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that side is seven fathoms, (hallowing to five a good way >77°up. At a considerable distance from the south more. ^ there is a shoal, reaching from the inner south point quite to the head of the harbour; but over towards the north and north-west shore, there is a channel of twelve or fourteen feet at low water, for three or four leagues, up to a place where there is three or four fathoms, but here I found very little fresh water, We anchored near the south shore, about a mile within the entrance, for the convenience of sailing with a southerly wind, and because I thought it the best situation for watering: but I afterwards found a very fine stream on the north shore, in the first sandy cove within the ifland, before which a ship might lie almost land-locked, and procure wood as well as water in great abundance. Wood indeed is every where plenty, but I saw only two kinds which may be considered as timber. These trees are as large, or larger than the English oak, and one of them has not a very different appearance: this is the fame that yields the reddish gum like fanguis draconis, and the wood is heavy, hard, and dark-coloured, like lignum vitæ; the other grows tall and strait, something like the pine; and the wood of this, which has some resemblance to the live oak of America, is also hard and heavy. There are a few shrubs, and several kinds of the palm; mangroves also grow in great plenty near the head of the bay. The country in general is level, low, and woody, as far as we could see. The woods, as I have before observed, abound with birds of exquisite beauty, particularly of the parrot kind; we found also crows here, exactly the fame with those in England. About the head of the harbour, where there are large flats of sand and mud, there is great plenty of waterfowl, most of which were altogether unknown to us: one of the most remarkable was black and white, much larger than a swan, and in shape somewhat resembling a pelican. On these banks of sand and mud there are great quantities of oysters, muscles, cockles, and other shell-fish, which seem to be the principal subsistence of the inhabitants, who go into shoal water with their little canoes, and pick them out with th^ir hands. We did not observe that they eat any of them raw, nor do they
'77<»- always go on shore to dress them, for they have freV". ^quently fires in their canoes for that purpose. They do not however subsist wholly upon this food, for they catch a variety of other fish, some of which they strike with gigs, and some they take with hook and line. All the inhabitants that we saw were stark naked: they did not appear to be numerous, nor to live in societies, but like other animals were scattered about along the coast, and in the woods. Of their manner of life, however, we could know but little, as we were never able to form the least connection with them: after the first contest at our landing, they would never come near enough to parley; nor did they touch a single article of all that we had left at their huts, and the places they frequented, on purpose for them to take away.
During my slay in this harbour, I caused the English, colours to be displayed on shore every day and the ship's name, and the date of the year, to be inscribed upon one of the trees near the watering-place.
It is high-water here at the full and change of the moon about eight o'clock, and the tide rises and falls perpendicularly between four and five feet.
the Range from Botany Bay to Trinity Bay; with asar- • tber Account of the Country, its Inhabitants and Productions.
Sundays. /I T day-break, on Sunday the 6th of May 1770, j£\_ we set sail from Botany Bay, with a light breeze at N. W. which soon aster coming to the southward, we steered along the shore N. N. E. and at noon our latitude, by observation, was 330 50' S. At this time we were between two and three miles distant from the land, and a-breast of a bay, cr harbour, in which there appeared to be good anchorage, and which I called Port Jackson. This harbour lies three leagues to the northward of Botany Bay: the variation, by several azimuths, appeared to be 8* E. At fun-set the northernmost land in sight bore N. 26 E. and some broken land, that seemed to form a bay, bore N. 40 W. distant four leagues. This bay, which lies in latitude 33° 42', I called
Broken Bay. We steered along the sliore N. N. E. '770. all night, at the distance of about three leagues from t ^ay_l , the land, having from thirty-two to thirty-six fathoms —u~ water, with a hard sandy bottom.
Soon after fun-rife on the 7 th, I took several azimuths, Mond. 7. with four needles belonging to the azimuth compass, the mean result of which gave the variation 7* 56' E. At noon our latitude, by observation, was 33° 22' S. We were about three leagues from the shore; the northernmost land in sight bore N. 19 E. and some lands which projected in three bluff points, and which, for that reason, I called Cape Three Points, bore S. W. distant five leagues. Our longitude from Botany Bay was 19'E.. In the afternoon, we saw smoke in several places upon the shore, and in the evening, found the variation to be 8° 25' E. At this time we were between two and three miles from the shore, in twenty-eight fathoms; and at noon the next day, we had not ad-Tuesil- •• vanced one step to the northward. We stood off shore, with the wind northerly, till twelve at night, and at the distance of about five leagues, had seventy fathoms; at the distance of six leagues we had eighty fathoms, which is the extent of the soundings; for at the distance of ten leagues, we had no ground with 150 fathoms.
The wind continuing northerly, till the morning ofThursd 10. the 10th, we continued to stand in and off the shore, with very little change of situation in other respects; but a gale then springing up at S. W. we made the best of our way along the shore to the northward. At sunrise, our latitude was 330 2' S. and. the variation 8° E. At nine in the forenoon, we passed a remarkable hill, which stood a little way inland, and somewhat resembled the crown of a hat: and at noon, our latitude, by observation, was 320 53' S. and our longitude 2080 W. We were about two leagues distant from the land, which extended from N. 41 E. to S. 41 W. and a small round rock, or island, which lay close under the land, bore S. 82" W. distant between three and four leagues. At four in the afternoon, we passed, at the distance of about a mile, a low rocky point, which I called Point Stephens, on the north side of which is an inlet, which I called Port Stephens: this inlet appeared to
1770. me, from the mast head, to be sheltered from all winds.
LM'?I It lies in latitude 330 40', longitude 2070 51', and at v~—J tne entrance are three imall islands, two of which are high; and on the main near the shore are some high round hills, which at a distance appear like islands. la pasting this bay, at the distance of two or three miles from the shore, our soundings were from thirty-three to twenty-seven fathoms, from which I conjectured that there must be a sufficient depth of water within it. At a little distance within land we saw smoke in several places ; and at half an hour past five, the northernmost land in fight bore N. 36 E. and Point Stephens S. W. distant four leagues. Our soundings in the night, were from forty-eight to sixty-two fathoms, at the distance of between three and four leagues from the shore, which made in two hillocks. This Point I called Cape Hawke: it lies in the latitude of 320 14' S. longitude
Fridty n. 2070 30'W. and at four o'clock in the morning bore W. distant about eight miles; at the fame time the northernmost land in sight bore N. 6 E. and appeared like an island. At noon, this land bore N. 8 E. the northernmost land in fight N. 13 E. and Cape Hawke S. 37 W. Our latitude, by observation, was 320 2' S. which was twelve miles to the southward of that given by the log; so that probably we had a current setting that way: by the morning amplitude and azimuth the variation was 90 10' E During our run along the shore, in the afternoon, we saw fires in several places, at a little distance from the beach, and one upon the top of a hill, which was the first we had seen upon elevated ground since our arrival upon the coast. At sunset, we had twenty-three fathoms, at the distance of a league and an half from the shore: the northernmost jand then bore N. 13 E. and three hills, remarkably large and high, lying contiguous to each other, and not far from the beach, N. N. W. As these hills bore some resemblance to each other, we called them the Three Brothers. They lie in latitude 31 • 40', and may be seen fourteen or sixteen leagues. We steered N. E. by N. all night, having from twenty-seven to sixty-seven fathoms, at the distance,of between two and fix leagues from the shore.
■ •: .S - . :> At
At day-break we steered north, for the northernmost 1770. Jand in sight. At noon, we were four leagues from. ^y' , the shore, and, by observation, in latitude 310 i8'S.Slturd lt which was fifteen miles to the southward of that given by the log; our longitude 2060 58' W. In the afternoon we stood in for the land, where we saw smoke in several places, till fix in the evening, when, being within three or four miles of it, and in twenty-four fathoms of water, we stood off with a fresh breeze at N. and N. N. W. till midnight, when we had 118 fathoms, at the distance of eight leagues from the land, and then tacked. At three in the morning the wind Sond- *3veered to the westward, when we tacked and stood to the northward. At noon our latitude, by observation, was 300 43' S. and our longitude 206* 45' W. At this time we were between three and four leagues from the shore, the northernmost part of which bore from us N. 13 W. and a point, or head land, on which we saw fires that produced a great quantity of smoke, bore W.' distant four leagues. To this point I gave the name of Smokiy Cape: it is of a considerable height, and Over the pitch of the point is a round hillock; within it are two others, much higher and larger, and within them the land is very low. Our latitude was 30031' S. longitude 2060 54' W. this day the observed latitude was only five miles south of the log. We saw smoke in several parts along the coast, besides that seen upon Smokey Cape.
In the afternoon, the wind being at N. E. we stood off and on, and at three or four miles distance from the shore had thirty fathoms water: the wind afterwards coming cross off land, we stood to the northward, having from thirty to twenty-one fathoms, at the distance of four or five miles from the shore.
At five in the morning the wind veered to the north, Mond. 14. and blew fresh, attended with squalls: at eight it began to thunder and rain, and in about an hour it fell calm, which gave us an opportunity to found, and we had eighty-six fathoms at between four and five leagues from the shore: soon after this we had a gale from the southward, with which we steered N. by W. for the northernmost land in sight. At noon, we were about four leagues from the shore, and by observation in latitude