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more of that of Demosthenes. “If you are,' said he, 'thus touched with hearing only what that great orator said, how would you have been affected had you seen him speak? For he who hears Demosthenes only, loses much the better part of the oration.' Certain it is that they who speak gracefully are very lamely represented in having their speeches read or repeated by unskilful people ; for there is something native to each man, so inherent to his thoughts and sentiments, which it is hardly possible for another to give a true idea of. You may observe in common talk, when a sentence of any man's is repeated, an acquaintance of his shall immediately observe, that is so like him, methinks I see how he looked when he said it.'
But of all the people on the earth, there are none who puzzle me so much as the Clergy of Great Britain, who are, I believe, the most learned body of men now in the world ; and yet this art of speaking, with the proper ornaments of voice and gesture, is wholly neglected among them ; and I will engage, were a deaf man to behold the greater part of them preach, he would rather think they were reading the contents only of some discourse they intended to make, than actually in the body of an oration, even when they are upon matters of such a nature, as one would believe it were impossible to think of without emotion..
I own there are exceptions to this general observation, and that the Dean we heard the other day together is an oratork. He has so much regard to his
hold the and I will sture, is wh
. Ce doyen c'est le Dr. Atterbury, qui jouissoit alors du doyenné de Christ Church, et que la Reine Anne éleva dans la suite au siége de Rochester. Il fut banni sous George I. et mourut à Paris 1732. Ce Théologien étant des plus zèlés pour ce qu'on appelle la haute église. M. Steele affecta de faire ici son éloge pour servir de preuve à l'impartialité de ses jugemens, et c'est ce qu'il fit remarquer lui-meme dans la preface de son quartrieme volume.' Le Nouvelliste Philosophe.
congregation, that he commits to his memory what he has to say to them; and has so soft and graceful a behaviour, that it must attract your attention. His person, it is to be confessed, is no small recommendation; but he is to be highly commended for not losing that advantage, and adding to the propriety of speech, which might pass the criticism of Longinus, an action, which would have been approved by Demosthenes. He has a peculiar force in his way, and has many of his audience' who could not be intelligent hearers of his discourse, were there not explanation as well as grace in his action. This art of his is used with the most ex, act and honest skill : he never attempts your passions till he has convinced your reason. All the objections which he can form are laid open and dispersed before he uses the least vehemence in his sermon ; but when
Steele acknowledges that the amiable character of the Dean, in Tatler, No. 66. was drawn for Dr. Atterbury, and mentions it as an argument of kis impartiality. See Preface to Tatler, vol. iv. This pasage is likewise cited in Steele's • Apology for himself and his Writings ;' and a marginal note certifies, that it was written by Steele himself. See “ Apology,' &c. 1714, 4to, p. 50. Steele was probably a better economist of the literary communications of his correspondents, than he is said to have been of his money. Something of this natyre has been hinted at in a former note, and the same thrifty management seems to have been practised here. It is highly 'probable that at this time Swift was not personally acquainted either with Atterbury or Smalridge. The reader may see the great probability, if not a decisive proof of this, in Atterbury's · Correspondence, vol. ii. p. 34, note; and in Swift's “Works, vol. xix. p. 116. The character of Favonius in the Tatler, No. 72. is likewise cited in the “Apology, &c. ut supra, and acknowledged to have been designed for Dr. Smalridge, and written by Steele himself. Swift, in a letter dated Jan. 7, 1710-11, affirms, that he never saw Trap. It would seem, therefore, that Steele did not waste Swift's communication on Eloquence and Action, but contrived to make it go farther than its author intended, by adding to it the characters of Atterbury, of Favonius, and little parson Dapper, and perhaps some of the short letters in the following corresponding papers. See Swift's Works,' vol. xix. p. 40, 8vo. Tatler, Nos. 68. 69. 70. 71. and 72. See also Dr. Johnson's · Lives of English Poets,' vol. ii. p. 380, 8vo. 1781.
1 At the chapel of Bridewell Hospital, where he was twenty years minister and preacher.
he thinks he has your head, he very soon wins your heart; and never pretends to show the beauty of holiness, till he hath convinced you of the truth of it.
Would every one of our clergymen be thus careful to recommend truth and virtue in their proper figures, and show so much concern for them as to give them all the additional force they were able, it is not possi. ble that nonsense should have so many hearers as you find it has in dissenting congregations", for no reason in the world, but because it is spoken extempore : for ordinary minds are wholly governed by their eyes. and ears, and there is no way to come at their hearts, but by power over their imaginations.
There is my friend and merry companion Daniel". He knows a great deal better than he speaks, and can form a proper discourse as well as any orthodox neighbour. But he knows very well, that to bawl out · My beloved !' and the words, .grace!' regeneration !' o sanctification!' a new light!' the day! the day! ay, my beloved, the day! or rather the night! the night is coming !' and judgment will come, when we least think of it!' and so forth-he knows to be vehement is the only way to come at his audience. Daniel, when he sees my friend Green
m It was the infelicity of the laity, about the time here spoken of, that, by going to church, they had no security from hearing nonsense and ribaldry both read and spoken extemporc. See Addison's ingenious observations on the nonsense of this time, Whig Examiner, No. 4. in Dr. Daniel Burgess, who preached to a congregation of Independents at the meeting-house in a court adjoining to Carey-street, near Lincoln'sInn. See Tatler, Nos. 229. and 239. : Il étoit fils d'un autre Daniel Burgess, qui l'an 1662 perdit un benefice de 3501. pour n'avoir pas voulu se ranger à l'église épiscopale et à la liturgie. Mr. Calamy, dans la Continuation de sa Relation, &c. tom. ii. p. 875, reconnoit que le fils dont il s'agit ici étoit un bon homme, qui eut beaucoup d'ennemis, et qui avoit quelques manières qui lui étoiens tout à fait particulières. Je me souviens d'avoir oüi faire plusieurs contes* fort plaisans de ce qui lui échappoit quelquefois dans les sermons.'
Le Nouvelliste Philosophe..
hat come in, can give a good hint, and cry out, • This is only for the saints! the regenerated !' By this force of action, though mixed with all the incoherence and ribaldry imaginable, Daniel can laugh at his diocesan, and grow fat by voluntary subscription, while the parson of the parish goes to law for half his dues. Daniel will tell you, it is not the shepherd, but the sheep with the bell, which the flock follows.
Another thing very wonderful this learned body should omit is, learning to read; which is a most necessary part of eloquence in one who is to serve at the altar : for there is no man but must be sensible, that the lazy tone, and inarticulate sound of our common readers, depreciates the most proper form of words that were ever extant, in any nation or language, to speak our own wants, or His power from whom we ask relief.
There cannot be a greater instance of the power of action, than in little parson Dapper', who is the common relief to all the lazy pulpits in town. This smart youth has a very good memory, a quick eye, and a clean handkerchief. Thus equipped, he opens his text, shuts his book fairly, shows he has no notes in his Bible, opens both psalms, and shows all is fair there too. Thus, with a decisive air, my young man goes on without hesitation; and though from the beginning to the end of his pretty discourse he has not used one proper gesture, yet at the conclusion the churchwarden pulls his gloves from off his hands; • Pray, who is this extraordinary young man ? Thus the force of action is such, that it is more prevalent, even when improper, than all the reason and argument in the world without it. This gentleman concluded his discourse by saying, "I do not doubt but if our preachers would learn to speak, and our readers to read, within six months time we should not have a dissenter within a mile of a church in GreatBritain”.
0. Il s'appelloit Trap si je ne me trompe, et n'étoit par un des Anglicans les moins emportés. Le N. P.
"Your new lord-chancellor sets out to-morrow for Ireland. I never saw him. He carries over one Trap, a parson, as his chaplain, a sort of pretender to wit, a second-rate pamphleteer for the cause, whom they pay by sending him to Ireland. I never saw Trap neither.'
Swift's · Works,' vol. xxii. page 131.
FROM MY OWN APARTMENT, SEPTEMBER 9. I HAVE a letter from a young fellow, who complains to me that he was bred a mercer, and is now just out of his time; but unfortunately (for he has no manner of education suitable to his present estate) an uncle has left him one thousand pounds per annum.' The young man is sensible, that he is so spruce that he fears he shall never be genteel as long as he lives; but applies himself to me, to know what method to take, to help his air and be a fine gentleman.
He says, “ that several of those ladies who were formerly his customers visit his mother on purpose to fall in his way, and fears he shall be obliged to marry against his will ; for,' says he, if any one of them should ask me, I shall not be able to deny her. I am,' says he farther, ' utterly at a loss how to deal with them; for, though I was the most pert creature in the world when I was foreman, and could hand a woman of the first quality to her coach as well as her own gentleman usher, I am now quite out of my way, and speechless in their company. They commend
p. After we have done with laughing, solid virtue will keep its place in men's opinions.' Tatler, No. 58.
Great and manifold are the perfections with which Dr. Hawkesworth's fine fancy has bedecked the author of this paper; but, after all, there could be nothing in him of higher estimation than conscientiousness; and it seems contradictory, that one who cultivated conscientiousness in himself should, even in any degree, ridicule or detest it in others.