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she encouraged the demands of some for either, or the refusal by which she discountenanced those of others. On these topics she loves to expatiate with peculiar interest and delight. While she is occupied, as she generally is, with her household duties, she now and then calls out her daughters, who may be otherwise engaged, bids them lend her their assistance in looking over and superintending the different concerns of her family, taking every opportunity to instruct them in all household duties, and to acquaint them with their right nature and character; advising them to imitate her own skill and zeal in managing the affairs of the kitchen ; and thus endeavouring to qualify them for all the ne. cessary duties of a woman, so as to make of them good wives when they shall have been married, or, if already married, when their marriages shall have been consummated. She directs her daughter-in-law, who is always in dread of her, to arrange neatly the several articles of the domestic economy; to observe, strictly, the several ceremonies which she may be called upon to perform ; and to attend, seriously, to the numerous affairs of the kitchen. She is engaged in actually discovering in her the slightest degree of inattention to the general business of the house, the smallest symptoms of remissness or neglect to the duties connected with her situation, or the fewest instances of deviation from the rules by which she ought to guide herself; she narrowly watches her conduct, and sometimes her principles ; she scolds her severely if she should ever go amiss in her duties; she abuses or beats her when she happens to do wrong, though her intentions were quite pure and innocent. If she perceives in her any want of docility, or inattention to her own commands, she thunders forth all the fulminations of reproach against the poor simpleton, and even threatens the certainty of her being separated from her own husband. She spends some of her time in making new bargains for the use of herself and of the family in general. She occasionally recounts in her mind the several expenses she went through during the day, and, unable either to write or calculate, she frequently repeats them, so as easily to recollect them, and render a proper account of them to her husband in the evening. She is, also, too much engrossed with the thoughts of some ceremony to be observed in her own house, and the several different circumstances which may be connected with it. Custom dictates a circulation of notice to that effect among her friends and relations. She therefore invites them to attend and witness the performance of the ceremony, and enjoy the opportunity which it might afford them, of gratifying their frivolous tastes, and amusing their wrong fancies. This she does through the hands of her daughters. For this purpose she dresses them in rich clothes, decks their bodies with ornaments, and endeavours to heighten their personal beauty with all the charms of artificial decorations—requisites without which they are apt to be overlooked and despised by all. She then gazes at them for some time with a significant stare, minutely observing every part of their dress and ornaments, and trying to mind every fault she might discover as to neatness or regularity. Thus feeding her own vanity, she calls out a few of her fellow mates in the neighbourhood to see the young girls, and to admire her own skill and judgment which she has displayed in so dressing them up. Equipped in such grandeur, the

young girls prepare to set out in executing the commission of their mother, inviting all her friends and relations whom she may wish to attend on her: Their gilded trappings and glittering ornaments attract every eye as they pass along. At home the blessed mother is busily engaged in making every necessary preparation for the reception of the women, whom she has invited to attend on the ceremony at her house. She receives them with all that gentleness and mildness peculiar to her sex, and seating them on a carpet, or cloth, spread for the purpose, administers to them every kind of ceremonial service which religion or custom has rendered necessary, and dismisses them with presents of plates laden with fruits and flowers, as the reward of their courtesy. Thus is the elder female of the family occupied during the whole course of the day. In the evening again she prepares herself to repeat the same round of experiments at her kitchen which she performed there in the morning, never allowing any important consideration to engross her mind, but the gratification of some present humour or fancy; and scarcely ever thinking of the duties she owes to God and to her fellow creatures, and of the consequences which their performance or neglect would bring about. So much for families of the higher order of natives! With regard, now, to those of the lower orders, there is much, however, calculated to excite pity. The elderly female, there, is subject to all the privations and miseries, as it were, of a life of servitude ; she submits, on all occasions, and under all circumstances, to a routine of severe burdensome toils and laborious duties--fatigue and labour quite exhaust her ; she is denied that ease and comfort which are the portion of the blessed female of the higher families ; she does not possess much money, and therefore she lacks that ambitious spirit which her fellows, moving in higher spheres display, in gilded trappings, or shining orna. ments ; she cheerfully submits herself to every variety of mechanical work, wherever she can find it. Not unlike her own husband, when she has fully accomplished her household duties, in all simplicity,-contrasted with that pomp and dignity which mark the conduct of the haughty female of the other family—she waits on her toils without doors-rarely is she found working within, during the greater part of

he day. She goes to the neighbouring house of some wealthy individual, and there accepts some piece of work or other for some petty means of subsistence. If we enter the house of a wealthy native, we should there see one of these low-bred females at some petty work ; one engaged in grinding the rice at the mill ; another in winnowing corn of different kinds, and reducing it to powder ; one attending on some sick individual of the family, and ministering unto him all the services which it is her duty to render him ; another waiting as a midwife on some childbed woman, helping her weak body to rise out of her bed and lie on it again, leading her from one place to another by holding her hand or supporting her on the back, washing her body, dressing her, cleaning the clothes of her child, and performing a variety of diverse duties in connection with her peculiar employment, with a wellgrounded hope of meriting some good reward. Some of these lower classes of women, again, go to some distant jungle with hatchets and knives in their hands, cut down the wood from some tree, or the grass that grows carelessly under foot, tie them up in bundles and carry them


home, to serve as fuel within their kitchen walls, or as provender to the cattle, which most of them are in the habit of rearing. And it is needless to observe that this truth does every day obtrude itself upon our notice in the circumstance of many of these poor wretches being seen carrying such heavy burdens on their shoulders through our streets. Some, again, are busy on the farm of their husbands, assisting them in all their farming operations, ploughing the ground, breaking the clods, and sowing the seed; some go to the market, and there expose a variety of articles for sale ; many of these wretched females are seen busily engaged, under the bright sun, in working at the foundation of some building to be raised on it, or the erection of some new road at the expense of the state ; some in breaking down stones and reducing them to powder, for giving strength and consistency to the streets, and others in watering them, in common with their husbands; many are seen busy at some of the different manufactures throughout this country ; not a few are seen bearing heavy stones or earth in baskets on their heads, from one corner of the town to the other; groups of these females are beheld, as evening advances, or morning dawns, passing through the streets, each having an earthen pail in her hand, and going to some distant well to draw out water for the use of their family. Their labour, indeed, during the greater part of the day, as we have already remarked, is exceedingly great and tiresome; it may even, sometimes, unnerve the energies of the mightiest arm that ever wielde;' a sword. All of them are, indeed, engaged in employments, which, a: they are diversified, are extremely intricate and burdensome; yet they are satisfied to endure every kind of hardship, provided they find their labour rewarded with a sufficient return. Man must eat by the sweat of his brow; but that gentleness, that flexibility of disposition, and that unsuspiciousness of temper, which are the characteristic virtues of woman, mark her out as a being fit only for those kinds of employment that are suited to the fineness of her nature, and not for those hard and laborious mechanical duties, which the circumstances of her situation in this country seem to enjoin upon her. In the case, however, under consideration, they appear, in fact, to do work in place of men. They carry heavy burdens on their shoulders for a distance of miles together, as well in the burning heat of the summer as in the severe cold of winter ; they are compelled, in short, to submit to every kind of laborious and difficult work. But let me not be understood by these few observations to insinutae that woman should not work at all. She must, and it is her duty; yet not in that degree and manner in which she is here obliged to work. We would shortly notice the effect of this on the children of their family. We have seen that both the parents are employed at their respective toils, out of doors, during the hours of the day—and the circumstances of the case render it necessary : thus, then, the children of the family are often left away without that full measure of superintendence which is needed for their welfare. Whether the parents are fit to give the needed superintendence, or not, is questionable. Even though the mother, instead of her being occupied abroad, were at home, yet we are aware of few instances in which children have received much benefit from her immediate and affectionate watchfulness; still, the look of a mother is some, if not a great, restraint on the wayward

youths, however unable she may be to exercise her due authority over them. But when the circumstances of the family, as in this case, preclude the possibility of her being at home to watch the growth of their tender minds, the depravity of the young children acquire them a full play. Both parents are out of doors ; the hands of both, wheresoever they may be, are full of toils ; they are taking their parts in providing for their daily bread-poor souls! There, at home, a different scene is observed ! Instead of domestic endearment, or instruction, which, but for the immediate watchfulness of the parent, would not be so greviously neglected, there is now nothing but what serves to nurse the youths in almost unceasing animosity and brawl. The children are left to themselves, without that control or superintendence which ought to be exercised over them; they run about in the streets with all the wantonness of freedom; they are there exposed to the hurtful changes of the weather ; their morals are there exposed to contamination; they there listen to the language of profaneness; they are confirmed in all the wildness of insubordination and disobedience; and their whole character is tainted by practices which they ought never to know, and from which they ought ever carefully to be far removed. This is no exaggeration, it is a statement of plain truth.


BY MRS. EDWARD THOMAS. “Why is light given to a man whose way is hid, and whom God hath hedged in? For my sighing cometh before I eat, and my roarings are poured out like water.

" For the thing which I greatly feared is come upon me, and that which I was afraid of is come unto me."-JOB, iii. 23—25.

“ An honest man's the noblest work of God.”—POPE.

Alas! and whither can I go,

By crime from kindred driven ?
Now must I wander “to and fro"*

Like him accurs'd of Heaven.
No pleasant home hath earth for me

The rich abounding earth-
Though teeming with fecundity,

A Karroot is of dearth
To me. For, oh! I may not call

One blade of grass my own;
And if plague-stricken I should fall,

My corse must rot alone. . And the Lord said unto Satan, Whence comest thou ? Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it."-JOB. i. 7.

1 “ The great Karroo is an arid desert, about three hundred miles in length by from seventy to eighty in breadth; bounded by the Sneewenberg and Nienwoeld ridges of mountains on the north, and by'the Zwartberg, or Black Mountain ridge, on the south."-Pringle's South Africa, p. 75.

For who mine eyes would haste to close,

When by death prostrate laid ?
Or soothe my spirit to repose

In Hades' awful shade?
Yet, not long since, affection's stream

Flow'd affluent for me;
The past, how radiant is its dream!

How dark futurity !
Why am I thus outcast, alone,

Despis'd and desolate ?
Oh! need I ask? the fault's mine own,

I feel it now too late.
I wearied friends, until their hearts

Grew colder than my foes !
Ah! how the tear of mem’ry starts

In pond'ring o'er their woes.
Their patience oft so sorely tried-

Their ever-pard’ning love-
As if Eternal Mercy's tide

From fountains flow'd above.
Oh! I behold them now a prey

To anguish, at my shame;
From old familiars turn away

For fear they me should name.
Still, still my mother's evening prayer

Pursues me through the land ;
And there's my father's brow of care,

Engraven by my hand.
I see my sinless sister weep

(She of the Houri face)
That one will not love's promise keep

Because of my disgrace.
Oh! that I never had been born,

Then would they not now grieve;
I had not clouded her young morn

Nor overcast their eve.
The peasant from his lowly hut

May look abroad with pride;
But oh! when every door is shut-

When shelter is denied
Unto the felon gentleman,

Then is he taught to feel
When on his name there is a ban

And justice dogs his heel-
That uprightness is sure to bring

The heart its sweet rewards;
And he whose conscience bears no sting

May fearless claim the Lord's.

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