the State of Connecticut, to all that territory called the Western Reserve of Connecticut, according to the description thereof in said act of Congress, and in as full and ample manner as therein is required.

Therefore, know ye, that I, Jonathan Trumbull, governor of the State of Connecticut, by virtue of the powers vested in me, as aforesaid, do, by these presents, in the name and for and on behalf of the said State, remise, release, and forever quit claim, to the United States, the jurisdictional claim of the State of Connecticut, to all that tract of land called in the aforesaid act of Congress, the Western Reserve of Connecticut, and as the same therein under that name is particularly and fully described.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name, and affixed my seal, in the council chamber at Hartford, in the State of Connecticut, this thirtieth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred, and in the twenty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States.

JONATHAN TRUMBULL. (L. 8.]

The act of April 28, 1800, was, in effect, an act to quiet title, and gave grantees and holders from Connecticut the warrant of a United States patent.

CESSION FROM THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA.

March 8, 1787, the general asseinbly of the State of South Carolina authorized her delegates in Congress to convey to the United States all western territory held and claimed by her.

August 9, 1787, the Congress passed a resolution of acceptance of the cession, as follows :

Resolved, That Congress are ready to accept the cession of the claim of the State of South Carolina, to the tract of country described in the act of said State, whenever tho delegates will execute a deed, conformable to said act.

The lands ceded by South Carolina and claimed under her charter and known as her western territory were embraced in an oblong strip from twelve to fourteen miles wide, extending from her northwestern boundary as it now is along and south of the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude, to the Mississippi River, and now lie in and form the extreme northern portion of the States of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.

By virtue of the powers in them vested the delegates of the State of South Carolina, for and in behalf of the said State, executed the following deed of cession to the United States of America :

Deed of cession. To all who shall see these presents, we, John Kean and Daniel Huger, the underwritten delegates for the State of South Carolina, in the Congress of the United States, send greeting :

Whereas the general assembly of the State of South Carolina, on tbe eighth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, passed an act in the words following, viz: “An act to authorize the delegates of this State in Congress to convey to the United States in Congress assembled, all the right of this State to the territory herein described : Whereas the Congress of the United States did, on the sixth day of September, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty, recommend to the several States in the Union having claims to western territory to make a liberal cession to the United States of a portion of their respective claiins for the courmon benefit of the Union; and whereas this State is willing to adopt every measure which can tend to promote the honor and dignity of the United States, and strengthen their Federal Union : Be it therefore enacted by the honorable the senate and house of representatives in general assembly met and sitting and by the authority of the same, That it shall and may be lawfulfor the delegates of this state to the Congress of the United States, or such of them as shall be assembled in Congress, and they are hereby fully authorized and empowered for and on behalf of this State, by proper deeds or instruments in writing, under their hands and seals, to convey, transfer, assign, and make over unto the United States in Congress assembled, for the benefit of the said States, all right, title, and claim, as well of soil as jurisdiction, which this State hath to the territory or tract of country within the limits of the charter of South Carolina, situate, lying, and being within the boundaries and lines hereinafter described ; that is to say, all the territory or tract of country included within the river Mississippi and a line beginning at that part of the said river which is intersected by the southern boundary line of the State of North Carolina, and continuing along the said boundary line until it intersects the ridge or chain of mountains which divides the eastern from the western waters, then to be continued along the top of the said ridge of mountains until it intersects a line to be drawn due west from the head of the southern branch of Tugoloo River to the said mountains, and thence to run a due west course to the river Mississippi. In the senate house, the eighth day of March, in the year of onr Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and in the eleventh year of the Independence of the United States of America. John Lloyd, president of the senate; John Julius Pringle, speaker of the house of representatives." And whereas the said John Kean and Daniel Huger were, on the sixth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, elected delegates to represent the State of South Carolina, according to the law of said State, in the Congress of the United States until the first Monday in November in the said year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, which election remains in full force, and the said John Kean and Daniel Huger are the lawful delegates of said State, in the Congress of the United States : Now, therefore, know ye, that we, the said John Kean and Daniel Huger, by virtue of the power and authority to us committed by the said act of the general assembly of South Carolina before recited, in the name and for and in behalf of the State of South Carolina, do by these presents assign, transfer, quit claim, cede, and convey to the United States of America for their benefit (South Carolina inclusive), all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction, and claim which the State of South Carolina hath in and to the before mentioned and described territory or tract of country as the same is bounded and described in the said act of assembly, for the uses in the said recited act of assembly declared.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, this pinth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-soven, and of the sovereignty and Independence of America the twelfth.

JOHN KEAN. [L. ]

DANIEL HUGER. (L. ]
Signed, sealed, and delivered, in presence of
CHARLES THOMSON,
ROGER ALDEN,

BENJAMIN BANKSON.
In the Congress August 9, 1787, this cession was accepted.

CESSION FROM THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA.

North Carolina was the first State to make a cession of western lands to the Gov. ernment of the United States under the Constitution of 1789.

December 22, 1789, by act of assembly, the State of North Carolina authorized her Senators and Representatives in Congress to make cession to the United States of her western territory.

February 25, 1790, a deed of cession was offered on behalf of North Carolina, by Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins, Senators in Congress.

The western territory claimed and ceded by the State of North Carolina was embraced within the zone lying to the west of her western boundary with the thirty-fifth parallel north latitude for its southern boundary, and the parallel 36° 30' north latitude for its northern boundary, being the territory now constituting the area of the present State of Tennessee.

The act of cession contained ten conditions.

Act accepting deed of cession from North Carolina, April 2, 1790. AN ACT to accept a cession of the claim of the State of North Carolina to a certain district of western

territory. A deed of cession having been executed, and in the Senate offered for acceptance to the United States, of the claims of the State of North Carolina, to a district of territory therein described; which deed is in the words following, viz:

To all who shall see these presents: We, the underwritten Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins, Senators iu the Congress of the United States of America, duly and constitutionally chosen by the legislature of the State of North Carolina, send greeting :

“Whereas the general assembly of the State of North Carolina, on the [220] day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, passed an act, entituled "An act for the purpose of ceding to the United States of America certain western lands therein described,” in the words following, to wit:

“Whereas the United States, in Congress assembled, have repeatedly and earnestly recommended to the respective States in the Union, claiming or owning vacant western territory, to make cessions of part of the same, as a further means, as well of hastening the extinguishment of the debts, as of establishing the harmony of the United States; and the inhabitants of the said western territory being also desirous that such cession should be made, in order to obtain a more ample protection than they have heretofore received : Now this State, being ever desirous of doing ample justice to the public creditors, as well as the establishing the harmony of the United States, and complying with the reasonable desires of her citizens :

“ Be it enacted by the general assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That the Senators of this State, in the Congress of the United States, or one of the Senators and any two of the Representatives of this State, in the Congress of the United States, are hereby authorized, empowered and required to execute a deed or deeds on the part and behalf of this State, conveying to the United States of America, all right, title, and claim which this State has to the sovereignty and territory of the lands situated within the chartered limits of this State, west of a line beginning on the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the Virginia line intersects it; running thence along the extreme height of the said mountain, to the place where Wataugo River breaks through it; thence a direct course to the top of the Yellow Mountain, where Bright's road crosses the same; thence along the ridge of said mountain, between the waters of Doe River and the waters of Rock Creek, to the place where the road crosses the Iron Mountain; from thence along the extreme height of said mountain, to where Nolichucky River runs through the same; thence to the top of the Bald Mountain; thence along the extreme height of the said mountain, to the Painted Rock, on French Broad River; thence along the highest ridge of the said mountain, to the place where it is called the Great Iron or Smoaky Mountain; thence along the extreme height of the said mountain, to the place where it is called the Unicoy or Unaka Mountain, between the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota; thence along the main ridge of the said mountain, to the southern boundary of this State, upon the following express conditions, and subject thereto-that is to say: First, that neither the lands nor inhabitants westward of the said mountain, shall be estimated, after the cession made by virtue of this act shall be accepted, in the ascertaining the proportion of this State with the United States, in the common expense occasioned by the late war; secondly, that the lands laid off, or directed to be laid off, by any act or acts of the general assembly of this State, for the officers and soldiers thereof, their heirs and assigns respectively, shall be and enure to the use and benefit of the said officers, their heirs and assigns respectively; and if the bounds of the said lands already prescribed for the officers and soldiers of the continental line of this State, shall not contain a sufficient quantity of lands fit for cultivation, to make good the several provisions intended by law, that such officer or soldier, or his assigneo, who shall fall short of his allotment or proportion, after all the lands fit for cultivation, within the said bounds, are appropriated, be permitted to take his quota, or such part thereof as may be deficient, in any other part of the said territory intended to be ceded by virtue of this act, not already appropriated. And where entries have been made agreeable to law, and titles under them not perfected by grant or otherwise, then, and in that case, the governor for the time being shall, and he is hereby required to, perfect, from time to time, such titles, in such manner as if this act had never been passed. And that all entries made by, or grants made to, all and every person or persons whatsoever, agreeable to law, and within the limits hereby intended to be ceded to the United States, shall have the same force and effect as if such cession had not been made ; and that all and every right of occupancy and preemption, and every other right reserved by any act or acts to persons settled on, and occupying lands within the limit of the lands hereby intended to be ceded as aforesaid, shall continue to be in full force, in the same manner as if the cession had not been made, and as conditions upon which the said lands are ceded to the United States. And further, it shall be understood, that if any person or persons shall have, by virtue of the act, entituled "An act for opening the land office for the redemption of specie and other certificates, and discharging the arrears due to the army," passed in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, made his or their entry in the office usu, ally called John Armstrong's office, and located the same to any spot or piece of ground on which any other person or persons shall have previously located any entry or en. tries, that then, and in that case, the person or persons having made such entry or entries, or their assignee or assignees, shall have leave and be at full liberty to remove the location of such entry or entries to any lands on which no entry has been specially located, or on any vacant lands included within the limits of the lands hereby intended to be ceded : Provided, That nothing herein contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to the making good any entry or entries, or any grant or grants heretofore declared void, by any act or acts of the general assembly of this state. Thirdly, that all the lands intended to be ceded by virtue of this act to the United States of America, and not appropriated as before mentioned, shall be considered as a common fund, for the use and benefit of the United States of America, North Carolina inclusive, according to their respective and usual proportion in the general charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully disposed of for that purpose, and for no other use or purpose whatever. Fourthly, that the territory so ceded, shall be laid out and formed into a State or States, containing a suitable extent of territory, the inhabitants of which shall enjoy all the privileges, benetits, and advantages set forth in the ordinance of the late Congress for the government of the western territory of the United States, that is to say: Whenever the Congress of the United States shall cause to be officially transmitted to the executive authority of this State, an authenticated copy of the act to be passed by the Congress of the United States, accepting the cession of territory made by virtue of this act, under the express conditions hereby specified, the said Congress shall, at the same time, assume the government of the said ceded territory, which they shall execute in a manner similar to that which they support in the territory west of the Ohio; shall protect the inhabitants against enemies, and shall never bar or deprive them of any privileges which the people in the territory west of the Ohio enjoy: Provided, always, That no regulations made, or to be made, by Congress shall tend to emancipate slaves. Fifthly, that the inhabitants of the said ceded territory shall be liable to pay such sums of money, as may, from taking their census, be their just proportion of the debt of the United States, and the arrears of the requisitions of Congress on this State. Sixthly, that all persons indebted to this State, residing in the territory intended to be ceded by virtue of this act, shall be held and deemed liable to pay such debt or debts in the same manner, and under the same penalty or penalties, as if this act had never been passed. Seventhly, that if the Congress of the United States do not accept the cession hereby intended to be made, in due form, and give official notice thereof to the executive of this state, within eighteen months from the passing of this act, then this act shall be of no force or effect whatsoever. Eightbly, that the laws in force and use in the State of North Carolina, at the time of passing this act, shall be and continue in full force within the territory hereby ceded until the same shall be repealed or otherwise altered by the legislative authority of the said territory. Ninthly, that the lands of non-resident proprietors within the said ceded territory shall not be taxed higher than the lands of residents. Tenthly, that this act shall not prevent the people now residing South of French Broad, between the rivers Tennessee and Big Pigeon, from entering their pre-emptions in that tract, should an office be opened for that purpose, under an act of the present general assembly. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the sovereignty and jurisdiction of this State, in and over the territory aforesaid, and all and every the inhabitants thereof, shall be and remain the same in all respects, until the Congress of the United States shall accept the cession to be made by virtue of this act, as if this act had never passed.

“Read three times, and ratified in general assembly the day of December, A. D. 1789.

“CHAS. JOHNSON, Sp. Sen.

“S. CABARRUS, Sp. H. C. “Now, therefore, know ye, that we, Samuel Johnston and Benjamin Hawkins, Senators aforesaid, by virtue of the power and authority committed to us by the said act, and in the name, and for and on behalf of the said State, do, by these presents, convey, assign, transfer, and set over, unto the United States of America, for the benefit of the said States, North Carolina inclusive, all right, title, and claim which the said State hath to the sovereignty and territory of the lands situated within the chartered limits of the said State, as bounded and described in the above-recited act of the general assembly, to and for the uses and purposes, and on the conditions mentioned in the said act.

“In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names and affixed our seals, in the Senate Chamber at New York, this twenty-fifth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety, and in the fourteenth year of the Independence of the United States of America. "SAM. JOHNSTON. [L. S.]

“ BENJ, HAWKINS. (L. S.] "Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of

SAM. A. OTIS." Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the said deed be, and the same is bereby, accepted.

CESSION FROM THE STATE OF GEORGIA.

The seventh and last State to make a cession to the United States by virtue of hold. ing under charter grants was the State of Georgia.

February 5, 1788, the assembly of Georgia authorized her delegates in Congress to make cession of her western territory to the United States. This tender was for territory which was substantially embraced within the British province of West Florida, and Jay north of the thirty-first parallel of north latitude, and which had been defined and its boundaries altered upon recommendation of the British board of trade March 23, 1764, from Whitehall. This province was created by proclamation of King George III., October 7, 1763, after the treaty of Paris, February 10, 1763. The colony of Georgia, at that time, lay to the east of this new colony and had annexed to it by the same proclamation all the lands lying between the rivers Altamaha and Saint Mary's

Congress by resolution July 15, 1788, rejected the proposition.

April 7, 1798, the Congress of the United States passed an act for an amicable settlement of limits within the State of Georgia and authorizing the establishment of a government in the Mississippi territory, viz:

SEC. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized to appoint three commissioners, any two of whom shall have power to adjust and determine, with such commissioners as may be appointed under the legislative authority of the State of Georgia, all interfering claims of the United States and that State to territory situate west of the river Chatahouchee, north of the thirty-first degree of north latitude, and south of the cession made to the United States, by South Carolina ; and also, to receive any proposals for the relinquishment or cession of the whole or any part of the other territory claimed by the State of Georgia, and out of the ordinary jurisdiction thereof.

SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That all the lands thus ascertained as the property of the United States, shall be disposed of in such manner as shall be hereafter directed by law; and the nett proceeds thereof shall be applied to the sinking and discharging the public debt of the United States, in the same manner as the proceeds of the other public lands in the territory northwest of the river Ohio.

SEC. 3. Be it further enacted, That all that tract of country bounded on the west by the Mississippi ; on the north by line to be drawn due east from the mouth of the Yazous to the Chatahouchee River; on the east by the river Chatahouchee; and on the south by the thirty-first degree of north latitude, shall be, and hereby is, constituted one district, to be called the Mississippi Territory.

The present area of the States of Alabama and Mississippi (except a strip on the north of the State, which was ceded by South Carolina), north of the thirty-first degree of north latitude, was contained in the Territory of Mississippi.

Section 5 of the act provided " that the establishment of this government shall in no respect impair the right of the State of Georgia, or of any person or persons, either to the jurisdiction or the soil of the said territory; but the rights and claims of the said State, and all persons interested, are hereby declared to be as firm and available as if this act had cever been made."

Under this act President Adams appointed James Madison, Albert Gallatin, and Levi Lincoln commissioners on behalf of the United States, and James Jackson, Abraham Baldwin, and John Milledge were appointed commissioners by the State of Georgia.

After all the testimony as to the Yazoo claims was in, and reports had been examined, May 10, 1800, the Congress of the United States, by an act supplemental to the act of April 7, 1798, in the tenth section, provided :

SEC. 10. And be it further enacted, That it sball be lawful for the commissioners appointed, or who may hereafter be appointed, on the part of the United States, in pursuance of the act, entitled "An act for an amicable settlement of limits with the State of Georgia and authorizing the establishment of a government in the Mississippi Territory," or any two of them, finally to settle, by compromise, with the commissioners which have been, or may be, appointed by the State of Georgia, any claims mentioned in said act, and to receive, in behalf of the United States, a cession of any lands therein mentioned, or of the jurisdiction thereof, on such terms as to them shall appear reasonable; and, also, that the said commissioners on the part of the United States, or any two of them, be authorized to inquire into the claims which are, or shall be, made by

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