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NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
RESEARCH DIVISION, Washington, D. C., February 1, 1945.
HOW THE EMERGENCY FUND ALLOTMENTS UNDER S. 181 WOULD HAVE AN
Because the States with least wealth have relatively more children to educate, there is some redistribution of income when Federal grants to the States are based on the number of children. The emergency funds under S. 181 are to be apportioned on the basis of the number of children attending public schools.
In the table attached, the 12 States spending the most per child for education are compared with the 12 States spending the least per child for education. For these two groups of States two figures are shown (1) how much each State contributes to Federal internal-revenue receipts (totaling $22,287,469,721 in 1943) and (2) how much each State would receive under the Federal-aid emergency fund of $200,000,000. The 12 States spending the most for schools contribute 55.27 percent of the internal revenue; they would receive 34.34 percent of the emergency fund. Their percent of the emergency fund would only be about two-thirds as large as their percent of internal-revenue payments.
The 12 States spending least for schools, on the other hand, contribute 12.10 percent of the Federal revenue and would receive 25.93 percent of the emergency fund. Their percent of the emergency fund would be more than twice as high as their percent of internal-revenue payments.
Another way to make this clear is to see that the money the richer States would get back is just a little more than one-half of 1 percent of what they put into the Federal Treasury. The poorer States would get back nearly 2 percent of their internal-revenue payments. When we compare the exact percents the figure for the poor States is 3.4 times as large as the figure for the rich States.
A question has been raised about Ohio's contribution to the Federal Treasury and its return from the emergency fund. Ohio is not one of the 12 States paying the most per child for education and hence is not included among the 12 in the table. It may be noted, however, that Ohio in 1943 paid $1,625,955,769 in internal-revenue receipts and that it would receive $9,967,800 from the emergency aid under S. 181. There would be a return of less than 1 percent 0.613 percent to be exact, a figure slightly higher than the average for the 12 States giving the most for education, but far less than the average of 1.92 percent for the 12 neediest States.
RAISING THE MONEY WHERE IT IS SPENDING IT WHERE THE CHILDREN ARE
Internal-revenue receipts for 1943 and allotments from the emergency fund under
S. 181, 42 States
$22, 287, 469, 721
United States total...--12 States highest in costs per pupil for current school expenses in 1941-42:
1. New York, 2. California 3. New Jersey 4. Nevada 5. Illinois. 6. Rhode Island 7. Massachusetts. 8. Washington. 9. Connecticut 10. Montana 11. Wyoming 12. Pennsylvania
4, 348, 369, 488
156, 600, 224 800, 561, 603 287, 025, 762 546, 451, 221 40, 414, 410
16, 598, 339 2,007, 868,721
17, 036, 200 9, 119, 400 5, 536, 400
166, 000 9, 740, 200
878,000 5, 517, 800 2, 465, 000 2, 185, 400
429,000 14,722, 200 1 68, 667, 400
12, 318, 915, 936
10.56 percent that column 3 is of column 2. See text for explanation.
Internal-revenue receipts for 1943 and allotments from the emergency fund under
S. 181, 42 States—Continued
: 62.13 percent that column 3 is of column 2. See text for explanation. 8 1.92 percent that column 3 is of column 2. See text for explanation. * 214.29 percent that column 3 is of column 2. See text for explanation. Source: Ranking of States based on U.S. Office of Education Statistics of State School Systems, 1939-40 and 1941-42, figures for 1941-42 on pp. 98-100. Internal-revenue receipts for 1943 from U. S. Treasury Depart. ment, Bureau of Internal Revenue, as given in table 11 of tables and charts on Federal aid released by NEA Research Division, April 1944. Estimated allotments to States under Federal aid bill emergency fund from NEA leaflet entitled "War Threatens Our Children With Tragedy."
Dr. GIVENS. I want to submit at a later time, within a day or two, for the record some extracts from a manuscript written by Dr. Morris J. Thomas, superintendent of schools, of Rochester, Minn. The manuscript is entitled “Education's Challenge.” One of its chapters contains statements from each of the Presidents of the United States from George Washington on down to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. These statements relate to education or Federal aid to education made by our Nation's Presidents in their inaugural addresses, or in their messages to Congress on the State of the Union. You will be interested to know that 20 of our Presidents did make definite statements on education in these official addresses to Congress. I would like the privilege of filing some extracts from that chapter in the record of this hearing.
Senator ELLENDER. That privilege is accorded. (The extracts referred to are as follows:)
[Extracts from Education's Challenge)
MANUSCRIPT BY DR. MAURICE J. THOMAS, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, ROCHESTER,
Educators and laymen increasingly are aware of the serious inequalities existing among the educational systems of our 48 States.
During the past two decades this problem has been thoroughly discussed and various proposals made. At the present time it is being more widely and favorably discussed than ever before. It is clear that only by national action can inequalities of educational support be remedied. Many Members of Congress and most national leaders recognize the critical need.
It is only a question of time. When the issues are understood by the people speedy action by Congress will follow,
The inequalities of educational services become pressingly apparent during times of social and economic stress. During a war educational shortcomings are even more in evidence. While the problems are clearly indicated, their solution during times of crisis are delayed by the paramount nature of immediate needs. Education secures quick corrective action only if break-downs are complete.
The nature of educational growth and support during the past 100 years departed from historical precedents and early educational thinking. It is not surprising, therefore, that our national leaders are confused today relative to the value of Federal aid and the amount and type of financial support which should be accorded to education. Local community concepts have been such, again based on the type of educational support and growth during the last 100 years, that national leaders now feel, in opposing Federal aid, they are supporting the American way, when, in reality, they are accepting and supporting departures from our early concepts and repudiating the educational philosophy of those who founded our Republic.
In examining this present-day issue of Federal support for education, attention must be directed to an analysis of historical precedents, our present critical need and the basic principles which could be served by national interest and financial support of our public schools. In what other area of governmental activity could the benefits of increased financial support be more effective in strengthening our economic, cultural, social, and democratic institutions?
Any program to improve the status and understanding of the American people will fortify and give meaning to our democratic structure of Government.
Nassau W. Senior says: "No country is so poor as to be unable to bear the expense of good schools. Strictly speaking, it is not an expense. The money so employed is much more than repaid by the superiority and diligence, in skill, in economy, in health-in short in all the qualities which fit men to produce and preserve wealth, of an educated over an uneducated community."
Many people, when first confronted with the idea of Federal aid to education, feel that it is a new proposal, and one that is entirely foreign to our concept of present-day educational organization. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Our early American statesmen were conscious of the role of education in society. The early Presidents, beginning with George Washington, were positive in their support of free public education. Washington, in his first message to Congress, stated the following:
"Nor am I less persuaded that you will agree with me in opinion that there is nothing which can better deserve your patronage than the promotion of science and literature. Knowledge is in every country the surest basis of public happiness. In one in which the measures of Government receive their impressions so immediately from the sense of the community as in ours it is proportionately essential. To the security of a free constitution it contributes in various ways—by convincing those who are entrusted with the public administration that every valuable end of Government is best answered by the enlightened confidence of the people, and by teaching the people themselves to know and to value their own rights; to discern and provide against invasions of them; to distinguish between oppression and the necessary exercise of lawful authority; between burthens proceeding from a disregard to their convenience and those resulting from the inevitable exigencies of society; to discriminate the spirit of liberty from that of licentiousness cherishing the first, avoiding the last--and uniting a speedy but temperate vigilance against encroachments, with an inviolable respect to the laws."
In his last address to Congress in 1796, Washington again presented the need of Federal support of education when he proposed to Congress that it establish national educational institutions.
"The assembly to which I address myself is too enlightened not to be fully sensible how much a Aourishing state of the arts and sciences contributes to national prosperity and reputation.
"True it is that our country, much to its honor, contains many seminaries of learning highly respectable and useful; but the funds upon which they rest are too narrow to command the ablest professors in the different departments of liberal knowledge for the institutions contemplated, though they would be excellent auxiliaries.
"Amongst the motives to such an institution, the assimilation of the principles, opinions, and manners of our countrymen by the common education of a portion of our youth from every quarter well deserves attention. The more homogeneous our citizens can be made in these particulars the greater will be our prospect of a permanent union; and a primary object of such a national institution should be the education of our youth in the science of government. In a republic what species of knowledge can be equally important and what duty more pressing on its legislature than to patronize a plan for communicating it to those who are to be the future guardians of the liberties of the country?"
While this proposal by Washington to establish a national university was not accepted by Congress, it indicated the forward-thinking and statesman-like qualities of our first President.
One of the most familiar quotations is found in Washington's Farewell Address :
"It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to sbake the foundation of the fabric? Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.”
In an address given just prior to his assumption of the duties of President of the United States, delivered February 22, 1789, on the encouragement of higher education, he demonstrates his understanding of the appreciation of the problem of educating the youth, and it was the first public presentation of the necessity of universal education from the broad standpoint as a function of the National Government.
Washington spoke positively in support of public education. He understood the necessity, he realized the importance, and he appreciated the value of education and had the desire to commit the Federal Government to the support of educational institutions in the United States. He repeatedly recommended to Congress proposals which would have built a sound and firm educational structure on a national scale. Washington, like his immediate successor, gave more than lip service to education. Government "by the people” was real to him. He had given his best to his country, as military leader, president of the Constitutional Convention, and President. As the wealthiest man of his time he subordinated his every personal interest to the needs of the new Nation. In educational understanding, as in other areas, he has given us an example of true greatness, unselfish service, clarity of thinking, and farsighted vision.
On March 4, 1797, John Adams, on assuming the Presidency of the United States in his first inaugural address paid tribute to the force of education. He wished to strengthen and expand public and private education.
a love of science and letters and a wish to patronize every rational effort to encourage schools, colleges, universities, academies, and every institution for propagating knowledge, virtue, and religion among all classes of the people, not only for their benign influence on the happiness of life in all its stages and classes, and of society in all its forms, but as the only means of preserving our Constitution from its natural enemies, the spirit of sophistry, the spirit of party, the spirit of intrigue, the profligacy of corruption, and the pestilence of foreign influence, which is the angel of destruction to elective governments."
Thomas Jefferson wrote to Madison from Paris in 1789, stating :
"Above all things, I hope the education of the common people will be attended to; convinced that on this good sense we may rely with most security for the preservation of a due sense of liberty."
After serving as President he returned to Virginia. He became more and more interested in education. Writing in 1816 he stated :
"If a Nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be. There is no safe deposit (for the functions of government) but with the people themselves; nor can they be safe with them without information."
Jefferson in many addresses, messages, and letters constantly spoke for education supported by the Federal Government, and the following two quotations are typical:
"By far the most important bill in our whole code is that for the diffusion of knowledge among the people. No other sure foundations can be devised for the preservation of freedom and happiness."
“Enlighten the people generally and tyranny and oppressions of both mind and body will vanish like evil spirits at the dawn of day."
James Madison in his first inaugural address, March 4, 1809, briefly stated: “to favor in like manner the advancement of science and the diffusion of information as the best aliment to true liberty.".
In his second message to Congress, December 5, 1810, he brings to the attention of Congress, Washington's proposal for the establishment of a national university, and gave strong arguments for its establishment:
"Whilst it is universally admitted that a well-instructed people alone can be permanently a free people, and whilst it is evident that the means of diffusing and improving useful knowledge form so small a proportion of the expenditures for national purposes, I cannot presume it to be unseasonable to invite your attention to the advantages of superadding to the means of education provided by the several States a seminary of learning instituted by the National Legislature within the limits of their exclusive jurisdiction, the expense of which might be defrayed or reimbursed out of the vacant grounds which have accrued to the Nation within those limits."
Finally in his last message to Congress, December 3, 1816, he briefly generalized his faith in education:
* * and encourages in every authorized mode that general diffusion of knowledge which guarantees to public liberty its permanency and to those who possess the blessing the true enjoyment of it.”
James Monroe, in his first inaugural address, April 15, 1819, twice referred to education "enlightenment” and “intelligence” of the people.
“The Government has been in the hands of the people. To the people, therefore, and to the faithful and able depositaries of their trust is the credit due. Had the people of the United States been educated in different principles, had they been less intelligent, less independent, or less virtuous, can it be believed that we should have maintained the same steady and consistent career or been blessed with the same success? While, then, the constituent body retains its present sound and healthful state, everything will be safe. They will choose competent and faithful representatives for every department. It is only when the people become ignorant and corrupt, when they degenerate into a populace, that they are incapable of exercising the sovereignty. Usurpation is then an easy attainment, and an usurper soon found. The people themselves become the willing instruments of their own debasement and ruin. Let us, then, look to the great cause and endeavor to preserve it in full force. Let us by all wise and constitutional measures promote intelligence among the people as the best means of preserving our liberties."
In his fourth message, Monroe stated: “A free, virtuous, and enlightened people know well the great principles and causes on which their happiness depends."
When John Quincy Adams became President, we find in his first annual message to Congress, December 6, 1825, these strong words:
“The great object of the institution of civil government is the improvement of the condition of those who are parties to the social company; and no government, in whatever form constituted, can accomplish the lawful ends of its institution but in proportion as it improves the condition of those over whom it is established. Roads and canals, by multiplying and facilitating the communications and intercourse between distant regions and multitudes of men, are among the most important means of improvement. But moral, political, intellectual improvement are duties assigned by the author of our existence to social no less than to individual man. For the fulfillment of those duties governments are invested with power, and to the attainment of the end-the progressive improvement of the condition of the governed—the exercise of delegated powers is a duty as sacred and indispensable as the usurpation of powers not granted is criminal and odious. Among the first, perhaps the very first, instrument for the improvement of the condition of men is knowledge, and to the acquisition of much of the knowledge adapted to the wants, the comforts, and enjoyments of human life public institutions and seminaries of learning are essential. So convinced of this was the first of my predecessors in this office, now first in the memory, as, living, he was in the hearts, of our countrymen, that once and again in his addresses to the Congresses with whom he cooperated in the public service he earnestly recommended the establishment of seminaries of learning, to prepare for all the emergencies of peace and war-a national university and a military academy. With respect to the latter, had he lived to the present dav, in turning his eyes to the institution at West Point, he would have enjoyed the gratification of his most earnest wishes; but in surveying the city which has been honored with his name he would have seen the spot of earth which he had destined and bequeathed to the use and benefit of his country as the site for an university still bare and barren.”