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1769. were among the spoils; this accounted for their being June. ^ founJ among people with whom the Dolphin had little . ** or no communication ; and upon mentioning the jawbones, which we had seen hanging from a board in a long house, we were told, that they also had been carried away as trophies, the people here carrying away the jaw-bones of their enemies, as the Indians of North America do the scalps.
After having thus gratified our curiosity, we returned to our quarters, where we passed the night in perfect security and quiet. By the next evening we arrived at Atahourou, the residence of our friend Tootahah, where, the last time we passed the night under his protection, we had been obliged to leave the best part of our clothes behind us. This adventure, however, seemed now to be forgotten on both fides. Our friends received us with great pleasure, and gave us a good supper and a good lodging, where we suffered neither loss or disturbance. Tulv The next day, Saturday, July the 1st, we got back
Saturday 1. to our fort at Matavia, having found the circuit of the island, including both peninsulas, to be about thirty leagues. Upon our complaining of the want of breadfruit, we were told, that the produce of the last season was nearly exhausted; and that what was seen sprouting upon the trees, would not be fit to use in less than three months; this accounted for our having been able to procure so little of it in our route.
While the bread-fruit is ripening upon the flats, the inhabitants are supplied in some measure from the trees which they have planted upon the hills to preserve a succession; but the quantity is not sufficient to prevent scarcity: they live therefore upon the sour paste which they call Mahie, upon wild plantains, and aheenuts, which at this time are in perfection. How it happened that the Dolphin, which was here at this season, found such plenty of bread-fruit upon the trees, I cannot tell, except the season in which they ripen varies.
At our return, our Indian friends crowded about us, and none of them came empty-handed. Though I had determined to restore the canoes which had been
detained to their owners, it had not yet been done; but '7fi9I flow released them as they were applied for. Upon. j"y' this occasion I could not but remark, with concern, that these people were capable of practising petty frauds against each other, with a deliberate dishonesty, which gave me a much worse opinion of them than I had ever entertained from the robberies they committed under the strong temptation to which a sudden opportunity of enriching themselves with the inestimable metal and manufactures of Europe exposed them.
Among others who applied to me for the release of a canoe, was one Potattow, a man of some consequence, well known to us all. I consented, supposing the vessel to be his own, or that he applied on the behalf of a friend: he went immediately to the beach, and took possession of one of the boats, which, with the assistance of his people, he began to carry off. Upon this, however, it was eagerly claimed by the right owners, who, supported by the other Indians, clamorously reproached him for invading their property, and prepared to take the canoe from him by force. Upon this he desired to be heard, and told them, that the canoe did, indeed, once belong to those who claimed it; but that I, having seized it as a forfeit, had fold it to him for a pig. This silenced the clamour, the owners, knowing that from my power there was no appeal, acquiesced; and Potattow would have carried off his prize, if the dispute had not fortunately been overheard by some of our people, who reported it to me. I gave orders immediately that the Indians should be undeceived; upon which the right owners took possession of their canoe, and Potattow was so conscious of his guilt, that neither he nor his wife, who was privy to his knavery, could look us in the face for some time afterwards,
^Juv'L,_, CHAP. III.
An Expedition of Mr. Banks to trace the River: Markt of subterraneous Fire: Preparations for leaving the Island: An Account of Tupia.
Mond. 3. s~\^ the 3d, Mr. Banks set out early in the morn\J ing, with some Indian Guides, to trace our River up the valley from which it issues, and examine' how far its banks were inhabited. For about six miles they met with houses, not far distant from each other, on each side of the river, and the valley was every where about four hundred yards wide from the foot of the hill on one side, to the foot of that on the other; but they were now shewn a house, which they were told was the last that they would fee. When they came up to it, the master of it offered them refreshments of cocoa nuts and other fruit, of which they accepted; after a stiort stay, they walked forward for a considerable time; in bad way it is not easy to compute distances, but they imagined that they had walked about six miles farther, following the course of the • river, when they frequently passed under vaults, formed by fragments of the rock, in which they were told people who were benighted frequently passed the night. Soon after they found the river banked by steep rocks, from which a cascade falling with great violence, formed a pool, so steep, that the Indians said they could not pass it. They seemed, indeed, not much to be acquainted with the valley beyond this place, their business lying chiefly upon the declivity of the rocks on each side, and the plains which extended on their summits, where they found plenty of wild plantain, which they called Vae. The way up these rocks' from the banks of the river was in every respect dreadful; the sides were nearly perpendicular, and in some places one hundred feet high; they were also rendered exceedingly flippery by the water of innumerable springs which issued from the fissures on the surface: yet up these precipices a way was to be traced by a succession of long pieces of. the bark of the Hibiscus tiliaceus, which served as a rope for the climber to take
hold of, and assisted him in scrambling from one ledge '169to another, though upon these ledges there was foot-. ^"/.", ing only for an Indian or goat. One of these ropes was nearly thirty feet in length, and their guides offered to assist them in mounting this pass, but recommended another, at a little distance lower down, as less difficult and dangerous. They took a view of this "better way," but found it so bad that they did not choose to attempt it, as there was nothing at the top to reward their toil and hazard but a grove of the wild plantain or Vae tree, which they had often seen before. During this excursion, Mr. Banks had an excellent opportunity to examine the rocks, which were almost every where naked, for minerals; but he found not the least appearance of any. The stones every where, like those of Madeira, shewed manifest tokens of having been burned; nor is there a single specimen of any stone, among all those that were collected in the islana, upon which there are not manifest and indubitable marks of fire, except perhaps some small pieces of the hatchet-stone, and even of that, other fragments were collected, which are burned almost to a pumice. Traces of fire are also manifest in the very clay upon the hills; and it may, therefore, not unreasonably be supposed, that this, and the neighbouring iflands, are either shattered remains of a continent, which some have supposed to be necessary in this part of the globe, to preserve an equilibrium of its parts, which were left behind when the rest funk, by the mining of a subterraneous fire, so as to give a passage to the sea over it; or were torn from rocks, which, from the creation of the world, had been the bed of the sea, and thrown up in heaps, to a height which the waters never reach. One or other of these suppositions will, perhaps, be thought the more probable, as the water does not gradually grow shallow, as the shore is approached, and the islands are almost every where surrounded by reefs, which appear to be rude and broken, as some violent concussion would naturally leave the solid substance of the earth. It may also be remarked, upon this occasion, that the most probable cause of earthquakes seems to be the sudden rushing in of water upon some vast
>7ff9- mass of subterraneous fire, by the instantaneous rare. I" ** . faction of which into vapour, the mine is sprung, and various substances, in all stages of vitrification, with shells, and other marine productions, that are now found fossil, and the strata that covered the furnace, are thrown up; while those parts of the land which were supported upon the broken shell give way, and sink into the gulph. With this theory the phænomena of all earthquakes seem to agree; pools of water are frequently left where land has subsided, and various substances, which manifestly appear to have suffered by the action of fire, are thrown up. It is indeed true, that fire cannot subsist without air; but this cannot be urged against there being fire below that part of the earth which forms the bed of the sea; because there may be innumerable fissures by which a communication between those parts and the external air may be kept up, even upon the highest mountains, and at the greatest distance from the sea-shore. Tuesd. 4. On the 4th, Mr. Banks employed himself in planting a great quantity of the seeds of water-melons, oranges, lemons, limes, and other plants and trees which he had collected at Rio de Janeiro. For these he prepared ground on each side of the fort, with as many varieties of soil as he could choose; and there is little doubt but that they will succeed. He also gave liberally of these seeds to the Indians, and planted many of them in the woods: some of the melon feeds having been planted soon after our arrival, the natives shewed him several of the plants, which appeared to be in a most flourishing condition, and were continually aiking him for more. We now began to prepare for our departure, by bending the sails and performing other necessary operations on board the ship, our water being already on board, and the provisions examined. In the mean time we had another visit from Oamo, Oberea, and their son and daughter; the Indians expressing their respect by uncovering the upper parts of their body, as they had done before. The daughter, whose name we understood to be Toimata, was very desirous to fee the fort, but her father would by no means suffer her to come in. Tearee, the son of Waheatua, the sove