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Number and area of entries under the homestead act, fc.--Continued.

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Alabama .........
Arkansas...
Arizona.....
California...
Colorado
Dakota ...
Florida ...
Indiana.
Illinois
Iowa ....
Idaho..
Kansas
Louisiana..
Missouri
Michigan
Minnesota .....
Mississippi ...
Montana ....
Nevada.
New Mexico
Nebraska...
Ohio..
Oregon ...
Utah ....
Washington ..
Wisconsin ....
Wyoming

Total ........

1, 260 123, 238.88 442 43, 735. 16
1, 235 | 128, 230.45/ 1,344 122, 299. 46

28 4, 244, 28
2, 080 266, 707.01

63, 282.21 435 63, 343. 45 197 24, 533. 36 812 119, 306. 81 407 62, 342.31 956 115, 430.50 336 31, 661. 00 760.00

760.00 440.00

360.00 242 20, 137.88 1,328 137, 199, 87

103 15, 965. 60 31 4, 411.40 2, 728 362, -83. 302, 578 344, 880. 30

474 50, 104. 19 177 21, 093. 86

522 52, 882 43 1,510 148, 567.95 1,467 161, 531. 97 906 98,849. 57 2, 463 229, 835. 44 3,368 353, 295. 59 410 36, 702. 02 162 13, 706. 69 5, 286, 28

8, 481.91 66 8, 462.971 10 1, 437. 04 6, 200.00

1, 281. 19 2, 281 265, 548. 46 2,828 344, 345 57

17 1, 243. 07 17 1. 433. 81 51462, 372, 52

328

47, 619. 89 289 35, 423.83 194 26, 907. 47

305 34, 759. 23 178 27, 874. 59 1, 858 192, 763. 86 1,300 137, 694.54 30 3,577. 67

480.00 20,668 2,369,782.10 18, 293 2,068,537.74

1,575 157, 624. 61 906 99, 292. 15 1,593 158, 666.70 1,963 188, 617. 54

26 3, 274. 63! 3, 384 381, 183.25 2,062 206, 579. 74

435 57, 008. 36 296 35, 461. 81 1, 629 239, 179. 79 633 90, 922. 64 2,049 252, 492. 57 273 | 28, 387, 77

120.00 199. 92

199. 92 171 13, 507.10 1,236 131, 744. 29

97 14, 560. 99 46 7, 113.92 3, 232 423, 844. 703, 404 457, 593.31 66, 983. 44'

256

30, 355, 72 50, 412. 95 1,286 128, 689. 60 1, 435 166, 063. 38 1, 010 112, 501.04 2,664 267, 437. 62 3, 203363, 074. 40

50, 481.07 211 20, 002. 51 12, 179. 14 137

21, 806. 49 9, 024. 08

1, 990.55 2, 824. 52 371 5, 540.97 237, 786. 79 3, 590 418, 962. 30 440.00

14! 1,080.00 579 69, 589.37 313, 44, 793. 59 409 49, 716. 61

23, 165, 62 465 51, 609.53 285 38, 839.76 1, 282 127, 766.43 1, 148 132, 235. 17

36 3, 956, 13 13 1, 480.00 25, 104 2,867,813.74 22, 530 2, 590, 552. 81

540

38

16

41

1, 984

168

[graphic]

Alabama
1, 240 120, 833. 24 610 59, 540.64 1, 695 169, 466. 29

60,077. 87 Arkansas..

1, 619 151, 731. 62 1, 735 177, 853, 52 2, 293 225, 915. 97 1, 808 185, 030.29 Arizona.

5,359. 45
800.00 37 4, 903. 81

800.00 California

1, 507 200, 373. 96 605 80, 276. 84 1, 987 246, 334. 99 1, 070 120,398. 17 Colorado...

289

38, 066.32 211 26, 489.13 624 83, 994.30 280 37, 478 91 Dakota.

828 123, 779.85 563 88, 003. 93 4, 885 739, 606. 63 845 122, 153, 24 Florida ...

1, 600 185, 773. 80 171 17. 693. 80 1,348 150, 413. 61 216 23, 856.33 Indiana ..

272.28
3 272.28

80.00

120.00 Illinois ..

28.94 46 3,882.42

4,006. 69 Iowa.

6,272. 79 1, 182 118, 182, 83 101 8, 404. 21 979 92,349. 84 Idaho.... 188 27, 641.18 43 5, 959.07 250 37, 555. 10

7. 424. 88 Kansas ...

3, 385 435, 857.48 4, 190 568, 153.48 7,915 1,103,203. 50 5, 058 670, 337.41 Louisiana

472
52, 723.50 352 43, 432.04

462

50, 544, 38 406 51, 339, 52 Missouri...

400 37, 664, 82 1, 230 135, 142. 20 654 62, 894. 62 999 104.943.98 Michigan ..

947 104, 173.21 772 90 094. 54 1, 082 120, 895. 02 1, 047 124. 988.17 Minnesota ..

1, 678 183, 881.33 2, 401 286, 019.27 4,986 592, 724. 52 2, 645 302, 651,21 Mississippi.

391 40, 489. 16

192

20, 446. 84 508 52, 841. 47 386 40. 193. 30 Montana.... 52 6, 597. 60 149 23, 323. 64 134 29, 494.64

19, 314.72 Nevada.. 40 5, 220.75

3, 984. 51 47 6, 050.52 35 4, 658.38 New Mexico 21 2. 961. 87

1, 039. 82 31 4,559.85 . 8 1. 159.06 Nebraska... 1, 345 163, 312. 43 422, 147.76 3,015 407, 949.57

456, 075. 41 Ohio......

40.00
838.51
49.75

262.25 Oregon ...

598 70,497.60 412 58, 289.64 750 87, 094. 36 422 54, 749.09 Utah...

479 60, 888.90 236 29, 200.93 654 82, 828. 95 236 31, 538. 12 Washington

54, 703. 31

36.820. 61 968 111, 710.49 330 37, 140). 94 Wisconsin

965 93, 940.56 1. 005 112, 913. 42 1, 128 110, 178. 09 963 108,9 3.04 Wyoming... 25 3,200.00

880.00
3, 277. 53

960.00 Total ........ 18, 675 2,176, 257.01 19, 900 2,407,828.1935, 630 4,496,854.59 22, 460 2,662, 980. 82

Number and area of entries under the homestead act, fc.--Continued.

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3,013' 310, 885. 72 399 43, 834.21 5,372 | 372, 437.52 986 110, 195. 14

50 7, 636. 89 14, 1,869. 62 1, 735 230, 094. 18 834 ! 111, 005. 48

738 103, 538. 20 418 58, 442. 36 8, 613 1,326,945. 66 11, 147 1 159, 050. 33

820 86, 213. 82 271, 33, 042. 97

0

Alabama

1, 622 158, 162.59 Arkansas ...

2, 317 203, 343.70 Arizona

40 5,059.97 California.... 1, 487 224, 014. 29 Colorado

477 65, 362. 42 Dakota

864, 855, 65 Florida

529 57, 500. 58 Indiana ..

53.85 Illinois...

40.71 Iowa.....

42 3, 173. 31 Idaho.....

380 51, 132.47 Kansas ...

11, 337 1,584,377. 68 Louisiana

246 26, 451.90 Missouri...

39, 434. 30 Michigan

156, 098.54 Minnesota ...

5, 669 648, 221. 88 Mississippi

19, 338.52 Montana....

140 18, 093.43 Nevada .....

709, 710. 82 New Mexico

87 12, 658. 82 Nebraska....

4, 905 703, 750. 86 Ohio

80.00 Oregon .....

653

74,562. 97 Utah

548 71, 685. 69 Wasbington

1, 328 | 145, 680.84 Wisconsin...

1, 104 | 119, 649. 68 Wyoming

34 4,889. 47 Total .... ... 41, 005 5,267,384.94

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47 3, 134, 78 424 63, 421. 12 7,575 1,059,047.00 676 81, 626. 08

981! 92, 046. 17 1,001, 118, 388. 37 5, 191687, 906. 67 531 55, 901. 23 282 39,139.52

7, 979. 91 69! 10, 185. 15 5, 648 827, 112.06

11 40.00 1,092 138, 814. 67

508 68, 603. 55 1, 762 240, 631. 36

1,742. 14 57 8, 237.08

30

21818. 116.35

200 27, 399. 27 3,531 490, 713. 23

197, 25, 280.00 360

39, 502. 90 621 74, 583. 80 1, 915' 219, 931. 56 95 10, 768.92

4, 441. 39 1,761.80

2,000.00 559

315, 501.47

120.00 338 39, 873. 50 161 19, 762. 78 322 35, 795. 50 758 86, 484. 63

15 2,077. 68 15,441 1, 938, 234. 89

99 409 725

17,391 2,070,842.39

47, 293 6,034, 708.85

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19

15

65

Alabama ... Arkansag... Arizona California... Colorado... Dakota ... Florida... Indiana ... Illinois ... Iowa .... Idaho...... Kansas ..... Louisiana.. Missouri.... Michigan Minnesota .. Mississippi ... Montana .. Nevada.... New Mexico Nebraska... Ohio. Oregon.. Utah .... Washington Wisconsin. Wyoming

23, 858 2, 306, 550. 80 3, 717 37, 996 3,321, 318.55 9, 945

248 32, 932. 18 30 21, 027 2, 685, 546. 567, 480

6, 707 905, 029.75 2,214 29, 704 | 4, 547, 839. 03 5, 465 13, 972, 1,448 097. 02 1, 979

1, 366. 13

5,024. 02. 59 13, 885 | 1,341, 969.01 8,105

1,964 287,576.26 494 79,961 10,762, 353. 69 27, 282

8,308 950, 627. G6 1.774 24, 641 | 2, 489, 890. 64 : 9,017 25, 0862, 911, 749.13 10, 062 62, 379 7,346, 038. 96 27, 818 10, 422 s 9.7, 031,23 1,688 1,638 249, 642. 83 572

705 106, 902.05 162
475 68,848.52
560 | 7, 295, 215. 20' 25, 604

11, 659. 93 102

1, 268, 899.51 3, 150 4,891611, 064.60 1, 294

0,504 1,216, 127,70 2,603 23, 498 2, 495, 503, 48 10, 868

255 33, 199.61 49

381, 425.21 976, 844. 69

4, 448. 15 887, 802. 79 297, 736. 57 796, 447, 59 192, 703. 49

1, 272, 28

4, 793.71 831, 969. 27

66, 434. 60 3, 684, 187.65

217, 524. 57

975, 050. 48 1,186, 372. 48 3, 224, 263. 59 102, 080.06 88, 547.82 21. 394. 06

13, 083. 02 3, 105, 841. 92

7, 313. 16 437, 328. 01 173, 497. 12

340, 516. 45 1, 180, 825.75

6,630.77

89

169

Total.

469, 782 65, 667, 044. 95 162, 237

19, 265, 337.06

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The United States of America, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting :

Whereas there has been deposited in the General Land Office of the United States a certificate of the register of the land office at whereby it appears that, pursuant to the act of Congress approved 20th May, 1862, “to secure homesteads to actual settlers on the public domain," and the acts supplemental thereto, the claim of

has been established and duly consummated, in conformity to law, for the

- according to the official plat of the survey of the said land, returned to the General Land Office by the Surveyor-General. Now know ye, that there is, therefore, granted by the United States unto the said

-- the tract of land above described, to have and to hold the said tract of land, with the appurtenances thereof, unto the said — — and to- heirs and assigns forever, subject to any vested and accrued water rights for mining, agricul. tural, manufacturing, or other purposes, and rights to ditches and reservoirs used in connection with such water rights as may be recognized and acknowledged by the local customs, laws, and decisions of courts, and also subject to the right of the proprietor of a vein or lode to extract and remove his ore therefrom, should the same be found to penetrate or intersect the premises hereby granted, as provided by law.

In testimony whereof, 1,- - President of the United States of America, have caused these letters to be made patent, and the seal of the General Land Office to be hereunto affixed.

Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, the- day of , in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and — and of the Independence of the United States the By the President: [SEAL.]

By

Secretary.

Recorder of the General Land Office. Recorded, vol. 4, page

CHAPTER XXVIII.

TIMBER AND STONE ACTS.

LEGAL PROCEDURE AND DECISIONS.

The protection of the timber on the public lands from fire and depredations has, since the origin of the Government, been a serious problem.

The original public domain, or lands embraced in the cessions by States, contained vast areas of forest lands, heavily timbered in the central and middle western portion. The lands in Illinois were the first of the prairies, which beyond the Mississippi became the plains. The first disposition and settlement laws were made for a humid and wooded country, where the agricultural purchaser's first labor was to clear the wood from the soil. The Louisiana purchase added the treeless plains between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains to the area of the public domain.

March 1, 1817 (amended May 15, 1820, and March 3, 1827, section 2458, R. S.), Con. . gress passed the first act for the preservation of live oak and red cedar forests, and authorized the exploration and selection of such tracts as were necessary to furnish the Navy with such timber. The authority of selection was placed in the Secretary of the Navy, under the direction of the President.

February 23, 1822, Congress authorized the President to employ the Army and Navy for the protection and preservation of the live-oak and red-cedar timber of the United States in Florida. (See section 2460, R. S.)

March 2, 1831, Congress made it a felony, with penalty of fine and imprisonment, for cutting or removing timber from the public lands without due permission. (See sections 2461, 2462, 2463 and 4751, R. S.)

The Supreme Court of the United States, in United States v. E. Briggs (9 How., 351), construed this statute to authorize the protection of all timber on public lands, and punishment for trespass. Mr. Attorney-General Nelson, August 11, 1843, also gave an opinion to the same effect.

July 16, 1845, Mr. Attorney-General Mason, in an opinion, considered it the preemptor's privilege to destroy and use any trees on the tract claimed necessary to clear and inclose with a view to cultivation and the making of a home.

Under the act of March 2, 1831, for the care and custody of the timber there was established a system of agencies under the supervision of the Solicitor of the Treasury.

In 1855 the management of the timber interest was transferred to the General Land Office, which employed the registers and receivers, without additional compensation, to act as timber agents. (See circular of instructions, General Land Office, December 24, 1855.)

Where trespass was committed by timber dealers, stumpage was exacted, or tho timber was seized and sold, and the proceeds paid into the Treasury. Where there had been trespass through ignorance, and with no purpose of spoliation, actual entry of the land was required, with payment of costs; but, in all cases, pre-emptors and parties entering under the homestead act were protected and secured in the privilege of using trees on the land claimed, for clearing, fencing, cultivation, and construction of a house to live in; also for ordinary domestic purposes; and, if sanctioned by the head of the Department, it might be extended, under reasonable limitations, to interests under act of July 26, 1866, which conferred the right of mining, where the extension might not be beyond individual necessities, nor amount to waste or spoliation.

This continued under direction of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, under his orders, and until April 5, 1877, when special agents were employed-either detailed clerks or persons specially appointed.

Registers and receivers were instructed to seize and sell all timber found to have been cut on the public lands contrary to law and deposit the proceeds in the Treasury of the United States. They were also to report the cases to the proper district attorneys for the prosecution of the offenders under section 2461 Revised Statutes, except where, with the previously obtained approval of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, a compromise was effected in view of mitigating circumstances.

By act of April 30, 1878 (20 Stats., p. 46), an appropriation was made of $7,500 for the actual expenses of clerks detailed to investigate fraudulent land entries, trespassers on the public lands, and cases of official misconduct, with the provisos

That all moneys heretofore, and that shall hereafter be, collected for depredations upon the public lands, shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States as other moneys received from the sale of public lands: And provided further, That where wood and timbered lands in the Territories of the United States are not surveyed and offered for sale in proper subdivisions, convenient of access, no money appropriated shall be used to collect any charge for wood or timber cut on the public lands in the Territories of the United States, for the use of actual settlers in the Territories, and not for export from the Territories of the United States where the timber grew: And provided further, That if any timber cut on the public lands shall be exported from the Territories of the United States, it shall be liable to seizure by United States authority wherever found.

In the act of June 20, 1878(20 Stats., p. 229), “ to meet expenses of suppressing depredations upon timber on the public lands," an appropriation of twenty-five thousand dollars was made. This was expended, under direction of the Secretary of the Interior, by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, who appointed or detailed special agents to investigate the depredations. For a full report of the operations of these agents, and the measures taken to suppress violations of the timber acts, see reports of the Commissioner of the General Land Office for 1878, pp. 122-124, 1879 and 1880. The appropriation has been continued from year to year.

The appropriations for keeping these special agents in the field were, for the year ending June 30, 1877, $12,500; for the year ending June 30, 1879, $25,000; and for the year ending June 30, 1880, $40,000; making a total down to June 30, 1880, of $77,500 since the inauguration of the present system.

RESULTS OF SERVICES OF SPECIAL AGENTS. During the twenty-two years from December 24, 1855, to the 5th of April, 1877, while all action as to timber depredations took place under the circular of 1855 first mentioned, the sums recovered and turned into the Treasury amounted in gross to $248,795.68. During three years and three months from April 5, 1877, to the 30th of June, 1880, the proceeds actually collected from the same source amounted to $242,376.68. The amouut for which judgment has been obtained—not yet collectedis about as much more. The proceeds of the last three years and a half have been much larger than those of the twenty-two years preceding.

CONDONING ACT. Congress, June 15, 1880, passed a condoning act for trespassers on the public lands for acts committed prior to March 1, 1879. Persons against whom suits were pending prior to that date were to make entry of lands upon which trespass was committed, and upon presentation of the evidence of such entry, and payment of costs accrued to the proper officer, suits and proceedings to be discontinued. This act took effect March 1, 1879. Trespassers since that date will await the action of the officers under existing laws.

STONE AND TIMBER ACTS. Jnne 3, 1878, Congress passed an act authorizing the sale of timber land unfit for cultivation in California, Oregon, Nevada, and the Territory of Washington at $2.50

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