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essential educational data, and assistance in the preparation of plans for the location and construction of buildings for educational purposes."

Would not this indicate that the whole outlook on the part of the sponsors of this bill is to go all the way—curriculum, buildings, teachers' salaries and even dominating through “partial” expenses, the State departments. Those who may innocently think that this Federal-aid project is just an incident should study this bill carefully. Any person familiar with politics and bureaucratic trends today can easily understand that here is the beginning of full domination of publie education by the Federal Government.

14. Section 7 (d) says: "The term 'nonpublic school' means any school not operated for profit which complies with the minimum educational requirements of the State.” This opens the gate wide too wide.

15. The economic and social opinions expressed during the last few years.

During the last several years we have been alarmed at the social and economic trends of opinion as expressed by many of our leading educators, especially those who are closely associated with this Federal-aid proposal. Those views have shown strong convictions favoring greater Government ownership and control. Those views have emphasized a lack of confidence in our free-enterprise system. This trend has caused much concern among the millions of representative citizens engaged in enterprise, and consequently the character and nature of this proposal is so clearly in the direction of more Federal control that it is unacceptable to fully 95 percent of the groups whose sentiments have been tested.

For the reasons given in this testimony we urge that this bill be rejected. 16. We have here a bill that proposes to appropriate $550,000,000 each year, with such potential designs as would quickly boost this appropriation in large measure to cover ever-increasing demands.

This whole matter of huge new appropriations should be considered in the light of our Federal fiscal condition. We will end this war with a Federal debt that will be so huge no one can comprehend its size or its implications. The interest alone will be stupendous. Beyond that we will have a heavy load in carrying our disabled veterans, veterans' widows, and other expenses of that nature. We will have to continue to maintain large armed forces. We will have a big job of reconversion and readjustment. We will be called upon to help in necessary rehabilitation duties outside our own land. No one can see or understand what faces us. Certainly this is no time to be uselessly increasing our debt and tax burden. If there are a few States that are willing to confess that they cannot properly perform their educational obligation to the citizens of that State, then let there be written a bill to provide for help in specific instances and specific places, but let us hear no more of this over-all scheme to throw millions into States that do not need it.

For the reasons given in this testimony we urge that this bill be rejected.

UNITED STEELWORKERS OF AMERICA, CIO,

Trenton, N. J., April 11, 1945. Miss ADDIE WEBER,

- Washington, D. C. MY DEAR Miss WEBER : After reading over S. 717, I find that I am in complete accord with this bill to equalize educational opportunities for all classes of people, regardless of race, color, or creed. I know also that this bill will help tremendously in the urban and farm areas throughout the country.

Speaking in behalf of my fellow members of the United Steelworkers of America, whom I represent in both the Burlington and Mercer Counties, I find that this bill is urgently needed and ask that my views in support of this bill be presented to the Senators of my State. Sincerely yours,

FRED A. CLARICI,
National Representative, United Steelworkers

of America, CIO, District No. 7.

TRENTON, N. J., April 10, 1945. Hon. H. ALEXANDER SMITH,

Washington D.C. DEAR SENATOR SMITH: The Central Jersey Industrial Union Council passed a resolution at its last regular meeting supporting S. 717.

We ask you to please use your influence to have this bill taken out of committee and be placed on the floor for action. Very truly yours

W. FRANK GALLAGHER, President.

UNITED STEELWORKERS OF AMERICA, CIO,

Trenton, N. J., April 11, 1945. Miss ADDIE WEBER,

Washington, D.O. DEAR Miss WEBER: I am in full accord with S. 717 to equalize educational opportunities throughout all the States of this great Nation.

This bill should be passed so that all American children may have the opportunity to have a liberal education whether they live in rural or urban districts in any State of the Union, regardless of race, color, or creed.

As a national representative of 10,000 steelworkers in the central Jersey area,
I urge that you do all within your power to assure passage of this bill.
Very truly yours,

CHARLES KOVACS,
National Representative, United Steelworkers

of America, CIO, District No. 7.

MERCER COUNTY CENTRAL LABOR UNION,

Trenton, N. J., April 10, 1945. Hon. H. ALEXANDER SMITH,

United States Senator, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR : The Mercer County Central Labor Union, at its regular meeting held Friday, April 6, 1945, had before it for its consideration, S. 717, which provides for Federal aid and equal opportunities for children in our school system in communities unable to furnish such education and health facilities.

We believe this is one of the most important pieces of legislation that will be considered at this session and we urge you to have the Senate Committee on Education report favorably on this bill. We further request that you give this bill your personal support. Very truly yours,

JOSEPH LANDGRAF, President. Attest:

T. J. BURNS, Secretary.

NEW JERSEY STATE FEDERATION OF LABOR,

Trenton, N. J., April 10, 1945. To Whom It May Concern:

The New Jersey State Federation of Labor most urgently requests the passage of S. 717. After a study of the contents of the measure we are convinced it is a sound piece of legislation designed to render assistance to those most in need of educational opportunities. Very truly yours,

LOUIS P. MARCIANTE, President.

THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY OF NEW JERSEY,

Trenton, N. J., April 9, 1945. Hon. H. ALEXANDER SMITH, Senate Education Committee,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. O. DEAR SENATOR : As a labor leader in my county, I urge support of the Federalaid bill, S. 717, to equalize educational opportunity.

I like the unique features of the bill providing services to all children, including parochial-school children, such services as health and others that are not of a strictly educational nature but contribute to the social, moral, and health welfare of the children, and guaranteeing that part of the money will be used for teachers' salaries, which, in many cases, are notoriously substandard. I think this bill would serve the best interests of the country if passed. Respectfully,

KENNETH W. O'DELL.

TRENTON, N. J., April 9, 1945. Hon. H. ALEX. SMITH,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR SMITH : As chairman of the joint Political Action Committee of the A. F. of L. and CIO of Mercer County, I want to appeal to you to vote favorably on S. 717 for Federal aid to equalize educational opportunities. I believe that this is an excellent bill and will be of great benefit to the American people and should, therefore, be passed. Yours truly,

GEORGE PELLETTIERI.

UNITED AUTOMOBILE WORKERS OF AMERICA,

Trenton, N. J. Re S. 717. Senator H. ALEXANDER SMITH,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: Amalgamated Local 731, United Auto Workers, CIO, heartily endorse labor's bill for Federal aid, S. 717, to equalize educational opportunity.

The passage of such bill would mean a great step forward for education in our country. Fraernally yours,

MICHAEL C. PINTO,
President, Local 731.

UNITED ELECTRICAL, RADIO & MACHINE WORKERS OF AMERICA,

Trenton, N. J., April 10, 1945. Hon. H. ALEXANDER SMITH,

House Office Building, Washington, D. C. HONORABLE SIR: The United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America of Trenton, N. J., heartily endorse the Federal-aid bill, S. 717, now before the Senate Education Committee. These local unions particularly like two features: of the bill. One is that the bill guarantees money for raising teachers' salaries. These are even substandard in some areas, so that the passage of the bill is exceedingly important. The other is provision for services for all children in noneducational matters, such as health, etc.

We urge the committee to report the bill out favorably, and urge your support and vote. Respectfully yours,

JOHN SPAIN, Jr., Business Agent.

DETROIT, MICH., April 19, 1945. SELMA BORCHARDT,

Washington, D. O.: Executive board, Detroit Federation of Teachers, Local 231, confirm its support of S. 717. Urges all effort to secure its passage. Detroit local considers provision for standard distribution and administrative control included in S. 717 best of any proposed. The need for passage of sound Federal-aid bill imperative at this time.

FLORENCE SWEENEY, President, Detroit Federation of Teachers, Local 231.

CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS,

Trenton, N. J., April 10, 1945. Hon. H. ALEXANDER SMITH,

House Office Building, Washington, D. O. HONORABLE SIR: In behalf of CIO members in central New Jersey, we urge you to use your best efforts to have s. 717 released from the committee so it can reach the floor for a vote. We strenuously urge that you vote for the bill. Respectfully yours,

JAMES P. SWEENEY, Subregional Director.

NEW JERSEY STATE FEDERATION OF TEACHERS,

Trenton, N.J. To the Education and Labor Committee of the United States Senate:

Since the hearing before your committee on Federal-aid bill s. 717 was called off because of the President's death, I am submitting the following for your consideration. I speak as the president of the New Jersey State Federation of Teachers, affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers and the American Federation of Labor. I was sent by the New Jersey State Federation of Teachers to testify in support of S. 717. The State Federation of Teachers consists of 14 locals in various parts of the State.

I also carry endorsements of S. 717 from the following: President Louis P. Marciante, New Jersey State Federation of Labor, representing 300,000 workers ; President W. Frank Gallagher, Central Jersey Industrial Union Council, CIO, representing 35,000 workers; President Joseph Landgraf, Mercer County Central Labor Union; James P. Sweeney, subregional director of the CIO; Judge George Pellettieri, chairman of the joint political action committee of the A. F. of L and CIO of Mercer County; President Michael Pinto, Amalgamated Local 731, United Automobile Workers, CIO; National Representative Charles Korace and National Representative Fred A. Clarici, United Steel Workers of America, District 7, representing 10,000 steel workers; Business Agent John Spain, United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, CIO, of Trenton, N. J., representing 3,000 workers; and Kenneth W. O'Dell, New Jersey assemblyman, of the insurance workers, a labor leader in Mercer County.

We feel that Federal aid now is absolutely necessary, that S. 717 contains certain provisions which are found in no other Federal-aid bill, which are "musts" in any Federal-aid bill. One is the allocation of $225,000,000 to teachers' salaries. The quality of education depends largely upon the quality of the teaching. The fact that teachers are leaving in large numbers to go into more remunerative work and the fact that teacher-training colleges are decrying the decided fallingoff in their enrollment indicate the need of this provision to combat present and future teacher shortage.

Even in the wealthy State of New Jersey, where the cost of the education program per enrolled pupil per year is as high as $304.33 (Medford Lakes, Burlington County), there are many districts which fall far short of a decent educational quality. (In Berlin Township, Camden County, $56.29 is the per-pupil cost.)

Since there is at present no way to force the States to remedy this situation, certainly your committee would not wish to deny Federal funds to the children in communities unable to maintain decent school standards. This is not a question of preserving States' rights, but rather a question of the right of all of our children to a decent education, which is surely their birthright in our great country.

We urge you, therefore, to adopt a Federal-aid bill containing the features so ably presented by Dr. Reeves for the American Federation of Teachers Commission. Respectfully submitted.

ADDIE L. WEBER, President, New Jersey State Federation of Teachers.

INDIANAPOLIS, IND., July 30, 1945. Senator JAMES MURRAY,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.: We are very much interested in the Mead-Aiken bill, S. 717, which grants Federal aid to education. The officers of the Indiana State Federation of Labor and affiliated local unions will appreciate your support of this bill.

JOHN ACKER, Secretary-Treasurer, Indiana State Federation of Labor.

ANACONDA, MONT., April 6, 1945. The Honorable JAMES E. MURRAY,

The United States Senate, Washington, D. O.:
We urge suport of Senate bill 717.

ANACONDA TEACHERS UNION,
M. J. LESLIE, Secretary.

CHARLESTON, W. VA., July 28, 1945. Senator JAMES MURRAY,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.: Please be informed that the West Virginia State Federation of Labor asks the support of S. 717, which grants Federal aid to education, following the policies adopted at the past convention of the American Federation of Labor.

VOLNEY ANDREWS, Secretary-Treasurer, West Virginia State Federation of Labor.

HELENA, MONT., April 7, 1945. Senator JAMES E. MURRAY,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.: The Helena Central Labor Council voted to ask you to definitely support Senate bill 717, the purpose of providing Federal aid to improved educational service.

WILLIAM BROCKWAY, Secretary-Treasurer.

TTE, MONT., April 5, 1945. Senator JAMES E. MURRAY,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.:
We are much in favor of Senate bill 717, sponsored by American Federation of
Teachers. We request you do all possible to get this measure enacted.

BUTTE MINERS UNION No. —,
R. C. BROWN, Recording Secretary.

BUTTE, MONT., April 10, 1945. Senator JAMES E. MURRAY,

United States Senate, Washington, D. C.: We urge that you support S. 717 which we consider the fairest Federal aid to education bill so far introduced.

Mrs. PAUL CONNON, President, Butte Central Council Parent-Teachers Association.

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