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mantic scene on the road from Jedburgh to Northumberland.

Caves.

Vestiges of artificial caves appear upon the banks of the river Jed, particularly two large caves dug out of the rock at Hundalee and Linthaughlee. Their dimenfions cannot now be ascertained, being, from the steepness of the rock or bank, almost inacceslible; but they are described by old persons, who have formerly entered into them when the access was less difficult, as consisting of three apartments, one on each hand of the entrance, and a larger one behind, which had the appearance of a great room. They were probably used as hiding places, or strong holds to Thelter the inhabitants in the neighbourhood upon any sud. den incursion by English invaders.

Migratory Birds.-The wood-lark, bulfinch, and king'sfisher have been frequently found on the banks of the Jed. The plover, fieldfare, and dotorel, abound in the south and hilly parts of the parish. In the winter of 1788, during a se. vere fall of snow, a golden crested wren made its appearance. The size of it was much smaller than the common wren; the colour of the body nearly the same; but the head was adorned with feathers of a beautiful orange colour and gold.

Number of Horses, Sheep, &c.—There are 414 horses in the parilh, and it is believed above 8000 sheep. There are some black cattle and horses bred for sale, but more for private use. A great number of cattle are bought in the autumn, and fed upon the foggage or after-grafs, and upon turnips. In regard to sheep it may be proper to observe, that the value of wool, in the neighbourhood of Jedburgh, has been greatly increafįng forseveral years past. The white wool in this parish has been sold at from 18s. to 2os per stone for the last three years, and the wool laid with tar at 155. 16s. and some of it at 185. In the lower part of the country, fome farmers in BeaumontWater fold their wool last season at L. 1:2:0 per stone. Seven or eight fleeces generally go to a stone.

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Population. There is every reason to believe, that the population of this and of the neighbouring parishes has greatly diminished since the commencement of the present century. Some years after the Union, and even when the returns were made to Dr. Webster about forty years ago, the number of inhabitants in the parish was fupposed to be about 6000. There is no evidence, however, of any particular enurneration having been made. At present they do not exceed half that number. The inhabitants of the town were numbered with great accuracy about fifteen years ago, and fell sort of 2000. The inhabitants of the country part of the parish do not exceed 800; and there are only two or three villages containing about 100 souls. The vertiges of uninhabited houses are to be seen both in the town and in the country. This decrease is partly to be attributed to the Union between the two kingdoms, by which the trade of Jedburgh was, in a great measure, ruined, and the population of the town diminished of consequence; and partly to the union of farms, which has depopulated the country.

Effects of the Union on the Borders.—The Union of the Pare liaments of England and Scotland, has in some respects produced an effect very different from what might have been expected from it. Instead of promoting the increase, it has contributed to the diminution, of the people upon the Borders. Besides, the influence of various natural propenfities, which induced men to flock to the scene where active talents were constantly employed, honour acquired, and the strongest national antipathies gratified, there were obvious considerations of interest, which rendered the situation of the Borders more eligible, after violence and hostility were repressed, by the union of the two Crowns, and the consequent interpofition of the legislature of both kingdoms. The inhabitants of the Borders, while the taxes and the commercial regulations of the two kingdoms were different, enjoyed the opportunity of carrying on a very advantageous contraband trade, without danger to their persons or fortunes. Into England they imported, falt, ikins, and malt, which, till the Union, paid no duties in Scotland; and from England they carried back wool, which was exported from the Frith of Forth to France, with great profit. The vestiges of forty malt-barns and kilns are now to be seen in the town of Jedburgh, while at present there are only three in actual occupation; and the corporation of skinners and glovers, formerly the most wealthy in that town, have, since the Union, greatly die minished, both in regard to opulence and number. The proprietors of estates upon the Borders were well aware of the detriment which their property would suffer by the incorporating Union, and in general ftrenuously opposed it; and the commissioners for carrying on that treaty, were fo sensible of the loss they would sustain, that they agreed to appropriate part of the equivalent money, as it was called, to their indemnification and benefit.

The Union has also been the cause of the depopulation of the Border country, by enlarging the sphere, and facilitating the means of emigration. While the two countries were in

See Defoe's History of the Union, minute 47. obfervation

47.

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a hostile state, there was neither inducement nor opportunity to move from the one to the other. The inhabitants often made inroads upon one another ; but when the incursion was over, they returned to their own homes. Their antipathy and refentments were a rampart which excluded all focial intercourse, and mixture of inhabitants. In this situation, misconduct and infamy at home were the only motives to emigration, and while this was the case, the exchange of inhabitants would be nearly at a par: But after the Union of the two kingdoms, and the decline or extinction of national antipathies, the balance arising from the interchange of inhabitants would run much in favour of the more wealthy country. Artificers and labourers would naturally resort where wages were higher, and all the accommodations of life were more plentiful, especially if this could be effected without the unpleasing idea of relinquishing home. To pass from the Borders of Scotland into Northumberland, was rather like going into a. nother parish than into another kingdom.

Union of Farms.-The monopoly of farms, or the conjoining a number of small possessions into one, has long been prevalent in this part of the kingdom. There are instances in this, and in the neighbouring parishes, of individuals renting and farming lands formerly possessed by fix, eight, or ten tenants; and there are instances, particularly of sheep farmers, holding two, or three farms in distant parts of the country, each of which was formerly considered as fufficiently large and extensive for one person. On the whole, this has not perhaps contributed to make the condition of the lower ranks of people worse, nor to diminish the population of the kingdom at large, though it certainly has had the effect of reducing the number of the inhabitants in every district where such a junction has taken place.

Births,

Births, Deaths, and Marriages.—The number of births within the parish of Jedburgh exceed yo per annım.

The burials in the parish church amount, at an average of three years, only to 49; but then, some familjes, in the country part of the parish, continue to bury in an old chapel ground, five miles south of Jedburgh, and several in the churchyards of Oxnam and Southdean; fo that no certain concluson can be formed upon this article. The number of marriages, at an average for the last three years, amounts only to 22; but it must be observed, that there are many irregular marriages in this parith and neighbourhood.

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Rent of the Parish —The valued rent of the parish is L. 23,264:6:10 Scots; the real rent, probably, above L. 7000 Sterling. The rent of the land varies, Sheep farms let from 3 s. 6 d. to 5 s. per acre, Some arable farms at the rate of 10 S. 15 s. and even 20 s. Land in the immediate neighbourhood of the town of Jedburgh, at from L. 2 to L. 3. Houses, in the town, from 10 s. to L. 15 per annum.

Number of Proprietors, Tenants, &c.—There are sixteen greater, and a considerable number (about a hundred) of smaller proprietors, called here Portioners, from their having a fmall portion of land belonging to them. Of the greater proprietors, eight, either occafionally, or constantly, refide in the parish. There are two farmers who pay above L. 300 per annum; three who pay above L. 200; about fourteen who rent above L. 100; and a number of smaller tenants. There are three physicians, three surgeons, and ten writers, or attorneys.

Crops.--The principal crops in the parish, are oats and barley. Of late years, a considerable quantity of wheat is You.I.

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