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BURG, Mr Keith had his firft audience of the Emprefs of Ruffia on the 10th of March in quality of envoy-extraordinary from the King of G. Britain. He is faid to have been received with great politenefs. Letters from Germany thus account for Beftucheff's difgrace. When the house of Auftria was intimately connected with G. Britain, the Count was a zealous friend of that houfe, and did it fignal fervices, which he continued on all occafions after the peace of Aixla-Chapelle. Vienna and London being no longer in the fame fyftem, Beftuchef, adhering to his old principles, which comprehended the true interefts of his country, remained a Briton. We are informed, that above forty perfons, of different ranks, have been arrested on that nobleman's account; that all who had been put into office by him are turned out; and that a ftrict inquiry is making into the conduct of thofe who were of his party during his miniftry, particularly fince the commencement of the prefent war. In the mean time, a letter from Petersburg, dated March 22. fays, that the Count being very much indifpofed, the Emprefs had ordered her firft phyfician to attend him. There is alfo advice, that fome favour has been fhewed to M. Apraxin, in allowing him to receive vifits and keep a table. They now tell us, that the army which he formerly commanded, had been fo weakened by defertion and fick nefs, that orders had been given for raifing 35,000 recruits to render it complete. Thefe recruits have fhewn fuch an averfion to march to the army, that they have been obliged to chain them, and tie them together, to prevent their deferting.

dependent on Poland, for liberty to put a Ruffian garrison into that city. The

The Ruffian troops in BRANDENBURG PRUSSIA and its neighbourhood have for fome time advanced very flowly, which they afcribe to the difficulty of procuring fubfilence. They have taken poffeffion not only of Elbing, but allo of Thorn and Graudentz, all towns belonging to Poland. A demand was made upon Dantzick, which is likewife

ftrate against this, as contrary to their inclinations, and the promises that had been made them. A body of Ruffians, however, advanced towards the fuburbs, which threw the inhabitants into great confternation. A new deputation was fent to Gen. Fermer, who is ftill reprefented as having the chief command; but not knowing what effect it would produce, the inhabitants took measures for putting the city in a proper posture of defence, being firmly refolved to repel force with force, if driven to that neceflity. According to late advices from Dantzick, the defign of the Ruffians to put a garrifon into it had been laid afide. Advices from thence, of A. pril 12. bear, that the Ruffians were getting ready a great number of boats, in order to carry over the troops they ftill had on the right of the Viftula; that the new corp s expected from Samogitia to join them confifts of 30,000 men; that the Pruffians had affembled 15,000 troops on the frontiers of Pomerania ; and that fome fkirmishes had happened between their huffars and the Calmucks. Befides this body of Pruffians on that fide, we are told, that about a third part of the 110,000 troops which his Pruffian Majefty was reckoned to have in and near Silefia before the end of March, had been deftined to watch the motions of the Ruffians.

They write from Warfaw, capital of POLAND, that Prince Xavier fet out thence the 15th of March, in order to make the campaign in Count Clermont's army; and that next day Prince Charles took the route of Petersburg, accompanied by feveral noblemen, among whom was Prince Lubomirski, (who has raifed a regiment for his Pruffian Majesty's fervice). There are great ferments and commotions in Poland, that nation being divided into two parties, one for the Ruffians, and the other for Prufiia. The Pruffian party is the more powerful, his Polith Majetty having but few friends there, and the Poles in general hating the Ruffians. At a meeting of the fena


tors and other grandees it was refolved, not only to make an extract from two manifeftos which the republic publithed against the court of Petersburg fince the death of Auguftus. II. but also to draw up a new piece much in the fame ftyle, in which they intended to charge the Ruffians with breach of treaties, in cauingtheir troops feize on Elbing, Thorn, and other places belonging to his Polish Majefty. According to letters from Dantzick, dated April 8. as many of the grandees as were at Warsaw had waited on the King in a body, and declared to him, that if the Empress of Ruffia did not withdraw her forces and magazines from thofe towns, they would find themselves obliged to open their minds freely, in order to exculpate them. felves, towards the nation and pofterity, of the confequences that muft refult, in cafe the King of Pruffia should also fend an army into their country.

By late accounts from Stockholm it appears, that the fenate of SWEDEN are not a little perplexed about their affairs in Pomerania, being loath to fit down with their loffes, and yet irrefolute in regard to the means to be employed for retrieving matters. They fee their old friends the French driven almoft out of Germany, and know not when they will be able to make a figure there again; and their ancient enemies, but now new friends, the Ruffians, proceed fo flowly and cautiously in their operations, that they know not what to think about fending reinforcements to Stralfund and the ifle of Rugen. Letters of a late date advise, that the ferment at the Swedifh court has increased every day fince they heard of the precipitate retreat of the French. Some of thofe letters add, that the Pruffian party had fo far gained the afcendant, that an accommodation with the King of Pruffia was talked of. Mean while a letter from Stockholm, dated April 4. is as follows. "The merchants of this country are very much diffatisfied with the news which they have heard, that a fhip, freighted on their account, and which failed from one of the ports of France, in order to go to St Domingo, had been taken by VOL. XX.

the English, and condemned as a good prize, notwithstanding the documents evidently fhewed who the fhip belonged to. In confequence of this tranfaction, it has been refolved immediately to arm and man all the men of war which are in the ports of Sweden; and to that end an amnesty has just been granted to the Swedish failors who are in other fervice." Some affert, that the courts of Fetersburg and Stockholm have figned a new convention, in virtue of which they are to join their fleets if the British appear in the Baltic.

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The military operations in GERMANY have proceeded more flowly fince our laft than they had for fome time before. M. Lehwald, who commanded the Pruffians in Pomerania, has obtained leave to retire, on account of his great age; and we are told that he is to be governor of Berlin. It is faid, that Gen. Count Dohna commands the troops who act there against the Swedes; and that M. Keith is to be at the head of those who are deftined to oppofe the progrefs of the Ruffians on that fide. In the night between the 4th and 5th of April the Swedes attempted to retake the fort of Pennamunde; but the Pruffian garrison, which was compofed of only 150 men, gave them fo warm a reception that they were obliged to retire with lofs. Very late advices from that country fay, that hitherto about 16,0co Pruffians had only blockaded Stralfund; but that as foon as a train of artillery arrived, they propofed to befiege that fortrefs in form. Thefe letters add, that the Pruffians had, within a few months, raised out of the deferters from the Swedish army, and from the youth in the duchy of Mecklenburg, and in Swedish Pomerania, at leaft 35,000 men, who had been fent to join their armies in Silefia and elsewhere. The Pruffians fome time ago demanded of the duchy of Mecklenburg 1600 horfes for the fervice of their cavalry, 1500 more for tranfporting provifions, 400 men for conducting the carriages and horfes, 3000 recruits and a quantity of corn proportionable to each one's share of land, which it is faid will greatly exceed 100,coo facks. Notwith

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Notwithstanding the advices which fecond one year, and the third fix had been received before the publica- months. Advices from Breflau affure tion of our laft, the Pruffians did not us, that the Prince of Bevern has at open the trenches before Schweidnitz length been actually exchanged against till the night between theft and 2d of the Baron de Haller, an officer of the April. By the 5th they had two ftrong fame rank in the Emprefs-Queen's ferbatteries erected, from which they play vice; that he had an interview with the ed furiously on the town. The whole King of Pruffia, and was faid to have artillery employed by them was faid to met with a very favourable reception. confift of 300 pieces of cannon and 80 They write from Dresden, that after mortars. The governor foon offered to finishing the general exchange of pricapitulate, on condition that his garri- foners, there would remain only 15,000 fon might march out, and be at their Auftrian foldiers and 700 officers in the liberty; but this was refufed. Not hands of the Pruffians. withstanding all the flourishes which the court of Vienna had made, M. Daun did not attempt to relieve this important place; owing, as the Auftrians gave out, to the mountains between Bohemia and Silefia being covered with fnow. One of the outworks of Schweidnitz having been taken by ftorm, on the 15th at night, the garrifon, confifting of 250 officers, and 3200 private men, furrendered themfelves next day prifoners of war. The blockade is faid to have coft the Austrians 3500 men befides, who perished by difeafes. This fiege, according to accounts published in the London gazette, coft the Pruffians only about 200 men, killed and wounded. They found in the place 80 pieces of Auftrian cannon, exclufive of all the Pruffian artillery which was taken there laft year. While this affair was carrying on, the King of Pruffia had his troops conftantly marching, fometimes one way, fometimes another, probably to conceal his defigns; and fkirmishes, with various fuccefs, frequently happen ed between parties of them and the outpofts of the Auftrians, whofe head quar. ters ftill remained at Konig gratz. His Pruffian Majefty having left a fufficient garrifon in Schweidnitz, put his army in motion on the 18th, in order to find out M Daun, and endeavour to bring him to a battle.

Three Pruffian generals, Leftewitz, Katt, and Kiauw, have been tried at Breflau by a court-martial, not for any thing treasonable, but for misconduct in not punctually executing orders. The first is to be imprifoned two years, the

Pr. Henry of Pruffia's prefence not being judged to be any longer neceffary on the fide of Hanover, the King his brother called him away to Saxony, in order to command the troops affembling in that quarter. On the 12th of April Maj.-Gen. Meyer, with a body of Pruffian light troops, furprised a detachment of the army of the empire at Hoff in Voigtland, confifting of 104 men, headed by a captain, a lieutenant, and an enfign, all whom he made prisoners; befides carrying off Gen. Count Wittgenftein, who had been obliged to tarry in that town on account of an indifpofi tion. According to late accounts, Pr. Henry's army confifted of between 25 and 30,000 men; and a large body of Auftrians was affembling near Comothau, which, when joined by the troops of the empire, would amount to about 30,000; but that Pr. Henry had entered Bohemia, and obliged the army of the empire to retire towards Franconia.

According to accounts from Drefden, dated April 12. the members of the chamber of the finances of Saxony had juft concluded a convention with Baron Borck, chief of the Pruffian military directory, by which it was agreed, that they fhall have the adminiftration of the demefnes of his Polish Majesty in that electorate, upon condition that they an nually pay a million of crowns to the King of Pruffia. It is added, that as the Pruffian directory has propofed to the Saxon miniftry, to leave at their difpofal all the other revenues of the electorate, provided they engage to pay every year three millions of crowns to

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his Pruffian Majefty, it is probable that this offer will also be accepted.

Sunday the 16th of April was obfer. ved throughout the electorate of Hanover as a day of thanksgiving for its deliverance from its enemies. The minifters had been previously exhorted in general, to forbear all infulting expreffions against a nation employed by Providence as an inftrument of correction for the fins of the people; but which has in its turn experienced, by a ruinous and precipitate retreat, that itself alfo is the object of divine displeasure.

According to our laft, the French, in their retreat from Hanover, had gone as far as Wefel on the right of the Lower Rhine, where Count Clermont had his head quarters; and Pr. Ferdinand of Brunswick, at the head of the Hanoverians and their allies, had followed them as far as Saffenberg. Different parties of the French, befides the numbers mentioned in our last, were afterwards picked up, particularly by the Pruffian black huffars. Early in April all C. Clermont's troops, except a garrifon left in Wefel, paffed to the right of the Rhine, where they were distributed into quarters of refreshment, of which they flood much in need. The Count caused Wefel, Keyferwerth, and Duffeldorp, be put in a posture of defence, in order to dispute the paffage of the Rhine with the allies. In the mean time Pr. Ferdinand advanced to Munter, where he established his head quarters, and allowed his fatigued troops fome time to rett, till he could procure provifions to be carried along with them, which was no easy matter in a country fo exhausted

About the 5th of April the caftle of Vechte furrendered by capitulation. It was befieged by a captain, with a detachment of 150 men from Bremen, The garrifon confifted of feven companies. But the moft furprising thing was, that upwards of 100 pieces of cannon and mortars were found in the place. A detachment of 200 Hanoverians went to Bentheim on the 9th, and marched fraight up to the caftle, where they furprifed the garrifon, confifting of 60

men, a captain, and two fubalterns; and took poffeffion of that place. On the 19th arrived at Emmerick, in the duchy of Cleves, 20 black, blue, and green huffars, who immediately took down the Imperial arms from the posthouse, and restored those of his Pruffian Majefty. In the mean time a detachment of Pruffians had marched, and taken poffeffion of Eaft Friefland. About the 20th the British troops fent over to garrifon Embden, were landed at that place. They write from Embden, that of the garrison of French and Auftrians, who quitted that town on the approach of the British men of war, as in our laft, not above 500 joined C. Clermont's army, the reft being either killed, taken prifoners, or dispersed.

About the 14th of April all the Auftrian regiments which made a part of C. Clermont's army, received orders to march directly for Bohemia. It was fuppofed they would be joined by 14 battalions and 26 fquadrons of French, who ftill remained on the Upper Rhine and on the Mayne. Moft of the troops which his Moft Chriftian Majesty, had deftined for forming an army in Flanders, have received orders to march for the Lower Rhine. C. Clermont ordered his infantry to be recruited, by diftributing among them 18 battalions of militia which had actually arrived from France. He also charged the general officers to revive good difcipline in their respective divisions, and apply themfelves to the putting of the troops in good order again. The following, given us as a fpeech delivered by M. Belleifle in the council at Versailles, relative to this fubject, deferves to be inferted for the fentiments it contains.

"I know," faid he, "the ftate of our armies. It gives me great grief, and no lefs indignation: for, befides the real evil of the diforder in itself, the difgrace and infamy which it reflects on our government, and on the whole nation, is ftill more to be apprehended. The choice of officers ought to be made with mature deliberation. I know but too well to what length the want of difcipline, pillaging and robbing, have Gg 2


been carried on by the officers and common men, after the example fet them by their generals. It mortifies me to think I am a Frenchman; my principles are known to be very different from thofe which are now followed. I had the fatisfaction to retain the efteem, the friendship, and the confideration of all the princes, noblemen, and even of all the common people in all parts of Germany where I commanded the King's forces. They lived there in the midft of abundance; every one was pleased. It fills my foul with anguifh to find, that at present the French are held in execration; that every body is difpirited, and that many officers publicly fay things that are criminal, and highly punifh able. The evil is fo great that it demands immediate redrefs. I can eafily judge, by what paffes in my own breast, of what our generals feel from the fpeeches they must daily hear in Germany concerning our conduct; which indeed would lofe much to be compared with that of our allies. I muft particularly complain of the delays and irregularity of the pofts; a fervice which is very ill provided for. I am likewife difpleafed with the negligence of our generals in returning anfwers; which is a manifeft breach of their duty. Had I commanded the army, a thousand things which are done, would not have been done; and others which are neglected, would have been executed. I would have multiplied my communications, I would have had ftrong pofts on the right, on the left, in the centre, li. ned with troops. I would have had magazines in every place. The quiet and fatisfaction of the country fhould have been equal to their prefent difaffection at being haraffed and plundered; and we should have been as much beloved as we are at prefent abhorred. The confequences are too apparent to need being mentioned. I must infift on thefe things, because late redress is bet'ter than a continuation of the evil."

field in a flourishing condition; and that, independent of the Saxon, Palatine, and Wurtemburg troops in his pay, and a body of 24,000 men which will certainly march into Bohemia, he intends to keep up an army of 70,000 of his own forces, and feriously set about repairing paft mifcarriages. A letter from Cologne, dated April 23. fays, that the French then in the neighbourhood of the Rhine were reckoned to amount to 117 battalions and 71 fquadrons.

According to advices from Paris, of April 20. his Moft Chriftian Majefty had affured the Imperial minifter at his court, that his army will foon take the

Pr. Ferdinand's army has been confiderably augmented of late. It is faid, that it confifts of above 55,000 men, and will be augmented to 70,000. Be. fides the Heffians, 38,000 men of the troops of Hanover, Wolfenbuttle, SaxeGotha, and the Count of Buckeburg, are to be in British pay, on the German establishment, the ruined ftate of the electorate of Hanover rendering it im poffible for its revenues to keep up an army. A new convention [206.] has lately been concluded between their Britannic and Pruffian Majefties, which will ftrengthen the finews of war to the latter. On the 20th of April Pr. Ferdinand had his head quarters ftill at Munfter, and it appeared that they would remain there for fome time longer. Military execution had been employed for compelling the magiftrates of that city to comply with the demands made on them. Pr. George of Holftein has demanded a contribution of 100,000 crowns from the duchy of Bergues.

The following letter from GIBRALTAR, dated March 30. relates an affair which gives confiderable uneasiness in that place. "Our communication with Barbary, from whence we were fupplied, is fhut up. The cause of it was, a fri gate they had been five years building at Sallee, and juft fitted out, fell in in the night with the Syren of 20 guns whom the ran clofe up to, and faluted with a general difcharge of great and fmall arms. The compliment was returned, and this fort of civility paffed between them for an hour and an half The Syren difmafted her; and it blow ing pretty frefh, wefterly wind, and be

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