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"77°- had performed this service, he went a-fhore, and having ■ -°—,_f taken a midshipman with him, and sent the boat away, set out to join the waterers by land. In his way he fell in with a body of two-and-twenty Indians, who followed him, and were often not more than twenty yards distant ; when Mr. Gore perceived them so near, he slopped, and faced about, upon which they stopped also; and when he went on again, continued their pursuit: they did not, however, attack him, though they were all armed with lances, and he and the midshipman got in safety to the watering-place. The Indians, who had slackened their pursuit when they came in sight of the main body of our people, halted at about the distance of a quarter of a mile, where they stood still. Mr. Monkhouse, and two or three of the waterers, took it in their heads to march up to them; but seeing the Indians keep their ground till they came pretty near them, they were seized with a sudden fear, very common to the rash and fool-hardy, and made a hasty retreat. This step, which insured the danger that it was taken to avoid, encouraged the Indians, and four of them running forward discharged their lances at the fugitives with such force, that, flying no less than forty yards, they went beyond them. As the Indians did not pursue, our people, recovering their spirits, stopped to collect the lances, when they came up to the place where they lay; upon which the Indians, in their turn, began to retire. Just at this time I came up, with Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia; and being desirous to convince the Indians that we were neither afraid of them, nor intended them any mischief, ■we advanced towards them, making signs of expostulation and entreaty, but they could not be persuaded to wait till we could come up. Mr. Gore told us, that he had seen some of them up the bay, who had invited him by signs to come on shore, which he, certainly with great prudence, declined. Wednesd. i. The morning of the next day was so rainy, that we were all glad to stay on board. In the afternoon, however, it cleared up, and we made another excursion along the sea-coast to the southward. We went a-shore, and Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander gathered many plants;
but but besides these we saw nothing worthy of notice. At 1770* our first entering the woods, we met with three of the . Maynatives, who instantly ran away; more of them were seen by some of the people, but they all disappeared, with great precipitation, as soon as they found that they were discovered. By the boldness of these people at our first landing, and the terror that seized them at the sight of us afterwards, it appears that they were sufficiently intimidated by our fire-arms; not that we had any reason to think the people much hurt by the small-shot which we were obliged to fire at them, when they attacked us at our coming out of the boat 5 but they had probably seen the effects of them, from their lurking places, upon the birds that we had shot. Tupia, who was now become a good marksman, frequently strayed from us to shoot parrots, and he told us, that, while he was thus employed, he had once met with nine Indians,, who, as soon as they perceived he saw them, ran from him in great contusion and terror.
The next day twelve canoes, in each of which wasThurffoy 3. a single Indian, came towards the watering-place, and were within half a mile of it a considerable time; they were employed in striking fish, upon which, like others that we had seen before, they were so intent that they seemed to regard nothing else. It happened, however, that a party of our people were out a shooting near the place, and one of the men, whose curiosity might at, length perhaps be roused, by the report of the fowlingpieces, was observed by Mr. Banks to haul up his canoe, upon the beach, and go towards the shooting party; in something more than a quarter of an hour he returned, launched his canoe, and went off in her to his companions. This incident makes it probable, that the natives acquired a knowledge of the destructive power of our fire-arms, when we knew nothing of the matter; for this man was not seen by any of the party whose operations, he had reconnoitred.
While Mr. Banks was gathering plants near the watering-place, I went with Dr. Solander and Mr. Monkhouie to the head of the bay, that I might examine that part of the couutry, and make farther attempts to form some connection with the natives. In U 4 our
■77°- our way we met with eleven or twelve small canoes, ,_ _J_jr with each a man in it, probably, the fame that were afterwards a-breast of the shore, who all made into shoal ■water upon our approach. We met other Indians on shore the first time we landed, who instantly took to their canoes, and paddled away. We went up the country to some distance, and found the face of it nearly the fame with that which has been described already, but the soil was much richer; for instead of sand, I found a deep black mould, which I thought very fit for the production of grain of any kind. In the woods we found a tree which bore fruit, that in colour and shape resembled a cherry; the juice had an agreeable tartness, though but little flavour. We found also interspersed some of the finest meadows in the world; some places, however, were rocky, but these were comparatively few: the stone is sandy, and might be used with advantage for building. When we returned to the boat, we saw some smoke upon another part of the coast, and went thither in hopes of meeting with the people, but at our approach these also ran away. We found six small canoes, and six fires very near the beach, with some muscles roasting upon them, and a few oysters lying near j by this we judged that there had been one man in each canoe, who having picked up some shell-fish had come a-shore to eat it, and made his separate fire for that purpose. We tasted of their cheer, and left them in return some strings of beads, and other things which we thought would please them. At the foot of a tree in this place we found a small well of fresh water, supplied by a spring, and the day being now far spent we returned to the ship. In the evening Mr. Banks made a little excursion with his gun, and found such a number of quails, resembling those in England, that he might have shot as many as he pleased; but his object was variety, and not number. Friday 4. The next morning, as the wind would not permit me to fail, I sent several parties into the country, to try again whether some intercourse could not be established with the natives. A midshipman, who belonged to one of these parties, having straggled a long way from his companions, met with a very old man
and woman, and some little children; they were fitting '770under a tree by the water side, and neither party law. ifj?L the other till they were close together; the Indians shewed signs of fear, but did not attempt to run away. The man happened to have nothing to give them but a parrot that he had shot; this he offered, but they refused to accept it, withdrawing themselves from his hand either through fear or aversion. His stay with them was but short, for he saw several canoes near the beach fishing, and being alone, he feared they might come a-shore and attack him: he said, that these people ■were very dark coloured, but not black; that the man and woman appeared to be very old, being both greyheaded; that the hair of the man's head was bushy, and his beard long and rough; that the woman's hair was cropped short, and both of them were stark naked. Mr. Monkhouse the Surgeon, and one of the men, who were with another party near the watering-place, also strayed from their companions, and as they were coming out of a thicket observed six Indians standing together, at the distance of about fifty yards. One of them pronounced a word very loud, which was supposed to be a signal, for a lance was immediately thrown at him out of the wood, which very narrowly miffed him. "When the Indians saw that the weapon had not taken effect, they ran away with the greatest precipitation; but on turning about towards the place whence the lance had been thrown, he saw a young Indian, whom he judged to be about nineteen or twenty years old, come down from a tree, and he also ran away with such speed as made it hopeless to follow him. Mr. Monkhouse was of opinion that he had been watched by these Indians in his passage through the thicket, and that the youth had been stationed in the tree, to discharge the lance at him, upon a signal as he should come by; but however this be, there could be no doubt but that he was the person who threw the lance.
In the afternoon, I went myself with a party over to the north shore, and while some of our people were hauling the seine, we made an excursion a sew miles, into the country, proceeding afterwards in the direction of the coast. We found this place without wood, and
•77°- somewhat resembling our moors in England; the sur-*-', jface of the ground, however, was covered with a thin brush of plants, about as high as the knees: the hills near the coast are low, but others rife behind them, increasing by a gradual ascent to a considerable distance, with marshes and morasses between. When we returned to the boat, we found that our people had caught with the seine a great number of small fish, which are well known in the West-Indies, and which our sailors cill Leather-jackets, because their skin is remarkably thick. I had sent the second Lieutenant out in the yawl a striking, and when we got back to the ship, we found that he also had been very successful. He had observed that the large sting-rays, of which there is great plenty in the bay, followed the flowing tide into very shallow water; he therefore took the opportunity of flood, and struck several in not more than two or three feet water: one of them weighed no less than two hundred and forty pounds after his entrails were taken out.
The next morning, as the wind continued northerly I sent out the yawl again, and the people struck one still larger, for when his entrails were taken out he weighed three hundred and thirty-six pounds.
The great quantity of plants which Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander collected in this place induced me to give it the name of Botany Bay. It is situated in the latitude of 340 S. longitude 2080 37' W. It is capacious, safe, and convenient, and may be known by the land on the sea-coast, which is nearly level, and of a moderate height; in general higher than it is farther inland, wih steep rocky cliffs next the sea, which have the appearance of a long ifland lying close under the shore. The harbour lies about the middle of this land, and in approaching it from the southward, is discoverer) before the ship comes a-breast of it; but from the northward it is not discovered so soon: the entrance is a little more than a quarter of a mile broad, and lies in W. N. W. To fail into it the southern shore should be kept on board, till the ship is within a small bare island, which lies- close under the north shore; within this ifland the deepest water on