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spread to the countries farther to the west,—to Media, Persia, and western Asia. It is probable that from this part of Asia, the sons of Noah,—Shem, Ham and Japheth,—branched off in various directions so as to constitute the three distinct stocks, which are found to have divided the old world from time immemorial. These three are 1, the White, Caucasian, Arabico-European, or European; 2, the Olive, Mongolian, Chinese, Kalmuck, or Asiatic; and 3, the Negro, Ethiopian, African, Hottentot, &c. each of which has its own principal habitat;the white being found chiefly in Europe and Asia Minor, Arabia, Persia, and India, as far as the Ganges, and in North Africa; the Mongol occupying the rest of Asia, and having its focus on the plateaux of Great Tartary and Tibet; and the negro race covering almost the whole of Africa, and some of the isles of New Guinea, the country of the Papous, &c. The white or Caucasian variety are supposed to be the descendants of Japheth, ("audax Japeti genus," Horace;) the Asiatic of Shem; whilst Ham is regarded as the parent of the unhappy African

These three races,-the Caucasian, Negro, and Mongolian,—are alone admitted by Cuvier, whose classification will serve our purpose as well as any of the others to which reference will be made presently.

1. The Caucasian race is chiefly distinguished by the elegant form of the head, which approximates to a perfect oval. It is also remarkable for variations in the shade of the complexion and colour of the hair. From this variety the most civilized nations have sprung. The name Caucasian was given to it from the groupe

Fig. 169. of mountains, between the Caspian and the Black Sea,—tradition seeming to refer the origin of this race to that part of Asia. Even at the present day the peculiar characteristics of the race are found in the highest perfection amongst the people, who dwell in the vicinity of Mount Caucasus,—the Georgians and Circassians,—who are considered the handsomest natives of the earth.

The marginal figure is given by Blumenbach as a specimen of the Caucasian race, near the original residence whence the epithet is derived. It represents Jusuf Aguiah Efendi, formerly ambassador from the Porte to London.

Caucasian variety The Caucasian race has been subdivided into several great naVOL. II.

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tions or families:—1. The Arabs, comprising the Arabs of the desert or the Bedouins, the Hebrews, the Druses and other inhabitants of Libanus, the Syrians, Chaldæans, Egyptians, Phœnicians, Abyssinians, Moors, &c. 2. The Hindoos on the European side of the Ganges;--as the inhabitants of Bengal, of the coasts of Coromandel and Malabar, the ancient Persians, &c. 3. The Scythians and European Tartars, comprising also the Circassians, Georgians, &c. 4. The Kelts, a dark-haired race, the precise origin of which is unknown, but presumed to be Indian. The descendants of this race are the Gauls, Welsh, Rhætians, &c. &c.; and, lastly, the Goths, a fairhaired race, the ancestors of the Germans, Dutch, Swedes, Danes, &c.

That the time of the first peopling of the European countries must have been very remote is exhibited by the fact, that at the dawn of history, the whole of Europe, from the Don to the mouth of the Tagus, was filled with nations of various physical characters and languages, and bearing striking marks of intermixture and modification. At this period there were, in Europe, at least six great nations. 1st. The Iberians with the Cantabri, in Spain, in a part of Gaul, and on the coasts of the Mediterranean as far as Italy. 2dly. The Kelts in Gaul, in the British Isles, between the Danube and the Alps, and in a part of Italy. 3dly. The Germani or Goths, between the Rhine, the Danube and the Vistula. 4thly. The Thracians with the Illyrians, in the south-east of Europe, and in western Asia. 5thly. The Sclavi, in the north: and 6thly. The Fins in the north-east. It is not improbable but that these different races migrated from Asia in the order we have mentioned :such is the theory of certain historians and philologers, and there is some reason for adopting it. They, who migrated first, would probably extend their wanderings until they were arrested by some invincible obstacle, or until the arrival of fresh tribes would drive them onwards farther and farther towards the west. In this way they would ultimately reach the ocean, which would effectually arrest their farther progress, unless towards the south and the north. The descendants of the ancient Iberians do now actually occupy the west of Spain,—the residence probably of their forefathers.

Nearly about the same time, perhaps, as the Iberians undertook their migration, the Kelts, a populous tribe, migrated from some part of Asia, and occupied a considerable portion of middle Europe. To these succeeded the Goths, to the north, and the Thracians to the south; whilst the Sclavi, the last of the Asiatic emigrants, wandered still farther north. It is not easy to determine the precise link occupied by the Fins in this vast chain of nations. They were first known to history as a peculiar people in the north of Europe, but whence they proceeded, or whether they occupied their position to the north of the Germani from choice, or were urged onwards by their more powerful neighbours, we know not.

So long as there was sufficient space for the nations to occupy, without disturbing the possessions of their neighbours, they proba

bly kept themselves distinct; but as soon as the land was filled, a contest arose for the possession of more extensive or more eligible regions; wars were, consequently, undertaken, and the weaker gradually yielded their possessions, or their sovereignty, to the stronger. Hence, at the very dawn of history, numerous nations were met with, amalgamated both in blood and language;—for example, the Kelto-Iberians of Spain; the Belgæ or Kymbri of Gaul and Britain; the Latins, and other nations of Italy, and probably many, whose manners, characters, and language had become so melted into each other as to leave little or no trace of the original constituents. The Letti, Wallachians, Hungarians, and Albanians of eastern Europe, are supposed to afford examples of such amalgamation, whilst the mighty Sclavonic nation has swallowed up numbers of less powerful tribes, and annihilated even their names for ever. This it is, which frequently embarrasses the philological historian; and prevents him, without other evidence, from deducing with accuracy the parent stocks or the most important components in ethnical admixtures.

2. The Negro, African, Ethiopian or Black man of Gmelin, occupies a less extensive surface of the globe, embracing the country of Africa, which extends from the southern side of Mount Atlas to the Cape of Good Hope. This race is evidently of a less perfect organization than the last, and has some characteristics which approximate it more to the monkey kind. The forehead is flattened and retiring; the skull is smaller, and holds from four to nine ounces of water less than that of the European. On the other hand, the face, which contains the organs of sense, is more developed, and projects more like a snout. The lips are large; the cheek bones prominent; the temporal fossæ hollower; the muscles of mastication stronger; and the facial angle is smaller;—the head of the negro, in this respect, holding a middle place between the Caucasian and the ourang-outang. The nose is expanded; the hair short and woolly, very black and frizzled. Skin black. This colour is not, however, characteristic of the race, as the Hottentots and Caffres are yellow.

The marginal figure is the head of J.J. E. CAPITEIN, se

Fig. 170. lected by Blumenbach as the representative of his race. He was an intelligent negro, and published several sermons and other works in Latin and Dutch. His portrait was taken by Van Dyk. This case of great intelligence in the negro is not unique; and it exhibits what may be expected from him under favourable circumstances. In almost all situations in which he is found, it

Negro variety

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is in the state of slavery, and degradation, and no inference can be deduced regarding his original grundkraft—as the Germans call it—or intellectual capability under such circumstances. Haiti has afforded numerous examples of the sound judgment, and even distinguished ability, with which her sable inhabitants are capable of conducting, not only the municipal, but the foreign concerns of a considerable community. It must be admitted, however, that from organization, this race would seem to be, cæteris paribus, less fitted for intellectual distinction than the Caucasian.

3. The Mongolian or Asiatic, Kalmuck or Chinese race, the brown man of Gmelin, is recognised by prominent and wide cheek bones; flat, square visage; small and oblique eyes; straight and black hair; scanty beard, and olive complexion. The marginal head is from Blumenbach. It is that of Feodor

Ivanowitsch, a Kalmuck, given by Fig. 171.

the empress of Russia to the hereditary princess of Baden. He was educated at Carlsruhe, and was a most distinguished painter at Rome. The portrait was sketched by Feodor himself.

The Mongols are spread over the central and eastern parts of Asia, with the exception of the peninsula of Malacca. They likewise stretch along the whole of the Arctic regions, from Russia and Lapland to Greenland, and the northern parts of the American continent, as far as Behring's Straits,—the Laplanders and Esquimaux being evidently of the same race as the Koriaks, Kamtschadales, Japanese, &c. of the Asiatic continent.

Such are the three varieties whence, Mongolian variety.

in the opinion of Cuvier, all the rest may be deduced. Rudolphi and others have added to these the race, which is peculiar to our own country, and has by some been esteemed indigenous.

The American race or red man of Gmelin differs greatly in stature, colour, and physiognomy in various parts of the continent, but his medium height corresponds with that of the European. His colour is from a cinnamon-brown to a deep copper. The hair is almost always black, straight and stiff. The features are large and strongly marked, except the eyes, which are commonly deep-seated, or sunk in large sockets. The forehead is generally low, somewhat compressed at the sides, and slightly retreating. Facial angle about 80°. Nose generally considerably raised from the face, sometimes arched; cheek bones high, and widely separated; angle

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of the jaw broad, and chin square. The accompanying head is that of Ongpatonga, (Big Elk,) chief of the Omawhaw Indians, and is taken from the American Natural History of the lamented GODMAN.

Fig. 172.

American variety. Other naturalists, as BLUMENBACH, DUMERIL, LÅWRENCE, &c. add to these four varieties a fifth,—the Malay or Australian;the Tawny man of Gmelin, owing to the difficulty of referring it either to the Caucasian Indian, or to the Chinese Mongolian, situated in its vicinity. This Malay variety extends from Malacca to the most remote islands of the great Indian and Pacific ocean, from Madagascar to the Maldives, inclusive; inhabits Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and the adjacent islands; the Molucca, Ladrones, Philippine, Marian, and Caroline groupes; New Holland, Van Dieman's Land, New Guinea, New Zealand, and the various islands scattered through the South Sea. It is termed Malay because supposed to have proceeded originally from the Peninsula of Malacca, and to have spread thence over the adjacent islands, a supposition which is not confirmed by history: on the contrary, according to Mr. Marsden, it is clearly demonstrated, that the Malays went from Sumatra to Malacca in the twelfth century. No well-marked, common characters can be assigned to this variety; for, under the term Malay, races are included which seem to differ materially from each other; so much so, indeed, as to induce many naturalists to refuse the admission of the Malay as a distinct

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