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CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SERVICE, INC
This bulletin reports impartially on proposed and pending Federal legislation
affecting children and youths in the areas of health, education, employment,
recreation, and welfare. The CWIS takes no position for or against legislation Issued by the Child Welfare Information Service, Inc. (A voluntary nonprofit association
supported by contributions and subscriptions). 930 F Street NW., Washington 4, D. C.-BERNARD LOCKER, executive director.
APRIL 3, 1945.
ISSUE No. 13
Federal Aid for Education, S. 717, by Senator JAMES M. MEAD (New York) and
Senator GEORGE D. AIKEN (Vermont). Referred to Committee on Education and Labor
This bill, which is sponsored by the American Federation of Teachers, establishes a permanent program of Federal financial aid for education. As was reported in issue No. 12, page 70, the Senate Committee on Education and Labor is expected to resume its hearings during the second week of April on the subject of Federal aid for education. These hearings will be devoted to a consideration of S. 717 which is summarized below. The hearings held thus far by this committee have been devoted to a consideration of S. 181, a bill sponsored by the National Education Association to establish a program of Federal financial aid for public elementary and public secondary schools. (For summary of S. 181, see issue No. 4.)
Appropriation 8.—The bill authorizes the following three appropriations to be allocated among the States (including the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and Guam):
1. $300,000,000 a year to raise substandard educational conditions in public and nonpublic schools, of which not less than $225,000,000 is earmarked for public school teachers' salaries.
2. $100,000,000 a year for current expenditures for special educational facilities and services in public and nonpublic schools.
3. $150,000,000 a year to provide financial assistance for needy students attending public and nonpublic schools. Title 1-General provisions
Administration.-Administrative responsibility for the Federal program is vested in a newly created National Board of Apportionment consisting of five representative citizens to be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The United States Commissioner of Education would serve both as Secretary of the National Board and as its chief administrative officer, and through the United States Office of Education he would administer the several programs authorized in this act. Up to one-half of 1 percent of the funds appropriated under title II may be used for Federal administrative expenses.
Policies, rules, and regulations. The National Board is empowered
1. To formulate policies for the allocation of funds among the States "in the manner prescribed under each such title.” (These requirements are given in the summary of each title under the heading, “Allocation Among States"; and
2. To make necessary rules and regulations.
The National Board is required to make public its plan for the allocation of funds under this act.
State control of education. -The bill states that it is the intent of Congress “to reserve explicitly to the States and their local subdivisions the organization and administration of schools, the control over the processes of education, the control and determination of the curricula of the schools, the methods of instruction to be employed in them, the selection of personnel employed by the State and its agencies, and the selection of textbooks and materials of instruction
State acceptance plans.-In order to qualify for Federal funds, a State-through its legislature--must
1. Accept the provisions of this act and provide for the administration of Federal funds;
2. Designate the State treasurer, or corresponding official in the State, as trustee for these Federal funds;
3. Establish or designate a State educational authority
(a) to administer' the Federal funds; (o) to audit the expenditure of Federal funds received and apportioned both
to local school jurisdictions and other educational agencies; (c) to make reports to the National Board with respect to the plans and
purposes of expenditures of funds received under this act and of the
program of education. 4. Provide, if separate schools are maintained for separate races (a) that there be allotted to such schools a proportion of the Federal funds
that not less tha the proportion that the minority racial group in
the State bears to the total population of that State; and (b) that there be no reduction in the proportion of State and local expendi.
tures for educational purposes during the fiscal year "ended in 194"
for public schools for minority races; and 5. Provide that Federal funds shall be made available in every part of the State and to every State-approved educational agency in need thereof without discrimination or prejudice in regard to race, creed, or status of any person or agency in the State authorized to receive Federal funds under the provisions of this act.
Acceptance without legislative enactment.-The Governor of any State may take the above action
1. Until the State legislature takes such action; or
2. Until 6 months after the adjournment of the first regular session of the legislature following the enactment of this act; whichever of the above two conditions first occurs.
State acceptance plans must be made public.— The plans required of any State authority under any provision of this act must be published by the State authority receiving such funds within 30 days after such funds are made available.
Nonpublic schools.-Under specified conditions this bill provides for the distribution of Federal funds to nonpublic schools which are defined as follows:
any school not operated for profit which complies with the minimum educational requirements of the State.”
Each State which submits a State acceptance plan must inform the National Board whether or not it is prohibited by law or otherwise from distributing funds to nonpublic schools. (Many States are prohibited by constitutional and legislative provisions from disbursing funds to private and parochial schools.)
Appointment of trustee.-In each State which is prohibited from disbursing to nonpublic schools Federal funds appropriated pursuant to this act, the National Board would appoint a trustee "who shall have the duty of receiving and disbursing the portion of the funds allocable to such States which the National Board determines should be disbursed to nonpublic schools."
Each trustee would be appointed from among not less than three persons nominated by the Governor. A trustee would be entitled to necessary expenses incurred in the performance of his functions and compensation as determined by the National Board.
Allocation of Federal funds for nonpublic schools.--In determining the amount of Federal funds to be allocated to nonpublic schools the board must take into consideration the extent to which "the burden of the educational needs of the State are borne by nonpublic schcols.”
States not to reduce appropriations.-Federal funds may only be allotted to those States which meet the following two conditions:
1. The amount provided from States revenues for all public elementary and public secondary school purposes must be not less than either:
(a) The total amount; or
such purposes in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1942. 2. Neither the State nor any subdivision or agency thereof which avails itself of any benefits under this act shall pay salaries less than the monthly salary being paid on the date of the enactment of this act for any stated type or form of teaching. The State authority may apply to the National Board for exceptions to this provision to meet emergencies.
State administrative expenses.--Each State is permitted to use up to 1 percent of the Federal funds received by it under this act to assist in paying the administrative expenses of the State department of education.
Buildings for educational purposes.-While this bill does not make any appropriation for the "construction or equipment” of buildings for educational purposes, it does set up the following conditions for the use of Federal funds which may be appropriated by Congress for this purpose. No such funds would here after be paid to any
1. State or its local subdivisions until the State educational authority has approved the plans which will provide that the proposed buildings shall be located and constructed to meet the educational needs of the community; or
2. Nonpublic educational agency unless it has formulated and submitted to the National Board its plans for meeting such educational needs.
The National Board would transmit plans submitted to it for the location and construction of buildings for educational purposes to the Federal agency authorized to disburse or approve the disbursement of funds for such purposes. Title II—Funds to raise substandard educational opportunities
Appropriation.-An appropriation of $300,000,000 a year is authorized to be appropriated under this title for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and for each succeeding year.
Purpose. The bill provides that the $300,000,000 appropriation under this title may be used for the payment of current educational expenditures for any or all of the following purposes :
1. To eradicate illiteracy.
2. To keep schools open for a term of not less than 9 months or to make provisions for the education of pupils affected by closed schools.
3. To reduce overcrowded classes by the employment of additional teachers.
4. To make possible the payment of adequate salaries of teachers in public elementary schools, which may include kindergartens and nursery schools, and public junior and senior high schools and junior colleges.
Allocation among States.—The bill requires that the National Board determine the relative need for funds and allocate funds among the several States in accordance with their findings. In determining such need the National Board is required to take the following factors into account:
1. The findings and recommendations of the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the ability of each of the several States and its local subdivisions to provide adequate educational facilities.
2. The nature and extent of educational inequalities and relative substandard conditions afforded in the several States, especially in the rural areas.
3. The findings of the Director of the Census as to the estimated number of persons in each State between the ages 5 and 20, inclusive.
Limitations on use of funds. Of this $300,000,000 appropriation, the bill requires that not less than $225,000,000 must be used to supplement the appropriations currently made by each State for payment of salaries of teachers in public elementary schools, which may include kindergartens and nursery schools, and public junior and senior high schools and junior colleges. The bill specifies that none of the funds authorized under this title may be used for the payment of salaries of teachers in nonpublic schools in any State where the State is prohibited from disbursing funds to such schools. Title III-Special educational services
Appropriation.-An appropriation of $100,000,000 a year is authorized to be appropriated under this title for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and each succeeding year.
Purpose.—This $100,000,000 appropriation may be used for both public and nonpublic schools for the payment of current educational expenditures for "educational facilites and services, such as transportation for educational purposes, library facilities, textbooks and other reading materials, visual aids and other instructional materials, school health programs and facilities, and other necessary educational projects
Allocation among States.--The National Board would allocate these funds among the States as follows:
1. Fifty percent on the basis of the total population of each States as estimated by the Bureau of the Census.
2. Fifty percent on the same basis provided under title II. Title IV--Assistance to needy students
Appropriation.-An appropriation of $150,000,000 a year is authorized to be appropriated under this title for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and each succeeding year.
Purpose. --The purpose of this appropriation is to provide needy students with financial assistance to enable them to continue their education. Benefits mày be offered in the form of scholarships, stipends, or compensation for work performed for public or nonprofit agencies. However, the combined period of education and employment of students receiving this aid may not exceed 8 hours during any one day or 48 hours during any one week.
Allocation among States. This appropriation would be allocated among the States on the basis of the total number of persons in each of such States between the ages of 14 and 20, inclusive, as estimated by the Bureau of the Census. .
Eligible students.- Persons 14 to 20, inclusive, would be eligible for assistance if in regular attendance at
1. An educational institution, whether public or nonpublic; or
2. A training center which meets the requirements of the Federal Apprenticeship Act.
In the case of students who are 14 and 15 years of age, payments would be made to the parents.
State plan.-The State educational authority is required to promulgate and publish a plan for the distribution of these funds. This plan would set forth the method of
1. Determining need; and
The bill requires that disbursements made under such plan shall be uniformly applicable, under similar conditions, without discrimination on account of race or creed.
Distribution of funds.—The funds paid to a State, or to a trustee (appointed in any State which is prohibited from distributing funds to nonpublic schools), shall be available for disbursement by the State educational authority or by such trustee.
UNIVERSITY TEACHERS UNION, LOCAL 497,
Missoula, Mont., April 9, 1945. Senator JAMES MURRAY,
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: We are very much interested in Federal aid bill S. 717 and urge you to do all in your power to bring about its passage. Our position is that S. 717 possesses many points of advantage over S. 181 which is sponsored by the NEA. However, we believe that the general principle of Federal aid is the central issue and would not be adverse to any reasonable compromise between the two bills. In particular, the method of allocation of funds in S. 181 seems to us to be preferable to that of S. 717 in which it is left to the discretion of an appointed board to some extent. Sincerely yours,
Roy DUBISCH, Secretary.
Los Angeles, Calif., August 22, 1945. Senator JAMES MURRAY,
Washington, D. O.: This committee urges your support of Mead-Aiken bill, S. 717. For protecttion of interest of low paid teachers and for the benefit of the American child without discrimination we urge your support of S. 717, not S. 181.
MOTION PICTURE LABOR COMMITTEE,
CASCADE COUNTY TRADES AND LABOR ASSEMBLY,
Great Falls, Mont., March 31, 1945. The Honorable JAMES E. MURRAY,
The United States Senate, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The Cascade County Trades and Labor Assembly urges that you support Senate bill 717, which bill would authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States in more adequately financing education and in removing substandard conditions in education; to aid in establishing and maintaining education services; to eradicate illiteracy; to preserve and promote the national security in peace and in war; to raise the educational level of the Nation; and to promote the general welfare.
We feel that Senate bill 717 is a practical measure in accord with sound educational and economic principles. Organized labor has always believed that the greatest benefits of democracy can only come when the public is fully educated. Very truly yours,
JOEN EVANKO, Jr., Secretary.
BRIDGEPORT, CONN., July 30, 1945. Senator JAMES MURRAY,
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.: Connecticut Federation of Labor requests that you support and give what aid you can to the passage of the Mead-Aiken bill, S. 717, which will protect the interest of the low-paid teachers and also help to keep poorer students in school. This is much-needed legislation.
HAROLD V. FINMARK, Secretary-Treasurer, Connecticut Federation of Labor.
INTERNATIONAL WOODWORKERS OF AMERICA,
Bonner, Mont., April 6, 1945. Senator JAMES E. MURRAY (Montana),
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR: Local 10–353, IWA-CIO, wishes to call your attention to Senate bill 717, sponsored by the American Federation of Teachers, now before the Senate Labor and Education Committee. We note you are on that committee.
Local 10_353, IWA-CIO, feels that Senate bill 717, is a worthy and vital bill to the advancement of our educational system in these United States. We ask you to use your best efforts to support this bill. The labor movement in Montana is united in favor of Senate bill 717.
Senate bill 181, sponsored by the National Educational Association, has some features not acceptable to Local 10–353, IWA-CIO, and we are not recommending its passage. Respectfully yours,
CHAS. W. GARDNER, Recording Secretary, Local 10–353, IWA-CIO.
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., July 31, 1945. SENATOR JAMES MURRAY,
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. We respectfully urge you support S. 717 because of its adequate provisions to improve our educational system as it affects not only the students but the teachers as well. California State Federation of Labor makes this request in behaif of all the AFL unions in the State of California numbering 1,000,000 members.
C. J. HAGGERTY, Secretary.
COLUMBUS, OHIO, July 30, 1945. Hon. SENATOR JAMES MURRAY:
The officers and members of the Ohio State Federation of Labor respectfully solicit your favorable consideration and support of the Mead-Aiken bill, S. 717, which grants Federal aid to education. It is our understanding that this measure requires States to use Federal money to supplement and not supplant State funds.
PHIL HANNAH, Secretary-Treasurer, Ohio State Federation of Labor.
BUTTE, MONT., April 7, 1945. Senator JAMES MURRAY,
United States Senate, Washington D. C.: The Butte Teachers Union request your support for bill, S. 717, sponsored by the American Federation of Teachers, we will greatly appreciate your cooperation. Sincerely yours,
CECILIA HARRINGTON, Recording Secretary.