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know from an interesting diary first pointed out by Sir Frederic Madden (see Note (4), p. 689, Vol. I.), that the play was acted at the Globe on the 30th of April, 1610. And upon the authority of Vertue's MS. we find that it retained its popularity in 1613, early in which year it was acted at the Court.

The story upon which this tragedy is founded is a novel in Cinthio's Hecatommithi, Parte Prima, Deca Terza, Novella 7, bearing the following explanatory title:-Un capitano Vom

loro piglia per mogliera una cittadina Venetiana : un suo alfieri l'accusa di adulterio al marito ; cerca che l'alfieri uccida colui ch'egli credea l'adultero : il capitano uccide la moglie, è accusato dall alfieri, non confessa il Moro, ma essendovi chiari inditii è bandito ; lo scelerato alfieri, credendo nuocere ad altri, procaccia a se la morte miseramente.There is a French translation of Cinthio's novels by Gabriel Chappuys, Paris, 1584 ; but no English one of a date as early

age of Shakespeare has come down to us. “ The time of this play may be ascertained from the following circumstances. Selymus the Second formed his design against Cyprus in 1569, and took it in 1571. This was the only attempt the Turks ever made upon that island after it came into the hands of the Venetians, (which was in the year 1473,) wherefore the time must fall in with some part of that interval. We learn from the play that there was a junction of the Turkish fleet at Rhodes, in order for the invasion of Cyprus, that it first came sailing towards Cyprus, then went to Rhodes, there met another squadron, and then resumed its way to Cyprus. These are real historical facts, which happened when Mustapha Selymus's general attacked Cyprus in May, 1570, which therefore is the true period of this performance. See Knolles's History of the Turks, p. 838, 846, 867.”-REED.

as the

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Sailor, Messengers, Herald, Officers, Gentlemen, Musicians, and Attendants.


SCENE,- The first Act in VENICE ; during the rest of the play, at a Sea

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Enter RODERIGO and Iago.

Rod. Tush !* never tell me; I take it much

unkindly That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse As if the strings were thine, shouldst know of

Iago. 'S blood,+ but you 'll not hear me ;-
If ever I did dream of such a matter,
Abhor me.

Rod. Thou told'st me, thou didst hold him in

Iago. Despise me, if I do not. Three great

ones of the city, In personal suit to make me his lieutenant, Off-capp'd* to him :—and, by the faith of man, I know my price, I am worth no worse a place :But he, as loving his own pride and purposes, Evades them with a bombast circumstance, Horribly stuff?d with epithets of war, And, in conclusion, Nonsuits my mediators ; for, Certes, says he, I have already chose my officer. And what was he?

thy hate.

(*) The quartos, Oft capt.

(*) First folio omits, Tusk. (t) First folio omits, 'S blood. * And, in conclusion,-) This hemistich is not found in the folio 1623.

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Forsooth, a great arithmetician,

Wears out his time, much like his master's ass, One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,

For nought but provender ; and, when he's old, A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;

cashier'd : That never set a squadron in the field,

Whip me such honest knaves. Others there are, Nor the division of a battle e knows

Who, trimm'd in forms and visagesk of duty, More than a spinster ; unless the bookish theoric, Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves ; Wherein the tonguedd consuls can propose And, throwing but shows of service on their lords, As masterly as he: mere prattle, without practice, Do well thrive by them, and, when they have Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had the election :

lin'd their coats,

(soul; And I,-of whom his eyes had seen the proof Do themselves homage: these fellows have some At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds And such a one do I profess myself. For, sir, Christian* and heathen,-must be be-lee'de and It is as sure as you are Roderigo, calm'd

Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago : By debitor-and-creditor :f this counter-caster, In following him, I follow but myself ; He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,

Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty, And I, (Godt bless the mark !) his Moorship’s But seeming so, for my peculiar end : ancient!

For when my outward action doth demonstrate Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his The native act and figure of my heart hangman.

In compliment extern, 't is not long after Lago. Why, there's no remedy; 't is the curse But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve of service,

For daws to peck at. I am not what I am. Preferment goes by letter and affection,

Rod. What a full' fortune does the thicklips And not by old gradation, where each second

owe, Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge If he can carry 't thus ! yourself,


Call up her father, Whether I in any just term am affin'd |

Rouse him :—make after him, poison his delight, To love the Moor.

Proclaim him in the streets ; incense her kinsmen, Rod.

I would not follow him, then. And, though he in a fertile climate dwell, Iago. 0, sir, content you ;

Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy, I follow him to serve my turn upon him :

Yet throw such chances of vexation on 't, We cannot all be masters, nor all masters

As it may lose some colour. Cannot be truly follow’d. You shall mark

Rop. Here is her father's house ; I'll call aloud. Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave,

Iago. Do; with like timorous accent, and That, doting on his own obsequious' bondage,



dire yell

(*) Pirst folio, Christen'd.

(+) First folio omits, God. - a Florentine,-) Are we quite assured Iago means by this expression merely that Cassio was a native of Florence ?' The system of book-keeping called Italian Book keeping came, as is well known, originally from Florence; and he may not improbably use “ Florentine," as he employs "arithmetician," " debitor-andcreditor," and "counter-caster," in a derogatory sense to denote the mercantile origin and training which he chooses to attribute to his rival.

b A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife,-) This line has perplexed the commentators not a little. Tyrwhitt's conjecture that * wife" was a misprint of life, and that the allusion is to the judgment denounced in the Gospel against those of whom all men speak well, was in high favour at one time, but has long been disregarded; the impression now is that lago refers to a report, which he subsequently speaks of, that Cassio was on the point of marrying the courtezan Bianca. To this it is objected, and the objection seems unanswerable, that there is no reason for supposing Cassio had ever seen Bianca until they met in Cyprus. We doubt, indeed, the possibility of eliciting a satisfactory meaning from the line as it stands, and, in despair of doing so, have sometimes thought the poet must have written,

"A fellow almost damn'd in a fair-wife;" That is to say, a fellow by habit of reckoning debased almost into a market-woman. In of old was commonly used for inlo; We even still employ it so, as in the expression to fall in love. Compare, too, "Troilus and Cressida," Act III. Sc. 3,

“Why, he stalks up and down like a peacock,-a stride and a stand, ruminates, like an hostess that hath no arithmetic but her brain to set down her reckoning."

c- of a battle-] of an army. So in “Henry V." (Chorus) Act IV.

" Each batlle sees the other's umber'd face: " And in “Richard III." Act V. Sc. 3,

- we will follow In the main baltle.'

" d -- the tongued consuls-) So the folio and the quarto 1630 ; the quarto of 1622 has, " loged." The former, as Boswell obserres, agrees better with the words “ mere prallle," &c.; but “loged ** may have sprung from the common adage, Cedant arma toga, and is equally appropriate.

e -- must be be-lee'd-) The quarto 1622 has, “must be led," &c.; this and the imperfect measure of the line in other copies might lead us to suspect the author wrote, "must be lee'd and calm'd," &c.

f - debitor-and-creditor :) The title of certain old treatises upon commercial book-kt eping. So in "Cymbeline," Act V. Sc. 4,-"You have no true debitor-and creditor but it."

8 in any just term am aflin'd-] By any moral obligation am bound, &c.

h – knave.-) “Knave" carries no opprobrious meaning here; it is simply serritor.

obsequious bondage,-) That is, obedient, submissiee thraldom.

k Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty.-) Who, dressid in shapes and masks of duty, &c. Mr. Collier proposes to read,

“- in forms and usages of duty," which the expression " trimm'd" negatives at once.

1 What a full fortune-) The folin has fall" for "fail," a reading Mr. Kniglit prefers, although in "Cymbeline," act V. Sc. 4, we find,

“Our pleasure his sull fortune doth confine;" in "Antony and Cleopatra," Act IV. Sc. 15;"full.fortun'd Cæsar;" and in D'Avenant's " Law against Lovers," Act III. Sc. 1, -"She has a full fortune."

chances of veration--] Crosses, or casualties; the quarta read, "changes."


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Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise !
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you :
Arise ! I say.
What, have


Rod. Most reverend signior, do you know my

voice ?
Bra. Not I; what are you?
Rod. My name is Roderigo.

The worser welcome
I have charg'd thee not to haunt about my doors :
In honest plainness thou hast heard me say
My daughter is not for thee; and now, in

madness, (Being full of supper and distempering draughts) Upon malicious bravery,* dost thou come To start my quiet.

Rod. Sir, sir, sir,–

But thou must needs be sure,
My spirit – and my place have in them I power
To make this bitter to thee.

Patience, good sir.


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(*) first folio, knarerie.

(1) First folio, spirits.

(1) First folio, their. That is, when the fire caused by night and negligence. But query as Warburton suggested, did the poet write,"Is spred," &c.?


beseech you,

BRA. What tell'st thou me of robbing? this It seems not meet, yor wholesome to my place, is Venice;

To be produc'd * (as, if I stay, I shall) My house is not a grange.“

Against the Moor: for, I do know, the state,Rop.


Brabantio, However this may gall him with some check In simple and pure soul I come to you.

Cannot with safety cast him ; for he's embark'd Iago. Zounds,* sir, you are one of those that With such loud reason to the Cyprus' wars, will not serve God, if the devil bid


Because Which even now stand in act, that, for their souls, we come to do you service, and you think we are Another of his fathom they have none ruffians, you'll have your daughter covered with a To lead their business: in which regard, Barbary horse ; you'll have your nephews neigh Though I do hate him as I do hell-pains, to you ; you 'll bave coursers for cousins, and Yet, for necessity of present life, gennets for germans.

I must show out a flag and sign of love, Bra. What profane wretch art thou ?

Which is indeed but sign. That you shall surely Iago. I am one, sir, that comes to tell you,

find him, your daughter and the Moor are nowt making the Lead to the Sagittary (1) the raised search ; beast with two backs.

And there will I be with him. So, farewell. BRA. Thou art a villain.

[Exit. Iago.

You are--a senator. BRA. This thou shalt answer; I know thee,

Enter, below, BRABANTIO, and Servants with Roderigo.

torches. Rod. Sir, I will answer any thing. But, I

Bra. It is too true an evil: gone she is ! If 't be your pleasure and most wise consent And what's to come of my despised time (As partly I find it is) that your fair daughter, Is nought but bitterness.- Now, Roderigo, At this odd-even and dull watch o' the night, Where didst thou see her ?—0, unhappy girl :Transported, with no worse nor better guard With the Moor, say’st thou ?—Who would be a But with a knave of common hire, a gondolier,

father! To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor,— How didst thou know 't was she?-0, she If this be known to you, and your

deceives me We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs ; Past thought !-What said she to you?-Get But, if you know not this, my manners tell me

more tapers ; We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe Raise all my kindred.--Are they married, think That, from the sense" of all civility, I thus would play and trifle with your reverence:

Rod. Truly, I think they are. Your daughter,—if you have not given her leave,– Bra. O, heaven !-How got she out?-0, I say again, hath made a gross revolt;

treason of the blood !Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes, Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters' In an extravagant and wheeling ' stranger

minds Of here and everywhere. Straight satisfy yourself:: By what you see them act.- Are there not If she be in her chamber or your house,

charms Let loose on me the justice of the state

By which the property of youth and maidhood For thuz deluding you.

May be abus'd? Ilave you not read, Roderigo, ВПА.

Strike on the tinder, ho! Of some such thing?
Give me a taper !-call up

my people ! -


Yes, sir, I have indeed. This accident is not unlike my dream :

Bra. Call up my brother.-0, would you had Belief of it oppresses me already.

had her ! Light, I say ! light!

[Erit from above. Some one way, some another.-Do you know Iago. Farewell ; for I must leave

you: Where we may apprehend her and the Moor?


you ?


(*) First folio omits, Zounds.

(+) First folio omits, now.

this is Venice; My house is not a grange.] Grange, Warton remarks, is strictly and properly the farm of a monastery But in Lincolnshire, and in other northern counties, they call every lone house, or farm which stands solitary, a grange. What Brabantio means, then, is,-I am in a populous city, not in a place where robbery can be easily committed. b

ruffians,-) Here ruffian is employed in its secondary sense of oisterer, swash-buckler, and the like, though its primary mean ing undoubtedly was, pander; the Latin, leno," the Italian, " rotħiano."

(*) First folio, producted. (t) First folio, apines. e Transported,-) That is, transported herself. Capell, however, inserts Be before transported.

d - from the sense- ] Contrary, or opposed to the sense, &c. e - extravagant-] Vagabond.

f - wheeling-] Mr. Collier's annotator proposes, reedling we should much prefer to read,-

"- an extravagant and whirling stranger

Of here and everywhere." & Straight satisfy yourself:) This line and the sixteen preceding lines are not in the quarto 1622.

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