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shore, between the island and the main, at the distance of about two leagues from the main, and three or four from the island, our soundings were regular from twelve to nine fathoms; but about eleven o'clock in the forenoon we were again embarrassed with shoal water, having at one time not more than three fathoms; yet we got clear, without casting anchor. At noon we were about two leagues from the main, and four from the islands without us. Our latitude, by observation, was 20° 56', and a high promontory, which I named Cape Hillsborough, bore W. f N. distant seven miles. The land here is diversified by mountains, hills, plains, and vallies, and seems to be well clothed with herbage and wood. The islands which lie parallel to the coast, and from five to eight or nine miles distant, are of various height and extent, scarcely any of them are more than five leagues in circumference, and many are not four miles: besides this chain of islands, which lies at a distance from the coast, there are others much less, which lie under the land, from which We saw smoke rising in different places. We continued to steer along the shore at the distance of about two leagues, with regular soundings from nine to ten fathoms. At fun-set the farthest part of the main bore N. 48 W. and to the northward of this lay some high land, which I took to be an island, and of which the horth-West point bore 41 W. but not being sure of a passage, I came to an anchor about eight o'clock in the evening, in ten fathoms water, with a muddy bottom. About ten we had a tide setting to the northward, and at two it had fallen nine feet; after this it began to rife, and the flood came from the northward, in the direction of the islands which lay out to sea; a plain indication that there was no passage to the N. W. This, however, had not appeared at day-break, when we got under s«*yj. saii and stood to the N. W. At eight o'clock in the morning we discovered low land, quite across what we took for an opening, which proved to be a bay, about five or six leagues deep; upon this we hauled our wind to the eastward round the north point of the bay, which at this time bore from us N. E: by N. distant four leagues: from this point we found the land trend away N. by W. i W. and a slreight or passage
between it and a large island, or islands, lying parallel to it. Having the tide of ebb in our favour, we stood for this passage, and at noon were just within the entrance; our latitude, by observation, was 20° 26' S. Cape Hillfborough bore S. by E. distant ten leagues; and the north point of the bay S. 19 W. distant four miles. This point, which I named Cape Conway, lies in latitude 26°36'S. longitude 211° 28' W. and the bay, which lies between this Cape and Cape Hillsiborough, I called Repulse Bay. The greatest depth of water which we found in it was thirteen fathoms, and the least eight. In all parts there was safe anchorage, and I believe that, upon proper examination, some good harbours would be found in it, especially at the north side within Cape Conway; for just within that Cape there lie two or three small islands, which alone would shelter that side of the bay from the southerly and south-easterly winds, that seem to prevail here as a trade. Among the many islands that lie upon this coast, there is one more remarkable than the rest; it is of a small circuit, very high and peaked, and lies E. by S. ten miles from Cape Conway, at the south end of the passage. In the afternoon we steered through this passage, which we found to be from three to seven miles broad, and eight or nine leagues in length, N. by W. 5 W. S. by E. k E. It is formed by the main on the west, and by the islands on the east, one of which is at least five leagues in length; our depth of water, in running through, was from twenty to five-and-twenty fathoms, with good anchorage every where; and the whole passage may be considered as one safe harbour, exclusive of the small bays and coves which abound on each side, where ships might lie as in a bason. The land both upon the main and the islands is high, and diversified by hill and valley, wood and lawn, with a green and pleasant appearance. On one of the islands we discovered, with our glasses, two men and a woman, and a canoe with an outrigger, which appeared to be larger, and of a construction very different from those of bark tied together at the ends, which we had seen upon other parts of the coast; we hoped therefore that the people here had made some farther advances beyond mere animal life, than those that we had seen Y 3 before.
>77°- before. At fix o'clock in the evening we were nearly L,j°p_ _, the length of the north end of the passage; the northweslermost point of the main in sight bore N. 45 W. and the north end of the island N. N. E. wiih an open sea between the two points. As this passage was discovered on Whitsunday, I called it Whitsunday's Passage, and I called the islands that form it CumBerland Islands, in honour of his Royal Highness the Duke. We kept under an easy sail, with the lead going all night, being at the distance of about three leagues from the shore, and having from twenty-one Mond. 4. to twenty-three fathoms water. At day-break we were a-breast of the point which had been the farthest in sight to the north-west the evening before, which I named Cape Gloucester. It is a lofty promontory, in latitude 190 59' S. longitude 211° 49' W. and may be known by an island which lies out at sea N. by W. £■ W. at the distance of five or six leagues from it, and which I called Holborne Isle; there are also islands lying under the land, between Holborne Isle and Whitsunday's Passage. On the west side of Cape Gloucester the land trends away S. W. and S. S- W. and forms a deep bay, the bottom of which I could but just fee from the mast head; it is very low, and a continuation of the low land which we had seen at the bottom of Repulse Bay. This bay I called Edgcumbe Bay, but without staying to look into it, we continued our course to the westward, for the farthest land we could see in that-direction, which bore W. by N. \ N. and appeared very high. At noon we were about three leagues from the shore, by observation, in latitude 190 47' S. and Cape Gloucester bore S. 63 E. distant seven leagues and an half. At six in the evening we were a-breast of the westernmost point just mentioned, at about three miles distance; and because it rises abruptly from the low lands which surround it, I called it Cape Upstart. It lies in latitude 190 39' S. longitude 2120 32' W. fourteen leagues W. N. W. from Cape Gloucester, and is of a height sufficient to be seen at the distance of twelve leagues: inland there are some high hills or mountains, which, like the cape, afford but a barren prospect. Having passed this cape, we continued standing to the W. N. W.
a* as the land lay, under an easy sail, having from sixteen >77°
to ten fathoms, till two o'clock in the morning, when v f"ne"
we fell into seven fathoms, upon which we hauled our Tuesday c. wind to the northward, judging ourselves to be very near land. At day-break we found our conjecture to be true, being within little more than two leagues of it. In this part of the coast the land, being very low, is nearer than it appears to be, though it is diversified with here and there a hill. At noon we were about four leagues from the land in fifteen fathoms water, and our latitude, by observation, was 190 12'S. Cape Upstart bearing S.320 30' E. distant twelve leagues. About this time some very large columns of smoke were seen rising from the low lands. At fun-set, the preceding night, when we were close under Cape Upstart, the variation was nearly 90 E. ,and, at fun-rife this day it was no more than 50 35'; I judged therefore that it had been influenced by iron ore, or other magnetical matter, contained under the surface of the earth. .. • .. -t
We continued to steer W. N. W. as the land lay, with twelve or fourteen fathoms water, till noon on the 6th, when our latitude, by observation, was 19° i' S. Wednesd.tf. and we had the mouth of a bay all open, extending from S. £ W. to S. W. £ S. distant two leagues. This bay, which I named Cleveland Bay, appeared to be about five or six miles in extent every way; the east point I named Cape Cleveland, and the west, which had the appearance of an island, Magnetical Isle, as we perceived that the compass did not traverse well when we Were near it; they are both high, and so is the main land within them, the whole forming a surface the most rugged, rocky, and barren of any we had seen upon the coast; it was not, however, without inhabitants, for we saw smoke in several parts of the bottom of the bay. The northernmost land that was in sight at this time bore N. W. and it had the appearance of an island, for we could not trace the main land farther than W. by N. We steered W. N. W. keeping the main land on board, the outermost part of which, at sun-set, bore W. by N. but without it lay high land, which we judged not to be part of it,
At day-break we were a-breast of the eastern part of __^^^j this land, which we found to be a group of islands, lyThursd. 7. '"g aDout five leagues from the main. At this time, being between the two shores, we advanced slowly to the N. W. till noon, when our latitude, by observation, ■was 18° 49' S. and our distance from the main about five leagues: the north-west part of it bore from us N. by W. i W. the islands extending from N. to E. and the nearest being distant about two miles: Cape Cleveland bore S. 50 E. distant eighteen leagues. Our foundings, in the course that we had failed between this time and the preceding noon, were from fourteen to eleven fathoms.
In the afternoon we saw several large columns of smoke upon the main -T we saw also some people and eanoes; and upon one of the islands what had the appearance of cocoa-nut-trees. As a few of these nuts would now have been very acceptable, I sent Lieutenant Hicks a-shore, and with him went Mr. Banks and Dr. Sqlander, to fee what refreshment could be procured, while I kept standing in for the island with the ship. About seven o'clock in the evening they returned, Vith an account that what we had taken for cocoa-nut-trees were a small kind of cabbage-palm, and thai, except about fourteen or fifteen plants, they had met with nothing worth bringing away. While they were ashore they saw none of the people; but just as they had put off one of them came very near the beach, and shouted with a loud voice: it was so dark that they could not fee him, however they turned towards the shore, but when he heard the boat putting back he ran away, or hid himself, for they could not get a glimpse of him, and though they shouted he made no reply. After the return of the boats, we stood away N Friday 8. by W. for the northernmost land in sight, of which we were a-breast at three o'clock in the morning, having passed all the islands three or four hours before. This land, on account of its figure, I named Point HilLock: it is of a considerable height, and may be known by a round hillock, or rock, which joins to the point, but appears to. be detached from it. Between this cdpe and Magnetical Isle, the shore forms a large bay,