A Manual of Electricity, Magnetism, and Meteorology, Band 1

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Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1841 - 439 Seiten

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23 Researches of MUSCHENBROECK CUNeus and KLEIST
18
25 Anecdotes of its Effects
19
26 Bevis substitutes an external Coating for the Hand
21
27 Performs the Leyden Experiment with a Plate of Glass coated with Silver Leaf
22
Wilson discovers the lateral Shock but does not explain it
23
Phial containing rarefied Air charged
24
A Discharge transmitted over and under Westminster Bridge
25
32 Similar Experiments at Stoke Newington 33 Experiments at Shooters Hill
26
His Correspondence with Collinson Importance of his Discoveries
27
35 Great Circulation of his Letters on Electricity
28
36 His Facts more valuable than his Theory
29
38 Two insulated Persons electrified one positively and the other negatively
30
39 Opposite Electricities neutralise each other
31
41 His Analysis of the Leyden Experiment
33
42 Experimental Verifications of this
34
44 An electric Battery thus charged 45 A Jar charged by connecting it with the Conductor and Rubber
35
46 A Jar charged externally
36
48 Early conjectures of the Identity of Electricity and Lightning
37
53 Analogies supporting these Suggestions
43
58 The same Result obtained according to his Directions by M
50
61 Franklin proposes pointed Conductors for the Protection
56
227
57
65 Is elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
59
70 FRANKLIN shows the magnetic Effect of Electricity
64
71 BECCARIA shows that the Polarity of the Needle depends
65
L Properties of Matter
76
77 CANTON discovers that the same Body may be electrified with
77
101 Arago suggests Observations on the Effects of the Iron Fur
88
94 Density or Depth of Electricity on a Conductor 314
93
Origin of the Discovery of Galvanism
96
106 Is opposed by VOLTA
100
107 Contest between these Philosophers
101
108 Voltas Theory of Contact
102
110 FABRONI rejects the Theory of Contact and ascribes the Elec tricity to chemical Action
104
111 Invention of the VOLTAIC PILE
107
112 Invention of the Couronne des Tasses
109
113 NAPOLEON invites Volta to Paris
110
115 Relation between the Voltaic Pile and the LEYDEN JAR
111
116 Their respective physiological Effects
112
117 Anecdote of NAPOLEON
113
118 Experiments of NICHOLSON and CARLISLE 11+ 119 Experiments of W CRUICKSHANK
117
122 Dave commences his Researches
119
123 His Experiments on the Decomposition of Water in separate Vessels
120
124 Shows that the Power of the Pile depends on Oxydation
121
125 Examines the chemical Action which takes place in the Pile
122
126 Shows that a Voltaic Pile may be made with Charcoal and Zinc
124
127 Shows that voltaic Action does not depend on the conducting Power of the Metals
125
126 A cylindrical Conductor in its natural State placed under
126
129 Constructs a Pile with Charcoal and two Liquids without any metallic Element
128
130 Researches of Biot and F Cuvier
129
131 WOLLASTON and GAUTHEROT maintain that chemical Action is the Source of Voltaic Electricity
130
133 RITTERs secondary Piles
131
134 Davy shows that the Wire retains its electric Property after Separation from the Pile
132
136 Researches of FOURCROY VAUQUELIN and THENARD
133
137 Electric Spark transmitted in Water and nitric and sulphuric Acids
134
138 Theory of GROTTHUS
135
139 Davys Bakerian Lecture for 1806
137
140 He shows that in the Decomposition of Water by the Pile no new material Principle is generated
139
142 Decomposes various Salts
143
Solutions
147
141 Shows that the decomposing Power is in the Current and not the Wire
149
146 Shows that during the Transfer chemical Action is suspended
150
147 Except in Cases where insoluble Compounds are formed
151
148 Transmission of Oxides through Acids
153
150 Decomposition of vegetable and animal Substances
154
151 His Ideas of the Mode of Action in these Phenomena
155
152 His electrochemical Hypothesis
159
153 Experiments in Support of it
160
154 Chemical Properties of Bodies consistent with this Hypothesis
161
156 Heat and Light evolved in chemical Action accounted for
162
158 When Combination is rapid and when slow
163
159 Davys Explanation of the Mode of Action of the Pile
164
160 Shows that chemical Action is indispensable but still receives Voltas Theory of Contact
165
161 Shows the propable Applications of the Pile to the Uses of Life
168
162 Anticipates the future decomposing Effects of the Pile
169
163 Attempts to explain geological Phenomena by voltaic Action
170
165 GUY TONMORVEAU adopts and follows out these Views
171
166 DAVYs Bakerian Lecture for 1807
172
167 Discovery of the Decomposition of Potash
173
168 And of Soda
174
169 Methods of preserving Potassium and Sodium in a separate State
175
171 Berzelius and Pontin decompose Baryta and Lime
176
172 Davy repeats these Experiments and also decomposes Strontia and Magnesia
177
174 Infers in general that the Alkalies and Earths are metallic Oxides
179
176 Davys Hypothesis to explain Volcanoes and Aerolites
180
177 Physiological Applications of Voltaic Electricity
181
178 Experiment and Conjectures of WOLLASTON
182
179 Experiments of GAY LUSSAC and THENARD
183
TAUS and OERSTED
184
181 BERZELIUS and AMPERE support Davys Views
185
182 Berzelius extends and improves them
186
183 Fruitless Attempts to construct Dry PILES
188
184 Delucs Pile improved by Zamboni
189
185 Uses of what have been called dry Piles 186 CONCLUSION
190
188 Magnetic Meridian Variation
191
189 Dip of the Magnetic Needle
192
192 Alluded to in Writings of the 12th Century
193
211 Magnetic Equator
202
ELECTROMAGNETISM 213 Electromagnetism very recently discovered
203
214 OERSTEDs Experiments at Copenhagen
204
215 AMPERE follows them up by a Series of splendid Memoirs
206
227 SCHWEIGER invents the Multiplier or Galvanometer
215
235 His Experiment with Antimony and Copper
221
2 Electrical Excitation by Friction
228
14 Conductors and Nonconductors of Electricity
234
238 CONCLUSION
238
31 Use of the conducting Power of Metals in the Construction
244
CHAP II
251
Experiments to prove this 36
256
44 Table of Substances arranged according to the Electricity they
257
49 Electricity of Mercury in the Barometer
261
56 Another Modification of it
267
65 Similar Experiments establish the same Law of electrical
273
68 The Share which each of two electrified Bodies has in
280
75 Deposition of Humidity on the Supports
285
80 Other Circumstances being the same the Loss of Electricity
291
85 The Law of the Loss of Electricity deduced from Coulombs
298
CHAP V
308
95 Coulombs ProofPlane its Use
315
96 On the same Conductor the Distribution is always the same
316
97 The total Change proportional to the Depth of a given Point
317
99 Method of determining the relative Depths at different Points at the same Time
318
100 Experiment to prove the Efficacy of the Proof Plane
319
102 Method of rendering successive Observations comparable
321
103 Precautions respecting the Gumlac Handle of the Proof Plane
322
104 Practical Example of these Methods of experimenting Dis tribution of Electricity on a flat oblong metallic Plate
323
105 Depth increases towards the Ends
324
106 Is still greater beyond the Extremity
325
108 Geometrical Illustration of these Results
326
110 Distribution of Electricity on a thin circular Plate
327
112 Depth of Fluid always increases towards Edges
329
116 Experimental Illustration
330
118 Another experimental Illustration
331
119 Electrical Orrery
332
CHAP VI
333
121 Action of an electrified Sphere on the Electricity diffused on a cylindrical Conductor placed near it
334
122 The electric Fluid on one Conductor repels a similar electric Fluid and attracts an opposite electric Fluid on any neigh bouring Conductor
335
124 The Attractions and Repulsions manifested between electrified Bodies really belong to the electric Fluids with which they are charged
336
Influence of two Spheres oppositely electrified
337
127 Effects produced by measuring and diminishing the Distance of the Spheres
338
128 Equal Quantities of contrary Electricities are diffused on a Conductor in its natural State
339
129 Effect of placing the electrified Spheres at unequal Distances from the Conductor
340
130 Effect of removing one of the Spheres
341
131 Further Demonstration of the natural Electricities of a Con ductor
342
132 Inductive Action of a Series of Conductors
343
133 Inductive Action reciprocal 314
345
135 Experiments illustrative of this
346
137 Further experimental Illustrations
348
CHAP VII
352
142 The two electrical Theories
355
145 Induction and Excitation explained
356
146 Effect of the natural Electricities proved experimentally
357
147 Franklinian Theory
359
149 Another
363
151 Objections to the Franklinian Theory
364
152 Distribution of free Electricity on an insulated Conductor
367
153 Distribution of free Electricities on a spherical Conductor
369
154 On a very elongated Ellipsoid
370
155 Property of Points inferred
371
158 Distribution of Electricity on Conductors in contact
372
160 Mutual Influence of two Spheres one electrified and the other in its natural State 1
373
161 Mutual Effects of their electric Charges acting at a Distance
374
162 Effects of Contact on the Distribution
375
164 Analysis of the Distribution on two Spheres in Contact
376
165 Experimental Method of estimating the Distribution practised by Coulomb
377
166 A second Method
379
167 Comparison of the Results of Experiment and Theory
381
168 Analysis of the Distribution after Separation
383
169170 Analysis of Depth at extreme Points when in Contact
384
171172 Analysis in particular Cases
386
173 Comparison of the Results of Theory and Experiment
388
175 Analysis for equal Spheres
389
177 Analysis when the Radius of one Sphere is double the other
391
180 Analysis when the Radii are as 1 to 4
393
181 Correspondence of Theory and Experiment
394
183 When the lesser Sphere is in its natural State 345
397
187 Unequal Spheres separated after Contact
399
188 Recapitulation
400
190 Further Comparison
402
192 Analysis of the Electric Spark
403
193 Particular Case to verify Theory
405
194 Method of electrifying two Spheres in any required Proportion
406
195 Experimental Illustration of the Effect of the Spark
407
CHAP VIII
409
197 Attraction or Repulsion of an electrified Nonconductor ex plained
410
199 Attraction or Repulsion of an electrified Conductor
411
200 Illustrations of this
415
201 Cases apparently exceptional explained
416
202 Experimental Illustration
418
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
421
208 Varnish for Insulaters
427
Capable of evolving and accumulating other Fluid
433
220 Jointed Dischargers
439

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Seite 39 - If any danger to the man should be apprehended (though I think there would be none), let him stand on the floor of his box, and now and then bring near to the rod the loop of a wire that has one end fastened to the leads, he holding it by a wax handle ; so the sparks, if the rod is electrified, will strike from the rod to the wire, and not affect him.
Seite 38 - Sfc. from the stroke of lightning, by directing us to fix, on the highest parts of those edifices, upright rods of iron, made sharp as a needle, and gilt, to prevent rusting ; and, from the foot of those rods, a wire down the outside of the building into the ground, or down round one of the shrouds of a ship, and down her side till it reaches the water...
Seite 38 - To determine the question, whether the clouds that contain lightning are electrified or not, I would propose an experiment to be tried where it may be done conveniently.
Seite 32 - A turkey is to be killed for our dinner by the electrical shock and roasted by the electrical jack before a fire kindled by the electrified bottle; when the healths of all the famous electricians in England, Holland, France and Germany are to be drank in electrified bumpers under the discharge of guns from the electrical battery.
Seite 32 - Chagrined a little that we have been hitherto able to produce nothing in this way of use to mankind, and the hot weather coming on, when electrical experiments are not so agreeable, it is proposed to put an end to them for this season, somewhat humorously, in a party of pleasure on the banks of the Schuylkill. Spirits, at the same time, are to be fired by a spark sent from side to side through the river, without any other conductor than the water; an experiment which we some time since performed,...
Seite 20 - Electricity, which was more generally read and admired in all parts of Europe than these letters. There is hardly any European language into which they have not been translated...
Seite 39 - From the middle of the stand let an iron rod rise and pass bending out of the door, and then upright 20 or 30 feet, pointed very sharp at the end. If the electrical stand be kept clean and dry, a man standing on it when such clouds are passing low, might be electrified and afford sparks, the rod drawing fire to him from a cloud.
Seite 30 - He made the prophetic remark that ' though these effects are at present only minute, it is probable that in time there may be found out a way to collect a greater quantity of the electric fire, and, consequently, to increase the force of that power which by several of those experiments, if we are permitted to compare great things with small, seems to be of the same nature with that of thunder and lightning.
Seite 37 - If a tube (conductor) of only ten feet long will strike and discharge its fire on the punch at two or three inches distance, an electrified cloud of perhaps ten thousand acres may strike and discharge on the earth at a proportionally greater distance. The horizontal motion of the scales over the floor may represent the motion of the clouds over the earth, and the erect iron punch a hill or high building ; and then we see how electrified clouds, passing over hills or high buildings at too great a...
Seite 55 - While the thunder-cloud is swelling, and extending its branches over a large tract of country, the lightning is seen to dart from one part of it to another, and often to illuminate its whole mass. When the cloud has acquired a sufficient extent, the lightning strikes between the cloud and the earth, in two opposite places; the path of the lightning lying through the whole body of the cloud and its branches. The longer this lightning continues, the...

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