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act of cession on account of difficulty in forming the lands into States with boundaries as contemplated by the deed of cession.

Resolved, That it be, and it hereby is, recommended to the legislature of Virginia to take into consideration their act of cession, and revise the same so far as to empower the United States in Congress assembled to make such a division of the territory of the United States lying northerly and westerly of the river Ohio, into distinct republican States, not more than five, nor less than three, as the situation of that country and future circumstances may require; which States shall hereafter become members of the Federal Union, and have the same rights of sovereignty, freedom, and iudependence, as the original States, in conformity with the resolution of Congress of the 10th of October, 1780.

July 13, 1787, Congress passed the ordinance for the government of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, which embraced the above proposition as to the number of States in the Virginia cession.

December 30, 1788, the State of Virginia passed the following:

(Act of Virginia of 30th December, 1788.) Whereas the United States, in Congress assembled, did, on the seventh day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, state certain reasons, shewing that a division of the territory which hath been ceded to the said United States, by this Commonwealth, into States, in conformity to the terms of cession, should the same be adhered to, would be attended with many inconveniences, and did recommend a revision of the act of cession, so far as to empower Congress' to make such a division of the said territory into distinct and republican States, not more than five nor less than three in number, as the situation of that country and future circumstances might require. And the said United States, in Congress assembled, have, in an ordinance for the government of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, passed on the thirteenth of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, declared the following as one of the articles of compact between the original States and the people and States in the said territory, viz:

“ARTICLE 5. There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three, nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit: The western State in the said territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and Wabash Rivers; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincent's, due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada, and by the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle S'ate shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincent's to the Ohio; by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north froin the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania and the said terri. torial line: Provided, however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authoity to form one or two States in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted by its delegates into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government: Provided, the constitution and government so to be formed shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles; and so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the Confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand."

And it is expedient that this Commonwealth do assent to the proposed alteration, so as to ratify and confirm the said article of compact between the original States and the people and States in the said territory :

2. Be it therefore enacted by the general assembly, That the afore-recited article of compact between the original States and the people and States in the territory northwest of Ohio River be, and the same is hereby, ratified and confirmed, anything to the contrary in the deed of cession of the said territory by this Commonwealth to the United States notwithstanding.

CESSION BY THE STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS.

November 13, 1784, the general court of Massachusetts authorized all her delegates in Congress to make a cession of her claim to western lands to the United States, and an additional act was passed March 17, 1785, to permit any two delegates in Congress to make the transfer.

April 19, 1785, the Congress agreed to receive and accept the cession. Massachusetts by her deed surrendered claim to the territory claimed to be within the limits of the Massachusetts charter, west of a meridian passing twenty miles west of the Niagara River, the present west boundary of the State of New York, and embraced the land from the State of Pennsylvania, near the parallel 42° 2' north latitude, and running along it westward to the Mississippi River. Her claim was a strip of land seventy or eighty miles in width lying west of the State of New York and from thence to the Mississippi River; its southern boundary being the latitude of the western extremity of the present State of Massachusetts, and its northern boundary the latitude of a league north of the inflow of Lake Winnipiseogee, in the State of New Hampshire, viz, 430 43" 12' north latitude, and claim to the “Erie Purchase.”

The lands claimed now form the southern portion of the State of Wisconsin, the extreme north of the State of Illinois, and the southern part of the State of Michigan. Also, a small portion on Lake Erie, just west of New York, being a triangular piece of land, also claimed by the State of New York, containing 315.91 square miles, wbich was sold by the United States to the State of Pennsylvania March 3, 1792, for $151,640.25, or seventy-five cents per acre. These lands are now in the county of Erie, State of Pennsylvania, and patent was issued therefor by the President. It is known as the “Erie Purchase."

Deed of cession. To all who shall see these presents, we, Samuel Holten and Rufus King, the underwritten delegates for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the Congress of the United States of America, send greeting:

Whereas the general court of Massachusetts, on the thirteenth day of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, passed an act, entitled "An act empowering the delegates of this Commonwealth in the United States in Congress assembled to relinquish to the United States certain lands, the property of this Commonwealth,” in the words following: "Whereas several of the States in the Union have at present no interest in the great and extensive tract of uncultivated country, lying in the westerly part of the United States; and it may be reasonable that the States above mentioned should be interested in the aforesaid country: Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives in general court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That the delegates of this Commonwealth in the United States in Congress assembled, or any three of the said delegates, be, and they hereby are, authorized and empowered, for and in behalf of this Commonwealth, to cede or relinquish, by authentic conveyance or conveyances, to the United States, to be disposed of for the common benefit of the same, agreeably to a resolve of Congress of October the tenth, one thousand seven hundred and eighty, such part of that tract of land, belonging to this Commonwealth, which lies between the river Hudson and Mississippi, as they may think proper, and to make the said cession in such manner, and on such conditions as shall appear to them to be most suitable.” And whereas the said general court, on the seventeenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, passed one other act, entitled "An act in addition to an act entitled an act empowering the delegates of this Commonwealth in the United States in Congress assembled, to relinquish to the United States certain lands, the property of this Commonwealth,” in the words following: “Whereas by the act aforesaid, three delegates representing this State in Congress are necessary to make the cession aforesaid, and it may be necessary that the said business should be performed by a less number of the said delegates, Be it therefore enacted by the senate and house of representatives in general court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That any two delegates representing this Commonwealth in Congress be, and hereby are, authorized and empowered to do and perform all matters and things which by the act aforesaid might be done and performed by any three delegates as aforesaid, any thing in the aforesaid act notwithstanding." And whereas the said general court, on the seventeenth day of June, in the aforesaid year of our Lord one thousand seven hun. dred and eighty-four, did nominate and appoint the aforesaid Samuel Holten, and on the third day of November following the aforesaid Rufus King, delegates to represent the said Commmonwealth of Massachusetts in the Congress of the United States of America for one year from the first Monday of November, in the said year one thousan:1 seven hundred and eighty-four, which appointment remains in full force: Now, the: fore, know ye that we, the said Samuel Holten and Rufus King, by virtue of the power and authority to us committed by the said acts of the general court of Massachusetts before recited, in the name, and for and on behalf of the said Commonwealth of Massachusetts, do, by these presents, assign, transfer, quit claim, cede, and convey, to the United States of America, for their benefit, Massachusetts inclusive, all right, title, and estate of and in, as well the soil as the jurisdiction, which the said Commonwealth hath to the territory or tract of country within the limits of the Massachusetts charter situate and lying west of the following line, that is to say, a meridian line to be drawn from the forty-fifth degree of north latitude through the westerly bent or inclination of Lake Ontario, thence by the said meridian line to the most southerly side line of the territory contained in the Massachusetts charter; but if on experiment the above-described meridian line shall not comprehend twenty miles due west from the most westerly bent or inclination of the river or strait of Niagara, then we do by these presents, by virtue of the power and authority aforesaid, in the name and on behalf of thé said Commonwealth of Massachusetts, transfer, quit claim, cede, and convey to the United States of America, for their benefit, Massachusetts inclusive, all right, title, and estate, of and in as well the soil as the jurisdiction, which the said Commonwealth hath to the territory or tract of country within the limits of the Massachusetts charter, situate and lying west of the following line, that is to say, a meridian line to be drawn from the forty-fifth degree of north latitude through a point twenty miles due west from the most westerly bent or inclination of the river or strait of Niagara ; thence by the said meridian line to the most southerly side line of the territory contained in the Massachusetts charter aforesaid, for the purposes in the said recited acts declared, and to the uses in a resolve of Congress, of the tenth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and eighty, mentioned.

In testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names, and affixed our seals in Congress, this nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, and of the Independence of the United States of America the ninth.

S. HOLTEN.

RUFUS KING. Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of BENJAMIN BANKSON, JUN, JOHN FISHER, ROBERT PATTON.

The delegates for Massachusetts having executed the above deed of cession, Congress, April 19, 1785, passed the following:

Resolved, That Congress accept said deed of cession; and that the same be recorded and enrolled among the acts of the United States in Congress assembled.

CESSION FROM THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT.

October 10, 1780, Connecticut tendered cession of her claims to western lands to the United States with certain restrictions as to jurisdiction and other subjects, which was refused on account of unsatisfactory conditions.

On the second Thursday of May, 1786, the legislature of the State authorized her delegates in Congress to make a cession of her western lands with certain conditions.

May 26, 1786, the Congress resolved to accept the proposed cession when duly made.

Cožnecticut's cession of September 13, 1786, yielded to the United States both soil and jurisdiction over her claims west of a meridian passing one bundred and twenty miles west of the west boundary of Pennsylvania, and extending westward to the Mississippi Rive-, being a strip of land having the parallel 41° north latitude for its southern boundary and the parallel 42° 2' north latitude for its northern boundary, and now forming a portion of the northern part of the States of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the meridian one hundred and twenty miles west of Pennsylvania and the southern portion of the State of Michigan.

Deed of cession. To all who shall see these presents, we, William Samuel Johnson and Jonathan Sturges, the underwritten delegates for the State of Connecticut in the Congress of the United States, send greeting:

Whereas the general assembly of the State of Connecticut, on the second Thursday of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, passed an act in the following words, viz: “Be it enacted by the governor, council, and representatives, in general court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That the delegates of this State, or any two of them, who shall be attending the Congress of the United States, be and they are hereby directed, authorized, and fully empowered, in the name and behalf of this State, to make, execute, and deliver, under their hands and seals, an ample deed of release and cession of all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction, and claim, of the State of Connecticut, to certain western lands, beginning at the completion of the forty-first degree of north latitude, one hundred and twenty miles west of the western boundary line of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as now claimed by said Commonwealth, and from thence by a line drawn north, parallel to, and one hundred and twenty miles west of the said west line of Pennsylvania, and to continue north until it comes to forty-two degrees and two minutes north latitude. Whereby all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction, and claim, of the State of Connecticut, to the lands lying west of said line to be drawn as aforementioned, one hundred and twenty miles west of the western boundary line of the Commons wealth of Pennsylvania, as now claimed by said Commonwealth, shall be included, released, and ceded to the United States in Congress assembled, for the common use and benefit of the said States, Connecticnt inclusive.” Now, therefore, know ye, that we, the said William Samuel Johnson and Jonathan Sturges, by virtue of the power and authority to us committed by the said act of the general assembly of Connecticut, before recited, in the name and for and on behalf of the said State of Connecticut, do, by these presents, assign, transfer, quit claim, cede, and convey to the United States of America, for their benefit, Connecticut inclusive, all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction, and claim, which the said State of Connecticut hath in and to the beforementioned and described territory or tract of country, as the same is bounded and described in the said act of assembly, for the uses in the said recited act of assembly declared.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, this thirteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, and of the sovereignty and Independence of the United States of America the eleventh.

WILL. SAM. JOHNSON. [L. 8.]

JONATHAN STURGES. (L. 8.] Signed, sealed, and delivered, in presence of

CHA. THOMSON.
ROGER ALDEN.
JAS. MATHERS.

The delegates from Connecticut having executed the above deed, Congress, September 14, 1786, passed the following:

Resolved, That Congress accept the said deed of cession; and that the same be recorded and enrolled among the acts of the United States in Congress assembled.

CESSION OF THE WESTERN RESERVE OF CONNECTICUT. Connecticut reserved by the above deed both soil and jurisdiction over a tract of her western lands lying between the western boundary of the State of Pennsylvania and the then eastern boundary of her cession, being a point one hundred and twenty miles west of Pennsylvania's western boundary, comprising a strip between the above boundaries one hundred and twenty miles long and irregular in width, lying between the parallels 41° and 42° 2' north, being the northeastern portion of the present State of Ohio, and known as the “Western Reserve” of Connecticut in Ohio, which, with the “Fire lands,"contained about 4,300,000 acres.

In October, 1797, Connecticut, by act of her legislature, tendered to the United States a release of jurisdiction over this tract known as the “Western Reserve,” being the tract reserved in the deed to the United States of September 13, 1786, the State to retain the right of soil.

April 28, 1800, the Congress of the United States passed an act authorizing the President to accept the cession of jurisdiction by Connecticut for the “Western Reserve," as follows:

AN ACT to authorize the President of the United States to accept, for the United States, a cession of jurisdiction of the territory west of Pennsylvania, commonly

called the Western

Reserve of Con. necticut.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized to execute and deliver letters-patent, in the name and behalf of the United States, to the governor of the State of Connecticut for the time being, for the use and benefit of the persons bolding and claiming under the State of Connecticut, their heirs and assigns forever, whereby all the right, title, interest, and estate of the United States to the soil of that tract of land lying west of the west line of Pennsylvania, as claimed by the State of Pennsylvania, and as the same has been actually settled, ascertained, and run, in conformity to an agreement between the said State of Pennsylvania and the State of Virginia, and extending from said line westward one hundred and twenty statute miles in length, and in breadth throughout the said limits in length from the completion of the forty-first degree of north latitude, until it comes to fortytwo degrees and two minutes north latitude, including all that territory commonly called the Western Reserve of Connecticut, and which was excepted by said State of Connecticut out of the cession by the said State heretofore made to the United States, and accepted by a resolution of Congress of the fourteenth of September, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, shall be released and conveyed, as aforesaid, to the said governor of Connecticut, and his successors in said office, forever, for the purpose of quieting the grantees and purchasers under said State of Connecticut, and confirming their titles to the soil of the said tract of land.

Provided, however, That such letters-patent shall not be executed and delivered, unless the State of Connecticut shall, within eight months from passing this act, by a legislative act, renounce, forever, for the use and benefit of the United States, and of the several individual States who may be therein concerned, respectively, and of all those deriving claims or titles from them, or any of them, all territorial and jurisdictional claims whatever, under any grant, charter or charters whatever, to the soil and jurisdiction of any and all lands whatever lying westward, northwestward, and southwestward of those counties in the State of Connecticut, which are bounded westwardly by the eastern line of the State of New York, as ascertained by agreement between Connecticut and New York, in the year one thousand seven hundred and thirty-three, excepting only from such renunciation the claim of said State of Connecticut, and of those claiming from or under the said State, to the soil of said tract of land herein described under the name of the Western Reserve of Connecticut.

And provided also, That the said State of Connecticut shall, within the said eight months from and after passing this act, by the agent or agents of said State, duly authorized by the legislature thereof, execute and deliver to the acceptance of the President of the United States, a deed expressly releasing to the United States the jurisdictional claim of the said State of Connecticut, to the said tract of land herein described under the name of the Western Reserve of Connecticut, and shall deposit an exemplification of said act of renunciation, under the seal of the said State of Connecticut, together with said deed releasing said jurisdiction, in the office of the Department of State of the United States ; which deed of cession, when so deposited, shall vest the jurisdiction of said territory in the United States: Provided, That neither this act, nor anything contained therein, shall be construed so as in any manner to draw into question the conclusive settlement of the dispute between Pennsylvania and Connecticut, by the decree of the Federal court at Trepton, nor to impair the right of Pennsylvania or any other State, or of any person or persons claiming under that or any other State, in any existing dispute concerning the right, either of soil or of jurisdiction, with the State of Connecticut, or with any person or persons claiming under the State of Connecticut: And provided also, That nothing herein contained shall be construed in any manner to pledge the United States for the extinguishment of the Indian title to the said lands, or further than merely to pass the title of the United States thereto.

May, 1800, second Thursday, Connecticut passed an act of renunciation of jurisdictional claim over and to the Western Reserve of Connecticut in Ohio in compliance with the act of Congress of April 28, 1800.

May 30, 1800, Jonathan Trumbull, governor of Connecticut, by deed and act completed title to the jurisdiction of the United States over the Western Reserve.

Deed and act of Connecticut. To all who shall see these presents, I, Jonathan Trumbull, governor of the State of Connecticut, send greeting:

Whereas the general assembly of the State of Connecticut, at their session holden in Hartford on the second Thursday of May, one thousand and eight hundred, passed an act entitled "An act renouncing the claims of this State to certain lands therein mentioned,” in the words following, to wit: “Whereas the Cougress of the United States, at their session begun and holden in the city of Philadelphia, on the first Monday of December, in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine, made and passed an act in the words following, to wit: [here follows the act of Congress of the 28th of April, 1800:] therefore, in consideration of the terms, and in compliance with the provisions and conditions of the said act, Be it enacted by the governor and council, and

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