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Kaoura, . Kaoura,
call this or V Owy Terra,
By this specimen, I think, it appears to demonstration that the language of New Zealand and Otaheite is ■ radically the fame. The language of the northern and southern parts of New Zealand differs chiefly in the pronunciation, as the fame English word is pronounced gate in Middlesex, and geate in Yorkshire: and as the southern and northern words were not written down by the fame person, one might possibly use more letters to produce the fame found than the other.
I must also observe, that it is the genius of the language, especially in the southern parts, to put some article before a noun, as we do the or a; the articles used here are generally be or ko: it is also common here to add the word o'ia after another word, as an iteration, especially if it is an answer to a question; as we hyyes indeed, to be sure, really, certainly: this sometimes led our gentlemen into the formation of words of an enormous length, judging by the ear only, without being
able able to refer each sound into its signification. An ex- '770. ample will make this perfectly understood. March.
In the Bay of Islands there is a remarkable one, called by the natives Matu Aro. One of our gentlemen having asked a native the name of it, he answered, with the particle, Kematuaro; the gentleman hearing the sound imperfectly, repeated his question, and the Indian repeating his answer, added oeia, which made the word Kematuarooeia; and thus it happened that in the log book I found Matuaro transformed into Cumettiwarroweia: and the fame transformation, by the fame means, might happen to an English word. Suppose a native of New Zealand at Hackney church, to inquire, "What village is this?" The answer would be, " It "is Hackney." Suppose the question to be repeated with an air of doubt and uncertainty, the answer might be, "It is Hackney indeed;" and the New Zealander, if he had the use of letters, would probably record, for the information of his countrymen, that during his residence among us he had visited a village called "Ityshakneeindede." The article used by the inhabitants of the South Sea islands, instead of he or ko, is to or ta, but the word oeia is common to both; and when we began to learn the language, it led us into many ridiculous mistakes.
But supposing these islands, and those in the South Seas, to have.been peopled originally from the fame country, it will perhaps for ever remain a doubt what counlry that is: we were, however, unanimously of opinion, that the people did not come from America, which lies to the eastward; and except there should appear to be a continent to the southward, in a moderate la; tude, it will follow that they came from the westward.
Thus far our navigation has certainly been unfavourable to the notion of a southern continent, for it has swept away at least three-fourths ot the positions upon which it has been founded. The principal navigators, whose authority has been urged on this occasion, are Tasman, Juan Fernandes, Hermite, the commander of a Dutch squadron, Quiros, and Roggewein; and the track of the Endeavour has demonstrated that the lan4 seen by these persons, and supposed to be part of a con
T 2, tinent,
*/7* tinent, is not so; it has also totally subverted the theoretical arguments which have been brought to prove that the existence of a southern continent is necessary to preserve an equilibrium between the two hemispheres; for upon this principle what we have already proved to be water, would render the southern hemisphere too light. In our route to the northward, after doubling Cape Horn, when we were in the latitude of 40°, our longitude was lie"; and in our return to the southward, after leaving Ulietea, when we were again in latitude 400, our longitude was 1450; the difference is 350. When we were in latitude 300, the difference of longitude between the two tracks was 21°, which continued till we were as low as 20°; but a single view of the chart will convey a better idea of this than the most minute description: yet as upon a view of the chart it will appear that there is a large space extending quite to the Tropics, which neither we, nor any other navigators to our knowledge have explored, and as there will appear to be room enough for the cape of a southern continent to extend northward into a low southern latitude, I shall give my reasons for believing there is no cape, of any southern continent, to the northward of 40° S.
Notwithstanding what has been laid down by some geographers in their maps, and alledged by Mr. Dalrymple, with respect to Qniros, it is improbable in the highest degree that he saw to the southward of two island?, which he disco\ered in latitude 25 or 2,6, and wh.ch I suppose may lie between the longitude of 1300 and 1400 W. any signs of a continent, much left any thing which, in his opinion, was a known or indubitable sign os such land; for if he had, he would certainly have sailed southward in search of it, and is he had sought supposing the signs to have been indubitable, he must have found: the discovery of a southern continent was the ultimate object of Quiro's voyage, and no man appears to have had it more at heart; so that if he was in latitude 26* S. and in longitude 1460 W. where Mr. Dalrymple has placed the islands he discovered, it may fairly be inferred that no part of a southern continent extends to that latitude.
It will, I think, appear wfth equal evidence from the '77°accounts of Roggevvcin's voyage, that between the longitudes of 130° and 1500 W. there is no main land to the northward of 350 S. Mr. Pingre, in a treatise concerning the transit of Venus, which he went out to observe, has inserted an extract of Roggewein's voyage, and a map of the South Seas; and for reasons which may be seen at large in his work, supposes him, after leaving Easter Island, which he places in latitude 28$ S. longitude 1230 W. to have steered S. W. as high as 340 S. and afterwards W. N. W. and if this was indeed his route, the proof that there is no main land to the northward of 350 S. is irrefragable. Mr. Dalrymple indeed supposes his route to have been different, and that from Easter Isle he steered N. W. taking a course afterwards very little different from that of La Maire; but I think it highly improbable that a man, who at his own request W2s sent to discover a southern continent, should take a course in which La Maire had already proved no continent could be found: it must however be confessed, that Roggewein's track cannot certainly be ascertained, because in the accounts that have been published of his. voyage, neither longitudes nor latitudes are mentioned. As to myself, I saw nothing that I thought a sign of land, in my route either to the northward, southward, or westward, till a few days before I made the east coast of New Zealand: I did indeed frequently fee large flocks of birds, but they were generally such as are found at a very remote distance from any coast; and it is also true, that I frequently saw pieces of rockweed, but I could rot infer the vicinity of land from these, because I have been informed, upon indubitable authority, that a considerable quantity of the beans called Ox-eyes, which are known to grow no where but in the West Indies, are every year thrown upon the coast of Ireland, which is not less than twelve hundred leagues distant.
Thus have I given my reasons for thinking that there is no continent to the northward of latitude 40* S, Of what may lie farther to the southward than 400 I can give no opinion; but I am so far from wishing to discourage any future attempt, finally to determine a
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1770. question, which has long been an object of attention to many nations, that now this voyage has reduced the only possible (cite of a continent in the southern hemisphere, north of latitude 40% to so small a space, I think it would be pity to leave that any longer unexamined, especially as the voyage may turn to good account, besides determining the principal question, if no continent should be found, by the discovery of new iflands in the tropical regions, of which there is probably a great number, that no European vessel has ever yet visited. Tupia from time to time gave us an account of about one hundred and thirty, and in a chart drawn by his own hand, he actually laid down no less than seventyfour.