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me blind.

a

one?

This ravenous tiger, this accursed devil;

SAT. It was, Andronicus. Let him receive no sustenance, fetter him,

Tit. Your reason, mighty lord ? Till he be brought unto the empress' face,

Sat. Because the girl should not survive her For testimony of her foul proceedings:

shame, And see the anıbush of our friends be strong ; And by her presence still renew his sorrows. I fear the emperor means no good to us.

Tit. A reason mighty, strong, and effectual ; Aaron. Some devil whisper curses in mine ear, A pattern-precedent, and lively warrant, And prompt me, that my tongue may utter forth For me, most wretched, to perform the like:The venomous malice of my swelling heart ! Die, die, Lavinia, and thy shame with thee; Luc. Away, inhuman dog! unhallow'd slave !

[He kills LAVINIA. Sirs, help our uncle to convey him in.

And, with thy shame, thy father's sorrow die ! [Exeunt Goths, with AARON. Flourish Sat. What last thou done, unnatural and unwithout.

kind ? The trumpets show the emperor is at hand.

Tir. Killid her, for whom my tears have made

I am as woeful as Virginius was, Enter SATURNINUS and Tamora, with Æmilius, And have a thousand times more cause than he Tribunes, Senators, and others.

To do this outrage ;-and it is now done.*

Sat. What, was she ravishd? tell, who did the Sat. What, hath the firmament more suns than

deed?

Tit. Will’t please you eat ?—will’t please your Luc. What boots it thee to call thyself a sun ?

highness feed ? Marc. Rome's emperor, and nephew, break the Tam. Why hast thou slain thine only daughter parle ;

thus?" These quarrels must be quietly debated.

Tit. Not I ; 't was Chiron and Demetrius : The feast is ready, which the careful Titus They ravish'd her, and cut away her tongue; Hath ordain'd to an honourable end,

And they, 't was they, that did her all this wrong. For peace, for love, for league, and good to Rome: Sat. Go fetch them hither to us presently. Please you, therefore, draw nigh, and take your Trr. Why, there they are, both baked in that places.

pie, Sat. Marcus, we will.

Whereof their mother daintily hath fed, [Hautboys sound. The company sit doun Eating the flesh that she herself hath bred. at table, ”Tis true, 't is true, witness my knife's sharp point!

Kills TAMORA.

Sat. Die, frantic wretch, for this accursed deed! Enter Titus, dressed like a cook, LAVINIA, with

Kills Titus. a veil over her face, Young Lucius, and Luc. Can the son's eye behold his father bleed ? others. Titus places the dishes on the table. There's meed for meed, death for a deadly deed !

[Kills SaturNINUS. A great tumult. The Tit. Welcome, my gracious lord; welcome,

People disperse in terror. Lucius,

Marcus, and their Partisans ascend the Welcome, ye warlike Goths; welcome, Lucius ;

steps of Titus's House. And welcome, all! Although the cheer be

poor, Marc. You sad-fac'd men, people and sons of ’T will fill your stomachs, please you eat of it.

Rome,
Sat. Why art thou thus attir’d, Andronicus ? By uproars sever'd, like a flight of fowl

Tit. Because I would be sure to have all well, Scatter'd by winds and high tempestuous gusts, To entertain your highness and your empress. O, let me teach you how to knit again

Sat. We are beholden to you, good Andronicus. This scatter'd corn into one mutual sheaf, Tit. An if your highness knew my heart, you These broken limbs again into one body ;

Lesto Rome herself be bane unto herself ; My lord the emperor, resolve me this:

And she whom mighty kingdoms court’sy to, Was it well done of rash Virginius

Like a forlorn and desperate castaway, To slay his daughter with his own right hand, Do shameful execution on herself. Because she was enforc’d, stain'd, and deflour'd ? But if my frosty signs and chaps of age,

dread queen ;

were.

-- and it is now done.) A line not found in the folio. b -- thine only daughter thus?] The reading of the 4to. 1600; later editions omitting, thus." c Lest Rome, &c.] This line, beginning, "Let Rome," &c. in

the old copies, has the prefix, "Roman Lord," in the quartos, and in the folio, Goth." Steeve serves that, as the speech proceeds in a uniform tenor, the whole probably belongs to Marcus, and to him in its entirety we assign it.

a

Grave witnesses of true experience,

These wrongs, unspeakable, past patience, Cannot induce you to attend my words,

Or more than any living man could bear. Speak, Rome's dear friend, [TO Lucius.] as erst Now you have heard the truth, what say you, our ancestor,

Romans ? When with his solemn tongue he did discourse Have we done aught amiss,-show us wherein, To love-sick Dido's sad attending ear

And, from the place where you behold us now, The story of that baleful-burning night,

The

poor remainder of Andronici When subtle Greeks surpris’d king Priam's Troy,– Will, hand in hand, all headlong cast us down, Tell us what Sinon hath bewitch'd our ears, And on the ragged stones beat forth our brains, Or who hath brought the fatal engine in

And make a mutual closure of our house. That gives our Troy, our Rome, the civil wound.- Speak, Romans, speak ! and if you say we shall, My heart is not compact of flint nor steel,

Lo, hand in hand, Lucius and I will fall ! Nor can I utter all our bitter grief,

Ævil. Come, come, thou reverend man of But floods of tears will drown my oratory,

Rome,
And break my very utterance, even in the time And bring our emperor gently in thy hand,
When it should move you to attend me most. Lucius our emperor ; for well I know
Lending your kind* commiseration,

The common voice do cry, It shall be so !
Here is a captain, let him tell the tale,

Romans. Lucius, all hail, Rome's royal emperor ! Your hearts will throb and weep to hear him speak. Marc. Go, go into old Titus' sorrowful house,

Luc. Then, t noble auditory, be it known to you, And hither hale that misbelieving Moor, That cursed Chiron and Demetrius

To be adjudg’d some direful-slaughtering death, Were they that murdered our emperor's brother ; As punishment for his most wicked life. And they it was that ravished our sister:

[To Attendants, who go into the house. For their fell faults our brothers were beheaded ; Romans. Lucius, all hail, Rome's gracious Our father's tears despis’d, and basely cozen'd

governor! Of that true hand that fought Rome's quarrel out, Luc. Thanks, gentle Romans: may I govern so, And sent her enemies unto the grave.

To heal Rome's harms, and wipe away her woe ! Lastly, myself, unkindly banished,

But, gentle people, give me aim awhile,
The gates shut on me, and turn'd weeping out, For nature puts me to a heavy task;
To beg relief among Rome's enemies ;

Stand all aloof;—but, uncle, draw you near, Who drown'd their enmity in my true tears, To shed obsequious tears upon this trunk.And op'd their arms to embrace me as a friend : 0, take this warm kiss on thy pale-cold lips, And I am theo turn’d-forth, be it known to you,

[Kisses Titus. That have preserv'd her welfare in

my

blood, These sorrowful drops upon thy blood-stain’d* face, And from her bosom took the enemy's point, The last true duties of thy noble son! Sheathing the steel in my adventurous body.

Marc. Tear for tear, and loving kiss for kiss, Alas, you know I am no vaunter, I!

Thy brother Marcus tenders on thy lips : My scars can witness, dumb although they are, O, were the sum of these that I should pay, That my report is just and full of truth.

Countless and infinite, yet would I pay

them ! But, soft! methinks I do digress too much,

Luc. Come hither, boy; come, come, and learn Citing my worthless praise : 0, pardon me, For, when no friends are by, men praise themselves. To melt in showers. Thy grandsire lov'd thee well : Marc. Now is my turn to speak : behold this Many a time he danc'd thee on his knee, child,

Sung thee asleep, his loving breast thy pillow; [Pointing to the Child in the arms of an Many a matter hath he told to thee, Attendant.

Meet and agreeing with thine infancy; Of this was Tamora delivered ;

In that respect, then, like a loving child, The issue of an irreligious Moor,

Shed yet some small drops from thy tender spring, Chief architect and plotter of these woes.

Because kind nature doth require it so: The villain is alive in Titus' house,

Friends should associate friends in grief and woe : Damn'd” as he is, to witness this is true.

Bid him farewell ; commit him to the grave ; Now judge what cause I had Titus to revenge Do him that kindness, and take leave of him.

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of us

:

(*) First folio inserts, hand. (t) First folio, This.

(1) Old text, course. * And I am the turn'd-forth, &c.) So the quartos; the folio has,

: " And I am turned forth," &c. b Damn'd as he is, &c.] Theobald's emendation; the old text having, And as he is."

(*) Old text, bloul-sluine. c ROMANS. Lucius, all hail, Rome's royal emperor !] This and the subsequent line,

“ Lucius, all hail, Rome's gracious governor!" are in the old copies ascribed to Marcus; but surely in error.

1

woes:

Boy. O, grandsire, grandsire ! even with all my I am no baby, I, that with base prayers
heart

I should repent the evils I have done :
Would I were dead, so you did live again ! - Ten thousand worse than ever yet I did
0, lord, I cannot speak to him for weeping ! Would I perform, if I might have my will:
My tears will choke me, if I ope my mouth. If one good deed in all my life I did,

I do repent it from my very soul.
Re-enter Attendants, with AARON.

Luc. Some loving friends convey

the emperor

hence, 1 Roman. You sad Andronici, have done with

And give him burial in his father's grave.

My father and Lavinia shall forthwith Give sentence on this execrable wretch,

Be closed in our household's monument :
That hath been breeder of these dire events.

As for that heinous tiger, Tamora,
Luc. Set him breast-deep in earth, and famish No funeral rite, nor man in mournful weeds,

No mournful a bell shall ring her burial;
There let him stand, and rave, and cry

for food :

But throw her forth to beasts and birds of prey: If any one relieves or pities him,

Her life was beast-like, and devoid of pity, For the offence he dies. This is our doom.

And, being so, shall have like want of pity. Some stay to see him fasten'd in the earth.

See justice done on Aaron, that damn d Moor, AARON. O, why should wrath be mute, and By whom our heavy haps had their beginning: fury dumb ?

Then, afterwards, to order well the state,

That like events may ne'er it ruinate.(1) [Exeunt, a No mournful bell- ] Query, "No solemn bell,” &c. ?

him ;

2

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ILLUSTRATIVE COMMENTS.

ACT II.

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(1) SCENE III.

Be unto us as is a nurse's song

Of lullaby, to bring her babe asleep.] Douce, in his “Illustrations of Shakspeare," has an interesting note on the burden lullaby.

"It would be a hopeless task to trace the origin of the northern verb to lull, which means to sing gently; but is evidently connected with the Greek danéw, loquor, or Náram, the sound made by the beach at sea. Thus much is certain, that the Roman nurses used the word lalla to quiet their children, and that they feigned a deity called Jallus, whom they invoked on that occasion; the lullaby or tune itself was called by the same name. As lallare meant to sing lalla, to lull might in like manner denote the singing of the nurse's lullaby to induce the child to sleep. Thus in an ancient carol composed in the fifteenth century, and preserved among the Sloane MSS. No. 2593 :

che song a slepe wt her lullynge

here dere sone our savyoure.' “In another old ballad, printed by Mr. Ritson in his Ancient Songs, p. 198, the burden is lully, lully, lullaby, lully by, sweete baby,' &c. ; from which it seems probable that lullaby is only a comparatively modern contraction of lally baby, the first word being the legitimate offspring of the Roman lalla. In another of these pieces, still more ancient, and printed in the same collection, we bave ‘lullay, lallow, lully, berry, lulla baw baw.'

“ The Welsh appear to have been famous for their hullaby songs. Jones, in his Arte and science of preserving borlie and soule, 1579, 4to., says :- The best nurses, but especially the trim and skilfull Welch women, doe use to sing some preaty sonets, wherwith their copious tong is plentifully stoared of divers pretie tunes and pleasaunt ditties, that the children disquieted might be brought to resto : but translated never so well, they want their grace in Englishe, for lacke of proper words : so that I will omit them, as I wishe they would theyr lascivious Dymes, wanton Lallies, and amorous Englins.'.

“Mr. White, in reviewing his opinion of the etymology of good-by, will perhaps incline to think it a contraction, when properly written good b'ye, of God be with you, and not 'may your house prosper!!

*To add to the stock of our old lullaby songs, two are here subjoined. The first is from a pageant of The slaughter of the innocents, acted at Coventry in the reign of Henry the Eighth, by the taylors and shearers of that city, and most obligingly communicated by Mr. Sharpe. The other is from the curious volume of songs mentioned before in p. 262. Both exhibit the simplicity of ancient manners :

“Lully, lulla, thou littell tine childe,

By by lully lullay,
Lully lullay thou littell tyne child,

By by lully lullay.
"O sisters too, how may we do,

For to preserve this day
This pore yongling, for whom we do singe

By by lully lullay.
""Herod the king, in his raging,

Chargid he hath this day;
His men of might, in his owne sight,

All yonge children to slay,

" 'That wo is me, pore child for thee,

And ever morne and say;
For thi parting, nether say nor sing,

By by lully lullay.'
" By by lullaby

Rockyd I my chyld
In a drē late as I lay
Me thought I hard a maydyn say
And spak thes wordys mylde,
My lyijl sone with the I play
And ever she song by lullay
Thus rockyd she hyr chyld
By by lullabi,
Rockid I my child by by.
Then merveld I ryght sore of thys
A mayde to have a chyld I wys,
By by lullay.
Thus rockyd she her chyld

By by lullaby, rockyd I my chyld.'” (2) SCENE IV.--A precious ring, that lightens all the hole.] The gem supposed to possess a property of emitting native light was called a carbuncle, and is frequently mentioned in early books ; thus, in “ The Gesta Romanorum," b. vi. :-“He further beheld and saw a carbuncle in the hall that lighted all the house." So also in Lydgate's Description of King Priam's Palace," L. II. :

“ And for most chefe all derkeness to confound,

A carbuncle was set as kyng of stones all,
To recomforte and gladden all the hall.
And to enlumine in the blacke night

With the freshnes of his ruddy light."
And so Drayton, in " The Muses' Elysium :"-

“ Is that admired mighty stone,

The carbuncle that's named ;
Which from it such a flaming light
And radiancy ejecteth,
That in the very darkest night

The eye to it directeth." But the best illustration of the passage we have met with occurs in a letter from Boyle, containing “Observations on a Diamond that shines in the dark :"-" Though Vortomannus was not an eye-witness of what he relates, that the King of Pegu had a true Carbuncle of that bigness and splendour, that it shined very gloriously in the dark; and though Garcias ab Horto, the Indian Vice-Roy's physician, speaks of another carbuncle only on the report of one that he discoursed with; yet as we are not sure that these men that gave themselves out to be eye-witnesses, speak true, yet they may have done so for aught we know to the contrary. .

I must not omit that some virtuosi questioning me the other day at Whitehall, and meeting amongst them an ingenious Dutch gentleman whose father was long embassador for the Netherlands in England, I learned of him that he is acquainted with a person who was admiral of the Dutch in the East Indies, and who assured this gentleman Monsieur Boree), that at his return from thence, he brought back with him into Holland a stone which though it looked but like a pale dull diamond, yet it was a real carbuncle ; and did without rubbing shine so much, that when the admiral had occasion to open a chest which he kept under deck in a dark place where it was forbidden to bring candles for fear of mischances, as soon as he opened the trunk, the stone would by its native light shine so as to illustrate a great part of it." —Boyle's Works, Vol. II. p. 82.

ACT V.

(1) SCENE III.-

Then, afterwards, to order well the state,

That like events may ne'er it ruinate.] The following is the ballad registered by Danton when he entered the “ llistorye of Tytus Andronicus Stationers' Rolls. It is extracted from Percy's “Reliques of Antient Poetry,” Vol. I. :

"Then both her hands they basely cutt off quite,

Whereby their wickednesse she could not write;
Nor with her needle on her sampler sowe

The bloudye workers of her direfull woe.
“ My brother Marcus found her in the wood,

Staining the grassie ground with purple bloud,
That trickled from her stumpes, and bloudlesse armes;

Noe tongue at all she had to tell her harmes. * But when I sawe her in that woefull case,

With teares of bloud I wet mine aged face;
For my Lavinia l lamented more,

Than for my two and twenty sonnes before.
" When as I sawe she could not write nor speake,

With griefe mine aged heart began to breake;
We spred an heape of sand upon the ground,

Whereby those bloudy tyrants out we found. " For with a staffe without the help of hand

She writt these wordes upon the plat of sand : • The lustfull sonnes of the proud ein perèsse

Are doers of this hateful wickednesse.'
“ I tore the milk-white hairs from off mine head,

I curst the houre, wherein I first was bred,
I wisht this hand, that fought for countrie's fame,

In cradle rockt, had first been stroken lame. “ The Moore delighting still in villainy,

Did say, to sett my sonnes from prison free
I should unto the king my right hand give,

And then my thres imprisoned sonnes should live. " The Moore I caused to strike it off with speede,

Whereat I grieved not to see it bleed,
But for my sonnes would willingly impart,

And for their ransome send my bleeding heart. " But as my life did linger thus in paine,

They sent to me my bootlesse hand againe,
And therewithal the heades of my three sonnes,

Which filld my dying heart with fresher moanes. “ Then past reliefe I upp and downe did goe,

And with my teares writ in the dust my woe:
I shot iny arrowes towards heaven hie,

And for revenge to hell did often crie.
"The empresse then, thinking that I was mad,

Like furies she and both her sonnes were clad,
(She nam'd Revenge, and Rape and Murder they)

To undermine and heare what I would say. " I led their foolish veines a certaine space,

Untill my friendes did find a secret place,
Where both her sonnes unto a post were bound,

And just revenge in cruell sort was found.
“ I cut their throates, my daughter held the pan

Betwixt her stumpes, wherein the bloud it ran :
And then I ground their bones to powder small,

And made a paste for pyes streighi therewithall. “ Then with their fleshe I made two mighty pyes,

And at a banquet servde in stately wise:
Before the empresse set this loathsome meat;

So of her sonnes own flesh she well did eat. “ Myself bereav'd my daughter then of life,

The empresse then I slewe with bloudy knife,
And stabb'd the emperour immediatelie

And then myself : even soe did Titus die.
" Then this revenge against the Moor was found,

Alive they sett him halfe into the ground,
Whertas he stood untill such time he starr'd.
And soe God send all murderers may be served."

on the

" TITUS ANDRONICus's COMPLAINT.
“ You noble minds and famous mart all wights,

That in defence of native country fights,
Give ear to me, that ten yeers fought for Rome,

Yet reapt disgrace at my returning home.
" In Rome I lived in fame fulle threescore yeeres,

My name beloved was of all my peeres;
Full five and twenty valiant sonnes I had,

Whose forwarde vertues made their father glad. "For when Romes foes their warlike forces bent,

Against them stille my sonnes and I were sent;
Against the Goths full ten yeeres weary warre

We spent, receiving many a bloudy scarre.
“Just two and twenty of my sonnes were slaine

Before we did returne to kome againe :
of five and twenty sounes, I brought but three

Alive the stately towers of Rome to see.
" When wars were done I conquest home did bring,

And did present my prisoners to ihe King.
The Queene of Goths, her sons, and eke a Moore,

Which did such murders, like was nere before. “ The emperour did make this queene his wife,

Which bred in Rome debate and deadlie strife;
The Moore, with her two sonnes did growe soe proud,

That none like them in Rome inight be allowd.
“ The Moore soe pleased this new-made empress' eie,

That she consente i to him secretlye
For to abuse her husbands marriage bed,
And soe in time a blackamore she bred.

" Then she, whose thoughts to murder were inclined,

Consented with the Moore of bloody minde
Against myself, my kin, and all my friendes,

In cruell sort to bring them to their endes. “ Soe when in age I thought to live in peace,

Buih care and griefe began then to increase :
Amongst my sonnes I had one daugliter bright,

Which joy'd, and pleased best my aged sight: " My deare Lavinia was betrothed than

To Cæsars sonne, a young and noble man:
Who in a hunting by the emperours wife
And her two sonnes, bereaved was of life.

“ He being slaine was cast in cruel wise

into a darksome den from light of skies: The cruell Moore did come that way as then

With my three sonnes, who fell into the den.
“ The Moore then fetcht the emperour with speed,

For to accuse them of that murderous deed;
And when my sonnes within the den were found,

In wrongfull prison they were cast and bound.
“ But nowe, behold! what wounded most my mind,

The empresses two sonnes of savage kind
My daughter ravished without remorse,

And took away her honour, quite perforce.
“When they had tasted of soe sweete a flowre,

Fearing this sweete should shortly turne to soure,
They cutt her tongue, whereby she could not tell
How that dishonoure unto her befell.

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