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think a speedy peace to be depended on, till I see the trea. ties signed. I am obliged to finish.
With great esteem, &c.
To the same, introducing Baron de Kermelin.
Passy, November 7, 1782
THE baron de Kermelin, a Swedish gentleman of distinction, recommended strongly to me by his excellency the embassador of that nation to this court, as 'a person highly esteemed in his own; purposes a journey through North America, to view its natural productions, acquaint himself with its commerce, and acquire such information as may be useful to his country, in the communication and connection of interests that seems to be growing, and probably may soon become considerable between the two nations. I therefore beg leave to introduce him to you, and request that you would present him to the president of congress, and to such other persons as you shall think may be useful to him in his views, and I'recommend him earnestly to those civilities which you have a pleasure in shewing to strangers of merit.
I have the honor to be, &c.
| B. FRANKLIN.
To the same.
Passy, December 4, 1782. Sir, WE detain the Washington a little longer, expecting an English passport for her in a few days, and as possibly some vessel bound for North America may sail before her, I write this line to inform you, that the French preliminaries with England are not yet signed, though we hope they may
be very soon. Of ours I enclose a copy. The Dutch and Spain have yet made but little progress, and as no definitive treaty will be signed, till all are agreed; there may be time for congress to give us farther instructions if they think proper. We hope the terms we have obtained will be satisfactory, though, to secure our main points, we may have yielded too much in favor of the royalists. The quantity of aid to be afforded us remains undecided. I suppose something depends on the event of the treaty; by the Washington you will be fully informed of every thing. With great regard, I have the honor to be, &c.
. B. FRANKLIN.
PROVISIONAL ARTICLES WITH GREAT BRITAIN.
ARTICLES agreed upon by and between Richard Oswald, Esq. the commissioner of his Britannic majesty, for treating of peace with the commissioners of the United States of America, in behalf of his said majesty, on the one part, and John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens, four of the commissioners for the said states, for treating of peace with the commissioners of his said majesty, on their behalf, on the other part; to be inserted in, and to constitute the treaty of peace, proposed to be concluded between the crown of Great Britain and the said United States; but which treaty is not to be concluded, until terms of a peace shall be agreed upon between Great Britain and France, and his Britannic majesty shall be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly.
Whereas reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience are found by experience to form the only permanent foundation of peace and friendship between states; it is agreed to form the articles of the proposed treaty on such principles of liberal equity and reciprocity, as that partial advantages (those seeds of discord) being excluded, such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the two countries mar
be established, as to promise and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony.
Article 1. His Britannic majesty acknowleges the said United States, to wit, New Hampshire, Massachusettsbay, Rhode Island and Providence plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free, sovereign, and independent states: that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof; and that all disputes which might arise in future, on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States, may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz.
Article 2. From the north west angle of Nova Scotia, to wit, that angle which is found by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix river, to the high lands, along the said high lands, which divide these rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Laurence, from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the north westermost head of Connecticut river; thence down along the middle of that river to 45° of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on said latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into lake Ontario, through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and lake Huron ; thence along the middle of said water communication into the lake Huron ; thence through the middle of said lake, to the water communication between that lake and lake Superior; thence through lake Superior, northward of the isles Royal and Phillipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods to the said
Lake of the Woods ; thence through the said lake to the most north western point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi ; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of 31° of north latitude.
South by a line to be drawn due east from the termination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of 31° north of the equator, to the middle of the river Appalachicola, or Catahouche ; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint river; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's river to the Atlantic ocean.
East by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from it mouth on the bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid high lands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean, from those which fall into the river St. Laurence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn, due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia, on the one part, and east Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the bay of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean; excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.
Article 3. It is agreed, that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the gulph of St. Laurence, and at all other places on the sea where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish; and also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland, as British fishermen shall use ; (but not to dry and cure the same on that island); and also on the coasts, bays, and creeks, of all others of his Britannic majesty's dominions in America ; and that the American fishermen. shall have liberty to cure and dry fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbors, and creeks, of Nova Scotia, Magdalene isl. ands, and Labradore, so long as the same shall remain unsettled; but as soon as the same, or either of them, shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish on such settlement, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprie. tors, or possessors of the ground.
Article 4. It is agreed, that creditors on either side, shall meet with no unlawful impediment to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.
Article 5. It is agreed, that the congrèss shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states, to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties, of persons resident in districts in the possession of his majesty's arms, and who have not borné arms against the said United States ; and that persons of any other description, shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts, of any of the thirteen United States, and therein to remain twelve months, unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties, as may have been confiscated ; and that congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states, a reconsideration and revi. sion of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent, not only with justice and equity, but with that spirit of conciliation which, on the return of the blessings of peace, should universally prevail ; and that congress should also earnestly recommend to the several states, that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons, shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons, who may be now in possession, the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties, since the confiscation..