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April 7, 1900
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES :
By James Barnes
Congress of the Disciples.
William Shakespeare: Poet, Dramatist, and
Letters should be addressed:
THE OUTLOOK COMPANY
287 Fourth Avenue, New York
Copyright, 1900, by The Outlook Company. Entered as second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.
No. 14 Near the beginning of products to a short period, which could The Puerto Rican last week Senator Foraker be further shortened by the action of the Compromise
introduced an amend- Puerto Ricans, conceded a good deal to ment to the Puerto Rican Bill, limiting the those who demanded free trade with tariff on Puerto Rican products to two Puerto Rico, but it left to the protected years, and providing for free trade at an interests the opportunity to learn from the earlier date if the local government in Supreme Court whether or not the retention Puerto Rico could raise the needed reve- of the Philippines would extend to their nues by internal taxation. This amend- inhabitants the right of free trade with ment conciliated enough of the insurgent” ourselves and consequent free access into Republican Senators to secure the passage our labor market. From both Republican of the Puerto Rican Bill, and a vote would and Democratic sources we learn that the have been reached last week had it not fear of labor agitation against the inclubeen for the desire of the opposition for a sion of the Malays, corresponding to that fuller discussion. Since the passage of the of a few years ago for the exclusion of the law returning to Puerto Rico the two Chinese, was the supreme motive for the million dollars of revenue collected from proposed tariff. her products subsequent to annexation, it has been generally admitted by Republican Congressmen that Puerto Rico's need of
The Republican Protests
The compromise revenue furnished only one of the reasons
satisfied nearly all why the party decided to establish a tariff the Republican Senators except those between the United States and Puerto who maintain that the new possessions Rico, instead of carrying out the Presi- are in such a sense part of the United dent's original policy of reciprocal free States that the people of those territories trade. The change is, as we have here- possess all the rights guaranteed to the tofore said, due to several causes: (1) to people of the States and Territories of the representations of various interests— the United States, and that consequently the cane-sugar growers in Louisiana, the the retention of the Philippines will give beet-sugar growers in Nebraska, the to the Filipinos all the Constitutional tobacco companies in Connecticut, and rights possessed by the people of Oklathe fruit producers in California; (2) to homa. There remained, however, several the protests of labor organizations fearing “insurgents " who were unwilling to coman influx of low-priced and contract labor; promise the moral principle that we are (3) to the protests of ultra-protectionists, bound to treat the Puerto Ricans as our alarmed lest a supposed basic principle of own people, who refuse to tax them even the Republican party, namely, protection, temporarily for the benefit of protected should be threatened with ultimate extinc- interests here. Senator Cushman K. tion by reason of free trade with Puerto Davis, of Minnesota, took the lead among Rico; (4) to the supposed desirability of these remonstrants, and on Wednesday establishing a test case for a Supreme delivered a telling speech against any Court decision to establish the right of tariff whatever. He reported that Puerto Congress to legislate for a dependency Rico produces yearly 120,000,000 cigars, without being hampered by the restraints 250,000,000 cigarettes, and 1,300,000 galof the Constitution. The Foraker com- lons of rum. If these articles were subpromise limiting the tariff on Puerto Rican jected to our internal revenue duties
$1.10 a gallon on rum, $1.50 a thousand on licans. Not in recent years has there cigarettes, and $3.60 a thousand on cigars— been against any measure in Congress a revenue of more than $2,000,000 a year a popular feeling more deep, more intellicould be secured. Yet all these articles ge.:t, and more creditable to the counwere left untaxed, and a tariff bill pressed try. So far as can be judged from the against which the great body of the people statements of leading Republicans and an were protesting. “What,” he asked, “ are examination of official Republican jour. the people going to say if this bill passes ? nals, the Far West, the Northwest, and the They will say: Free rum, and a tax on the Middle West are almost a unit against the flour the people eat." Senator Beveridge, proposed tariff ; and, with few exceptions, of Indiana, also remonstrated against the the leading Republican journals in the proposed tariff on Puerto Rican industry, Middle States and in New England are also but his protest was less aggressive. His opposed to it. One of the foremost Re speech, delivered on Thursday, was largely publicans of the Northwest put the matan argument that the territories which ter tersely last week when he declared "belong to" the United States cannot that the instincts of the people are be "a part of” the United States, and against the tariff, and when the instincts that Congress was given by the Constitu- of the people are against a measure it is tion a "free hand” in dealing with all to be presumed that the measure is the Territories. The fact, however, that wrong. The President, in the judgPuerto Rico did not possess the Constitu- ment of many of the most open-minded tional right to “reciprocity" did not in his own party, has made the absolve us from the duty to grant her greatest mistake of his life in consentthis privilege, and he would vote for an ing to abdicate
to abdicate his leadership and amendment granting the island immediate modify his free-trade message at the access to our markets. Nevertheless, if demand of men possessing, as the result this amendment failed, he would support has proved, less popular and political the compromise bill asserting the right sagacity than himself. The bill may pass of this country to tax the territories as we the Senate in some form ; it is doubtful see best, unrestrained by any provision whether, if it goes back to the House, it of the Constitution. The day following can pass the House again; and, in our Senator Proctor, of Vermont, made a judgment, if, under party pressure, it is forcible speech against the proposed pushed through Congress, it will cost the tariff, in which he indicated that he Republican party heavily at the polls in would not accept it under any circum- the next Presidential election. stances. With him, of course, are Senators Hoar, Mason, Wellington, and possibly one or two other Republicans, who maintain
In the Presidential cam
The United Socialists that “the Constitution follows the flag."
paign of 1888 there Over against these, however, may be set were two feeble but hostile labor parties Senator McEnery, of Louisiana, and per- in the field, bearing the incongruous haps one or two other Democrats, who will names of the United Labor party and the support the compromise bill, making its Union Labor party. This year it seemed adoption almost certain.
for a time as if there would be two feeble but hostile Socialist parties in the field
the Socialis: Labor party, which for several The New York“Trib- years has polled a considerable vote among The Future of the Bil
une ” and some other the German immigrants in New York, of the few journals of standing which are Chicago, and Milwaukee, and the Social supporting the Puerto Rico tariff assume · Democratic Party, which has recently that the opposition comes from the Demo- shown such unexpected strength among crats. Of course the Democrats are in American voters in Massachusetts. Apopposition, but not more so than an in- parently, however, the anomaly of two uncreasing number of Republicans, and the social Socialist parties may be avoided, for political significance of the great and a convention held last week in New York growing protest from the country at large City seems to have secured some measure lies in the fact that it comes from Repub- of union for the approaching campaign. If the fusion is completed, the United Social- given testimony incriminating the Repubists will support the ticket recently nomi- lican Secretary of State and other party nated at Indianapolis, on which Eugene V. leaders. The latter have been held for Debs was named for President, and Job trial, but the character of the witnesses Harriman, of California, for Vice-Presi- against them is too doubtful, and the redent. Mr. Debs was the organizer of wards for testimony of this kind are too the American branch of the Socialist great, for any judgment to be passed until party, and to his remarkable work as an the court has tried the case. Unfortunate agitator must be attributed in large meas- ly, this trial may be postponed for several ure the attention which his programme is months. The defense, it is reported, will arousing, not only in Massachusetts, but demand that the case be transferred from also in the extreme West, and even in the Frankfort courts to some part of the some of the cities in the South. This State where public sentiment is less hosprogramme, as stated in the platform tile to the accused. As regards the case adopted at Indianapolis, aims at the ulti- involving the legal rights of the Repubmate public ownership of all the means for lican and Democratic claimants to the the production and distribution of wealth. Governorship, one of the State courts has Its immediate demands are: the public decided that the decision of the Legislaownership of all natural monopolies and ture is final, and the Court of Appeals is of all industries controlled by trusts; the expected to reaffirm this view. In that reduction of the hours of labor in propor. - event the Republican Governor will try to tion to the increasing facilities for pro appeal to the Federal Supreme Court, but duction; the inauguration of public works Judge Taft's recent decision indicates that for the employment of a large number of the Federal Courts will not interfere. At the unemployed; equal rights for men and present both claimants are exercising the women; public insurance against accidents, functions of Governor, and different State lack of employment, and want in old age; and Federal officials are recognizing whichthe adoption of direct legislation, and the ever their party preference dictates. Govabolition of war. In the campaign of ernor Nash, of Ohio, has refused to honor 1896 Mr. Debs and many of his lieuten- requisitions from Kentucky unless they ants supported Mr. Bryan, but this year are signed by both “Governors." they are hostile to him-partly because his programme is not sufficiently radical, but chiefly because his antagonism to trusts
The presentment handshows him to be “at heart an individual
The Grand Jury and
ed in by the New York ist." The Socialists welcome the trusts
March Grand Jury, of almost as much as the monopolists, for which Mr. George Haven Putnam was the they believe that domination by private energetic foreman, cannot be disregarded monopoly will necessarily introduce dom- by the Tammany officials in this city. ination by public monopoly; in Uther It has too much weight behind it, it is too words, that the success of trusts will definite, and it is too confirmatory to prepare the way for State Socialism. prevalent impressions of the revival of The Outlook is so far of the same opinion the old-time connivance between city offias to believe that the remedy for trusts is cials and crime, and of the revival of the not a return to individualism, but a for- system of revenue which flows from the ward movement toward a government at unnatural combination of the keepers of once more highly organized and more the law with its violators. T extraordemocratic
dinary spectacle has been presented in this county of the failure of the District
Attorney to give any aid or help to the The reports from Kentucky Grand Jury in its work; indeed, so clear The Kentucky during the past fortnight have
was their conviction that he was a hinSituation
been highly sensational, but drance rather than a help, that the Grand leave the reader certain of very few facts. Jury felt compelled in certain cases to Two Republicans implicated in the alleged exclude the District Attorney from its conspiracy to kill Mr. Goebel have turned sessions. In their attempt to arrive at State's evidence, and are reported to have the facts respecting the charges that