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sown in the ground immediately surrounding the town of Jedburgh, and some on Tiviot side ; but little or none in the south part of the parish. Turnips and potatoes are a general crop all over this country. The culture of turnips, in particular, has been much studied, and is greatly extended ; every farmer laying out a great portion of his land in them. The foil of this country is believed to be more suit-1 able to the growth of turnips, than that of any other part of Scotland. Formerly they were accustomed to feed cattle, in the house, with turnips; but it is now found more profitable, and has become more frequent, to let the sheep eat them in the fields. It may be proper to observe, that, from the experience of some of the most skilful farmers, calves and sheephogs may be fed, with great profit and safety, upon turnips ; and that young beasts fed on turnips attain the same size and value, at two years old, that they formerly did at three, when fed on grass. It was formerly a common prejudice in this country, and still prevails in other places, that turnips were noxious to young animals.

A confiderable quantity of pease, a few beans, a great quantity of clover and rye-grass, are sown in this parish ; but little flax or hemp, excepting some for private use. Oats are sown from the beginning of March to the end of April. Early oats have been much used of late, and are found to be a great improvement. The barley is fown from the middle of April to the end of May: The turnips from the beginning of June to the middle of July: The greater portion, I believe, in drills. Some wheat is sown in September, but more in October. The wheat is generally fown after potatoes, or fallow; the barley, and grass feeds, after turnips; oats upon ley, or after fallow, or pairing and burning. A greater quantity of every species of grain, than what is necessary for the


maintenance of its inhabitants, is raised within the bounds of this parish. There may, perhaps, be fome doubt with respect to wheat; but it is certain that oats, and oat-meal, are exported in considerable quantities to Lothian and Tweedale.

Orchards.-A great quantity of pears grow in the gardens or orchards of the town of Jedburgh. The trees, though very old, are remarkably fruitful; and it is calculated that the value of the fruit amounts, at a medium, to about L. 300 per annum.

Ecclefiaflical State of the Paris.—There are four clergymen in the town of Jedburgh; the minister of the Established Church, of the Relief congregation, of the Burgher, and the Antiburgher, seceders. Their respective examination rolls are as follows: Established Church 800; Relief congregation 1200; Burgher congregation 600; Antiburgher 150. Total 2750 examinable persons; that is, persons from fix to seven years old, and upwards. In order to account for the great proportion of diffenters, it must be observed, that the fect called the Relief Congregation had its origin in Jedburgh. In the year 1755, the council, and the generality of the inhabitants of the town, applied for a presentation to Mr Boston, minister of Oxnam, and being disappointed in that application, built a large meeting-house, by contribution, and invited Mr Boston to be their minister; several of the most fubftantial members of the congregation binding themselves to pay him L. 120 per annum. He accepted of their call; and prevailed upon Mr Gillespie, who had been deposed for disobedience to the orders of the General Assembly, to join him, under the denomination of the Presbytery of Relief; professing to differ from the Established Church upon no other point, than the right of patrons to appoint ministers against the inclina

tions of the people. This fect, more accommodating to the
spirit of the times, have quickly spread over Scotland, and,
probably, comprehend the greatest part of the Scotch
diflenters. Near a half of all the families in the parish of
Jedburgh, and a great proportion of the families in all the
surrounding parishes, are members of this congregation.
There are not more than five or fix who profess the Episco-
pal religion, and there are no Catholics, in the parish.

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The present incumbent, Dr. Thomas Somerville, was ad mitted minister of Jedburgh in 1773. His predecessors were Messrs Semple, M.Kay, Ruet, Winchester, Douglas, and M.Knight, which last he succeeded in the charge. He has been married twenty years, and has two sons and four daughters. The King is patron of the parish. The living consists of 169 bolls, half oat-meal and half barley, Linlithgow measure ; L. 44 in money, a manse, and a glebe of feven English acres, in all amounting to about L. 150 per annum in value. A part of the old Abbey Church is still used as the place of worship. The manse was built about 60 years ago, and has of. ten been repaired at a great expence.

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State of the Poor.--The number of poor upon the country roll of the parish amounts to 55, and of those in the town roll to 37. They are maintained by assessments. For supporting the county poor, a tax is laid upon the different proprietors of land, in proportion to the valued rents. The common method of proceeding in this business is as follows: The minister intimates from the pulpit, that on such a day a meeting of the heritors and elders is to be held, for the purpose of making a provision for the maintenance of the poor for the ensuing quarter. These meetings generally take place near the term of Candlemas, Whitsunday, Lammas, and


Martinmas. Upon the day of meeting the heritors elect a preses, after which the minutes of the former federunt, and the roll of the poor are read by the clerk. Forming a calculation from the number already standing upon the roll, and the applications made to them, the heritors assess theinselves in a certain sum to be collected from them severally, accor. ding to the proportion of their valued rents. The proprie

. tor pays one half of the assessment, and the tenant the other. Though the tenants are not mentioned in the summons, yet fuch of them as chuse to attend are made welcome, and their advice and information listened to by the meeting. The fum afleffed is raised by the heritors and kirk-fellion together, in such proportions as seem adequate to the neceffities of the poor. Such persons as are reduced to the accessity of applying to the heritors for charity, from any accidental transient cause, such as disease or misfortune, receive what is called an interim supply, i. e. a certain sum for that quarter only : The aged and infirm, and such as are likely to continue under the same necessity of depending upon public charity, are taken upon the poors roll at a certain weekly allowance. The persons taken upon the roll are obliged to fubscribe a bond or deed of conveyance, making over and bequeathing all their effects to the heritors; and though the heritors seldom exact their effects, yet the subscription of the bond serves as a check to prevent persons, who may be possefred of concealed property, from alienating the public charity. The sum assessed is levied by a collector, appointed by the heritors, and distributed by him to the persons admitted upon the roll, according to the proportions allotted to them. This mode of providing for the parochial poor was adopted in the parish of Jedburgh anno 1742, when the number of the poor increasing, from the scarcity and high price of provifions, the heritors and kirk-feffion were obliged to have re


course to the legal method of obtaining the contributions of absent proprietors. These monthly assessments have varied from two shillings to three shillings and fix-pence per quarter, on each hundred pounds of valued rent. The affefsment for the last twelve months was at the rate of three shillings per quarter, but did not produce the sum required, viz. L. 37:8:8 per quarter. The deficiency is made up from the weekly collections.

The poor belonging to the borough of Jedburgh, are provided for by a plan in some respects similar to, but in others materially different from, that above described. The magistrates hold quarterly meetings, in which they assess the borough for the maintenance of their poor, and portion the fums in the same manner as the heritors do; but the afleffment is not proportioned to the value of the property of individuals within the royalty; but according to a valuation of the property of the burgeries and inhabitants, estimated by sworn affcffors appointed by the magistrates. The assessors, in forming their calculation, and fixing the portion of afferrment to which each individual is liable, have refpect not only to ostensible property, but to the profits of trade, and other supposed advantages. It is obvious that such a vague and arbitrary mode of calculation, is extremely liable to partiality and error.

The sums appropriated for the maintenance of each individual vary, according to the circumstances of the claiinant. To single persons who can do no work, a Milling, one fhilling and fix-pence, one fhilling and eight-pence is allowed weekly. Sixpence, eight pence, ten-pence to thole who are infirm and receive small wages. Eight, teir, twelve, and sometimes twenty shillings per quarter been allowed for


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