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years; at present they average about one for every 23,000 inhabitants. Justice, education, public worship, and home affairs are the subjects they legislate upon. Half the total local revenue of the State of Würtemberg, which amounts to 3 million pounds, is raised from the state domains, railways, posts, and telegraphs. The other half in about equal proportion by a direct tax on land and income, and from indirect taxation.
(d) In Saxony, again, there are two chambers—the Upper, consisting partly of elected and partly of ex-officio members ;5 the Lower, containing 80 members--thirty-five deputies of towns, forty-five of rural communes—at present one for about every 32,000 inhabitants, elected by all male tax-payers over twenty-five years of age from the 3 millions of population (about the same as that of Scotland). The members of both Houses are paid twelve shillings a day. The same subjects for local and domestic legislation as in the other states, education, public worship, justice, home affairs, fall to their cognisance. Of the revenue, which is over 3 million pounds, more than balf is raised from state domains and railways. There is not an individual of the 2 millions of the population of Würtemberg (somewhat over that of Wales), or of the 3 millions of Saxony, above the age of ten years, unable to read and write.
(e) In Baden there is an Upper and Lower House. The former consists of princes of the blood, ten hereditary peers, R. C. Archbishop of Freiburg, the head of Protestant Church, a member for each of the two universities and eight nominated by the Grand Duke. The Lower, of 63 members, in the proportion of one for every 25,000 inbabitants, is elected by universal suffrage from a population of over 11 millions (about that of Wales). Every male citizen not convicted of crime, nor receiving parish relief, has a vote in the elections. Delegates are elected, who in their turn, as in Prussia and Würtemberg, elect the members for eight years. They legislate for the same matters, divided into five departments, as the other local parliaments. The local Baden revenue of 2 million pounds is raised chiefly from the railways, and about one-fourth from land and income tax.
(f) In Hesse there are two chambers—the Upper, composed partly of hereditary, partly of life and elected members; the lower contains 50 members for a population of 1 million, and the revenue is about the same figure.
And it is pretty much the same in the rest of the states of the federated empire, except that some of the smaller ones bave only one chamber, generally, however, indirectly elected (which seems to be the ballot by town and rural districts, and one member sits ex officio, the chancellor of Tübingen University.
5 The upper Saxon chamber consists of the princes of the blood royal, eight hereditary barons, twelve deputies elected by landowners, fifteen members nominated by the king for life, eight mayors of towns, five heads of colleges, the chancellor of Leipzig University, and one Roman Catholic dean (of Bautzen).
favourite German way of legalising and systematising the American and English Caucus), some of the members to represent property, others numbers only. Each state, however small, just as much as the larger ones, has home rule, and manages its own domestic affairs. The population of some of these smaller ones scarcely equals that of Nottingham or Norwich.
II. Since 1867 the Austro-Hungarian monarchy has been a political Siamese twin, of which Austria is the one body, and Hungary the other; the population of the Austrian half is 24 millions, and that of Hungary about 16 millions. Each of the two has its own parliament; the connecting link is the sovereign (whose civil list is raised half by one and half by the other) and a common army, navy, and diplomatic service, and another Over-parliament of 120 members, one half chosen by the legislature of Hungary, and the other half by the legislature of Austria (the Upper House of each twin returns twenty, and the Lower of each forty delegates from their own number, who thus form a kind of Joint Committee of the Four Houses). The jurisdiction of this Over-parliament is limited to foreign affairs and war.
But with this Over-parliament we are not now so much concerned. Our interest is chiefly with the western, or Austrian part of the twin, which is a federal government in itself. The federal and imperial Austrian parliament (the Reichsrath) is divided into an Upper and Lower House. The first, of 105 members in all, consists of thirteen princes of the blood royal, fifty-three hereditary peers, ten archbishops, seven bishops of the Greek and Roman Churches, and other members dominated for life by the crown, being persons distinguished for art or science, or for great service to Church or State. The Lower House, of 353 members, is elected for six years by all male persons over twenty-four years of age wlio pay direct taxes to the amount of 108. a year. Some of the members are elected by delegates, others directly; 85 are sent by the landed proprietors, 116 by the towns, 21 by the chambers of trade and commerce, and 131 by the rural districts; in these last the peasants elect one delegate for every 500 inhabitants, and these delegates elect the members. Female landed proprietors in possession of their own property are entitled to vote. The whole population of this federated Austria is 23 millions, less than that of England and Wales. The proportion of members roughly averages one to every 70,000 inbabitants. Both Houses must be summoned annually ; a bill may originate in either House; they legislate on army and navy, trade and commerce, railways, post and telegraph, customs, and the national debt. There are eight
6 Bohemia sends 92 members, one for 60,000 inhabitants; Galicia, 63, one for 94,000; Lower Austria 37, one for 63,000; Styria 23, one for 52,000; Upper Austria 17, one for 44,000; Tyrol 18, same proportion; Illyria 36, one for 60,000; Salzburg 5, or one for 32,000; Vorarlberg 3, or one for 35,000.
ministers-justice, war, commerce, agriculture, finance, home department, education, and one without portfolio, always a Pole, for Galicia.
Federated Austria consists of seventeen distinet states. The German element constitutes 36 per cent. of the inhabitants of these, and the Sclav 57 per cent. There are a few Magyars, Italians, and Roumanians. Each of these seventeen states has its own provincial parliament of one House, partly composed of e.e-officio members (the bishops and archbishops of the Latin and Greek Churches, and the chancellors of the universities), but chiefly of representatives chosen by all the inhabitants who pay direct taxation. Some of these are elected by the landowners, others by the towns, others by the tradeguilds and boards of commerce; the representatives of the rural communes, however, are elected by delegates, as in Prussia. They legislate concerning all local matters, county taxation, land laws and farming, education, public worship, and public works.
The constitution of the eastern part of the empire, or the kingdom of Hungary, dates from A.D. 895. There are two Houses of the Reichstag. The Upper contains 839 members (of whom 772 are hereditary magnates, 50 are bishops of the Greek and Roman Churches, 5 are from Transylvania, and 2 are deputies from Croatia). The Lower contains 444 members, elected every three years by all males over twenty who pay direct taxes. 334 of these are deputies of Hungarian towns and rural districts; 75 are from Transylvania; 34 from Croatia ; and one from Fiume. Croatia and Slavonia have besides a common diet of their own, and for internal affairs, religion, education, and justice, are autonomous. The revenues of the AustroHungarian monarchy, which thus recognises three distinct federal parliaments, are managed under three distinct budgets. The first for the whole empire (to which Austria pays 68 and Hungary 31 per cent.) was last year 21 millions of pounds. Out of it only the working expenses of the empire are paid--the army, navy, and diplomatic services. The second for federated Austria was 46 million pounds (or about half that of Great Britain), and is raised by customs and excise and indirect taxation. The third for the kingdom of Hungary alone, of 30 million pounds. Out of both these last has to be paid the annual charge on the national debt. More than two-thirds of the population of the empire are engaged in agriculture, but they gravitate constantly towards the larger towns. This instance of federation may look unwieldy because Hungary is tied to it, but it is the only practical way of uniting in one empire the various nationalities, races, and religions that own the head of the House of Habsburg as king and sovereign.
III. Turning next to the oldest federation in Europe, that of Switzerland, which with various changes has survived from 1308, though its present constitution dates only from 1874, we find it now
embraces three nationalities–German, French, Italian. The original nucleus of the State, however, was German, and even now three-fourths of the population are German. The twenty-two distinct states are federated under one president elected annually, and the Federal Assembly of two chambers. The. Upper House (the Ständerath) consists of 44 members, two coming from each canton irrespective of its size (exactly in the same way as the Senate in the United States is composed of two members from each of the thirty-eight American States), and, like the Upper House of the federated German empire, these members represent not population, but states federated. The Lower (or • Nationalrath ') House consists of 145 members elected every three years by universal suffrage of all males over twenty, one member for every 20,000 inhabitants. The public revenue of the confederation is derived almost entirely from customs, and from the post and telegraphs. A great part is afterwards divided, and paid back in proportions from the central authority to supplement the local revenues of the various cantons. The total revenue is a little under 2 million pounds, the population is nearly 3 millions. Each of the cantons is sovereign and independent, and has its own local parliament, scarcely any two being the same, but all based on universal suffrage. Each canton has its own budget of revenue and expenditure, and its own public debt. Their local revenues are raised by income-tax, and in some few cases from excise, but 58 per cent. by indirect taxation.
IV. Passing from the Old to the New World, we go from the smallest and oldest instance of federated government to that of the youngest and the largest. We will take the youngest first. In 1867 the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (which up to that time had been called Upper and Lower Canada), together with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, were federated by act of the Imperial British Parliament at Westminster as the Dominion of Canada. These four provinces were joined by British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, and the rest of British North America (except Newfoundland) in 1880. The territory of this Federal Dominion is over 3 million square miles in extent, and is at present divided into seven distinct and independent colonies, the united population of which is 41 millions; at the present rate of increase it doubles itself every twenty-five years. The federal parliament consists of two Houses, called the Senate and the House of Commons. The Senate consists of 77 members nominated by the crown for life, but they may resign; (viz. 24 from Ontario, 24 from Quebec, 12 from Nova Scotia, 12 from New Brunswick, 3 from British Columbia, 4 from Prince Edward Island, and 3 from Manitoba); they must all be over thirty years of age. The House of Commons is elected practically by universal suffrage at the rate of one member for every 17,000 inhabitants; they sit for five years. The number of members allotted to each province
is adjusted by the census; at present there are 213 members (88 from Ontario, 65 from Quebec, 21 from Nova Scotia, 16 from New Brunswick, 4 from Manitoba, 6 from British Columbia, 6 from Prince Edward's Island). The members of the Senate, and of the House of Commons, are each paid 21. every day they attend, with travelling expenses.
The Governor-General of the Dominion, representing the Queen, as head of the executive, has a salary equal to that of the President of the United States. He has a cabinet of thirteen ministers, who are called the ‘Privy Council of Canada ;' they are the ministers of the interior or home affairs (who is prime minister), of railways and canals, of finance, of justice (the attorney-general), of militia and defence, of marine and fisheries, of agriculture, of public works, of customs, of inland revenue, of post, and two others without portfolios. The revenue of the federated Dominion in 1882 was over 11 million pounds (one-eighth that of the United Kingdom, and half of that of the Australasian colonies) ; it is drawn chiefly from customs, excise, post-office, and railways, the first, however, amounts to threefifths of the whole. In tonnage of vessels Canada stands fourth among the nations of the world ; Germany being fifth, and Italy sixth.
The local and provincial parliaments are distinct in each one of the seven free and independent colonies that are thus federated. Ontario (with a population under 2 millions) has only one chamber, called the Legislative Assembly, consisting of 82 members, one for each of eighty-two districts, and all elected for four years. Quebec, whose population of i} million is nearly all French and Roman Catholic, has two elective chambers; the Upper one contains 24 members, one from each of twenty-four electoral districts, and the Lower contains 65 members, all elected for four years. New Brunswick, with 440,000 inhabitants, has also an Upper and Lower House; the first of 20, and the second of 41 members ; Nova Scotia, with her 321,000 inhabitants, has a Lower House of 38 members, but the Upper is nominated by the Lieutenant-Governor. Prince Edward Island has also two Houses, both elective, the Upper contains 13, and the Lower 30 members (ten from each of three counties), but British Columbia (like Ontario and Manitoba) is at present content with one House of 24 members. Each province has its own lieutenant-governor, nominated by the Governor-General of the Dominion, and possesses full powers to regulate its own local affairs, dispose of its local revenues, and make such laws for its own internal matters as it deems best as regards the land, education, public worship, railways and canals, &c., under its own provincial and responsible ministry.
The immediate effect of this confederation has been to facilitate the settlement of questions which were before sources of angry recrimination. Each provincial legislature, relieved of the more general subjects of legislation and debate, is now vigorously pursuing the policy of development-extending education, promoting colonisation and