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sunset and bed-time. Their candles are made of the kernels of an oily nut, which they stick over one another upon a skewer, that is thrust through the middle of them; the upper one being lighted burns down to the second, at the same time consuming that part of the skewer which goes through it; the second taking fire burns in the fame manner down to the third, and so of. the rest: some of these candles will burn a considerable time, and they give a very tolerable light. They do not often sit up above an hour after it is dark; but when they have strangers who fleep in the house, they generally keep a light burning all night, possibly as a check upon such of the women as they wish not to honour them with their favours.
Of their itinerary concerts, I need add nothing to what has been already said; especially as I shall have occasion, more particularly, to mention them, when I relate our adventures upon another ifland.
In other countries, the girls and unmarried women are supposed to be wholly ignorant of what others, upon scm.; occasions, may appear to know; and their conduct and conversation are consequently restrained within narrower bounds, and kept at a more remote distance from whatever relates to a connection with the other sex; but here it is just the contrary. Among other diversions,there isa dance called Timorodee,which is performed by young girls, whenever eight or ten of them can be collected together, consisting of motions and gestures beyond imagination wanton, in the practice of which they are brought up from their earliest childhood, accompanied by words, which, if it were possible, would more explicitly convey the fame ideas, in these dances, they keep time with an exactness which is scarely excelled by the best performers upon the stages of Europe. But the practice which is allowed to the virgin, is prohibited to the woman from the moment that she has put these hopeful lessons in practice, ar.d realixed the symbols of the dance.
If cannot be supposed that, among these people, chaiiityis held in much estimation; It might be expected that sisters and daughters would be offered to strangers, either as a courtesy, or for reward; and that breaches of conjugal fidelity, even in the wife,
mould not be otherwise punished than by a few hard .. :words, or perhaps a flight beating, as indeed is the cafe: but there is a scale in dissolute sensuality, which these people have ascended, wholly unknown to every other nation, whose manners have been recorded from the beginning of the world to the present hour, and which no imagination could possibly conceive.
A very considerable number of the principal people of Otaheite, of bath sexes, have formed themselves into a society, in which every woman is common to every man: thus securing a perpetual variety, as often as their inclination prompts them to seek, it, which is so frequent, that the same man and woman seldom cohabit together more than two or three days.
These societies are distinguished by the name of Arreoy; and the members have meetings, at which no other is present, where the men amuse themselves by wrestling, and the women, notwithstanding their occasional connection with different men, dance the Timorodee in all its latitude, as an incitement to desires, which, it is said, are frequently gratified upon the spot. This, however, is comparatively nothing. If any of the women happen to be with child, which in this manner of life happens less frequently than if they were lo. cohabit only with one man, the poor infant is smothered the moment it is born, that it may be nix incumbrance to the father, nor interrupt the mother in the pleasures of her diabolical prostitution. It. sometimes indeed happens, that the passion which prompts a woman to enter into this society, is surmounted when she becomes a mother, by that instinctive affection which Nature has given to all creatures for the preservation of their offspring; but even in this case, she is not permitted to spare the life of her infant, except she can find a man who will patronise it as his child; if this can be done, the murder is pre~ yented; but both the man and woman, being deemed by this, act to have appropriated each other, are ejected from the community, and forfeit all claim to the privileges and pleasures ot Arreoy for the future; the woman from that time being distinguished by the term Whannownow, " bearer of children," which is. feere. A texmof teproach; though oone can be mores E 4 honourable
honourable in the estimation of wisdom and humanity, of right reason, and every passion that distinguishes the man from the brute.
It is not fit that a practice so horrid and so strange should be imputed to human beings upon flight evidence, but I have such as abundantly justifies me in the account I have given. The people themselves are so far from concealing their connection with such a society as a disgrace, that they boast of it as a privilege; and both myself and Mr. Banks, when particular persons have been pointed out to us as members of the Arreoy, have questioned them about it, and received the account that has been here given from their own lips. They have acknowledged, that they had long been of this accursed society, that they belonged to it at that time, and that several of their children had been put to death.
Burl must not conclude my account os the domestic life of these people, without mentioning their personal cleanliness. If that which lessens the good of life, and increases the evil, is vice, surely cleanliness is a virtue; the want of it tends to destroy both beauty and health, and mingles disgust with our best pleasures. The natives of Otaheite, both men and women, constantly wash their whole bodies in running water three times every day; once as soon as they rife in the morning, once at noon, and again before they sleep at night, whether the sea or river is near them or at a distance. I have already observed, that they wash. not only the mduth. but the hands at their meals, almost between every morsel; and their clothes, as well as their persons, are kept without spot or stain; so that in a large company of these people, nothing is suffered but heat, which perhaps is more than can be said of the politest assembly in Europe.
Of the Manufaflurers, Boats, and Navigation of
IF necessity is the mother of invention, it cannot be l?(c9
Their principal manufacture is their cloth, in theManusacmaking and dying of which, I think, there are some'""8particulars which may instruct even the artificers of Great Britain, and for that reason my description will be more minute.
Their cloth is of three kinds, and it is made, of the bark of three different trees, the Chinese paper mulberry, the bread-fruit tree, and the tree which resembles the wild fig-tree of the West Indies.
The finest and whitest is made of the paper mulberry, Aouta; this is worn chiefly by the principal people, and when it is dyed red takes a better colour. A second sort, inferior in whiteness and softness, is made of the bread-fruit tree, Ooroo, and worn chiefly by the inferior people; and a third of the tree that resembles the fig, which is coarse and harsh, and of the colour of the darkest brown paper: this, though it is less pleasing both to the eye andthe touch, is the most valuable, because it resists water, which the other twa forts will not. Of this, which is the most rare as well as the most useful, the greater part is perfumed, and worn by the Chiefs as a morning dress.
All these trees are propagated with great care, particularly the mulberry, which covers the largest part of the cultivated land, and is not fit for use atter two or three years growth, when it is about fix or eight feet high, and somewhat thicker than a man's thumb; its excellence is to be thin, straight, tall, and without branches; the lower leaves, therefore are carefully
n69- plucked off, with their germs, as often as there is any 'appearance of their producing a branch.
But though the cloth made of these three trees is different, it is all manufactured in the fame manner; I shall therefore describe the process only in the fine fort, that is made of the mulberry. When the tiees are of a proper siz£, they are drawn up, and stripped of their branches, after which the roots and tops are cutoff; the bark of these rods being then flit up longitudinally, is easily drawn off, and, when a proper quantity has been procured, it is carried down to some running water, in which it is deposited to soak, and secured from floating away by heavy stones; when it is supposed to be sufficiently softened, the women servants go down to the brook, and stripping themselves fit down in the water, to separate the inner bark from the green part on the outside: to do this, they place the under side upon a flat smooth board, and with the shell which our dealers call Tyger's Tongue, Tellina gargadia, serape it very carefully, dipping it continually in the water, till nothing remains but the fine fibres of the inner coat.. Being thus prepared in the afternoon, they are spread out upon plantain reaves in the evening; and in this part of the work there appears to. be some difficulty, as the mistress of the family always superintends the doing of it; they are placed in lengths of about eleven or twelve yards, one by the -side of another, till they are about a foot broad, and two or three layers are also laid one upon the other: care is taken that the cloth stiall be in all parts of art equal thickness, so that if the bark happens to be thin-. rter in any one particular part of one layer than the rest, a piece that is somewhat thicker is picked out ta be laid over it in the next. In this state it remains till the morning, when great part of the water, which.it contained when it was laid out, is either drained off or evaporated, and the several fibres adhere together, so *s that the whole may be raised from the ground in one piece.
It is then taken away, and laid upon the smooth. fide of a long piece of wood, prepared for. the purposes and beaten by the women servants, with instrun