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and an half. Our latitude, by observation, was 40° '7r°
As we had now circumnavigated the whole country, it became necessary to think of quitting it; but as I had thirty tons of empty water-casks on board, this could not be done till I had filled them; I therefore hauled round the island, and entered a bay which Ires between that and Queen Charlotte's Sound, leaving three more *** islands which lay close under the western shore, bei~~ tween three and four miles within the entrance, on our 3* starboard hand. While we were running in, we kept the lead continually going, and had from forty to twelve fathoms. At fix o'clock in the evening we anchored in eleven fathoms, with a muddy bottom, under the west shore, in the second cove, that lies within the three islands; and as soon as it was light, the nextWedneC 18 mornin0- I took a boat and went on shore, to look for a watering place, and a proper birth for the ship, both which I found much to my satisfaction. As soon as the ship w3s moored, I sent an officer on shore, to superintend the watering, and the Carpenter with his crew to cut wood, while the long boat was employed in landing the empty casks.
In this employment we were busy till the 30th, when Friday jo. the wind seeming to settle at S. E. and our water being nearly completed, we warped the ship out of the cove that we might have room to get under sail; and at noon I went away in the pinnace, to examine as much of the bay as my time would admit.
After rowing about two leagues up it, I went a-shore upon a point of land on the western side, and having climbed a hill, I saw the western arm of this bay run in S. W. by W. about five leagues farther, yet I could not discover th**nd of it.^^kre appeared to be se
T770. Solander, who found several new plants. We met March. wjtn fome huts, which seemed to have been long dev-~^""w serted, but saw no inhabitants. Mr. Banks examined several of the stones that lay upon the beach, which were full of veins, and had a mineral appearance, but he did not discover any thing in them which he knew to be ore ;. if he had had an opportunity to examine any of the bare rocks, perhaps he might have been more fortunate. He was also of opinion, that what I had taken for marble in another place, was a mineral substance, and that, considering the correspondence of latitude between this place and South America, it was not improbable but that, by a proper examination, something very valuable might be found.
At my return, in the evening, I found all the wood and water on board, and the ship ready for the sea; I resolved therefore to quit the country, and return home by such a route as might be of most advantage to the service, and upon this subject took the opinion of my officers. I had myself a strong desire to return by Cape Horn, because that would have enabled me finally to determine, whether there is or is not "a southern continent; but against this if was a sufficient objection, that we must have kept in a high southern latitude in the very depth of winter, with a vessel which was not thought sufficient for the undertaking; and the same reason was urged against our proceeding directly for the Cape of Good Hope, with still more force, because ha discovery of moment could be hoped for in that route; it was therefore resolved that we should return by the East Indies, and that with this view we should, upon leaving the coast, steer westward, till we should fall in with the east coast of New Holland, and then follow the direction of that coast to the northward, till we should arrive at its northern extremity; but if that should be found impracticable, it was further resolved, that we should endeavour to fall in with the land, or islands, said to have been discovered by Quiros. 6»tuid. 31. With this view, at break of day on Saturday the 31st of March, 1770, we got under fail, and put to sea with the advantage of a fresh gale at S. E. and clear weather, taking our departure from the eastern point, which we had seen at noon on the 23d, and to which, '77°on this occasion, I gave the name of Cape Fare-, '" *
The bay out of which we had just sailed I called Admiralty Bay, giving the name of Cape StePhens to the north-west point, and of Cape Jackson to the south-east, after the two gentlemen who at this time were Secretaries to the Board of Admiralty.
Admiralty Bay may easily be known by the island that has been just mentioned, which lies two miles N. E. of Cape Stephens,~in latitude 400 37' S. longitude 18506' W. and is of a considerable height. Between this island and Cape Farewell, which are between fourteen and fifteen leagues distant from each other, in the direction of W. by N. and E. by S. the fliore forms a large deep bay, the bottom of which we could scarcely see, while we were sailing in a straight line from one Cape to the other ; it is, however, probably of less depth than it appeared to be; for as we found the water shallower here, than at the same distance from any other part of the coast, there is reason to suppose, that the land at the bottom which lies next the sea is low, and therefore not easily to be distinguished from it; I have for this reason called it Blind Bay, and am of opinion, that it is the fame which was called Murderer's Bay by Tasman.
Such particulars of this country and its inhabitants, with their manners and customs, as could be learned while we were circumnavigating the coast, fliall now be related. . .'._ .::
..v. CHAP. VIII.
A general Account of New Zealand: its firjl Discovery,
NEW ZEALAND was first discovered by Abel
•77°- tscked by the natives soon after he came to anchor, in the place to which hegave the name of Murderer's Bay, he never went on shore. He gave the country the name of Staaten Land, or the land of the States^ in honour of the States General, and it is now generally distinguished in our maps and charts by the name of New Zealand. As the whole of this country, except that part of the coast which was seen by Tasman from on board his ship, has from his time, to the voyage of the Endeavour, remained altogether unknown, it has by many been supposed to be part of a southern continent. It is) however, now known to consist of two large islands, divided from each other by a streigrrtor passage, which is about four or five leagues broad. ■■■
These islands are situated between the latitudes of 34" and 480 S. and between the longitudes of 1 8i° and 194° W. which is now determined with uncommon exactness, from innumerable obs/rvations of the fun, and moon, and one of the transits/of Mercury, by Mr. Green, a person of known abilities, who, as has been observed before, was sent out by the Royal Society, to observe the transit of Venus in the South Seas.
The northermost of these islands is called by the natives Eaheinomauvve, and the southermost Tovy, or Tavai Poenammoo; yet, as I have observed before^ we are not sure whether the name Tovy Poenammoo comprehends the whole southern island, or only part of it. Thefigure and extent of. these islands, with the situation of the bays and harbours they contain, and the smaller islands that lie about them will appear from ►lie chart that I have drawn, every part of which, however, I cannot vouch to be equally accurate. The coast of Eaheinomauwe, from Cape Palliser to East Cape, is laid down with great exactness, both in its figure, and the course and distance from point to point; for the opportunities that offered, and the methods that I used, were such as could scarcely admit of an error. From East Cape to St. Maria van Diemen, the chart, though perhaps not equally exact, is without any error of moment, except possibly in some few places, which are here, and in other parts of the chart, distinguished by a dotted line, and which I had no oppor
tunity to examine. From Cape Maria van Diemen to '77°latitude 360 15', we were seldom nearer the shore than ..—"^"j between five and eight leagues; and therefore the line that marks the sea coast may possibly be erroneous. From latitude 36°I5' to nearly the length of Entry Island, our course was very near the shore, and in this part of the chart, therefore, there can be no material error, except perhaps ar Cape Tierawitte. Between Entry Island and Cape Palliser we were again farther from the shore, and this part of the coast, therefore, may not be laid down with minute exactness; yet, upon the whole, I am of opinion, that this island will be found not much to differ from the figure that I have given it, and that upon the coast there are few or no harbours which are not noticed, in the journal, or delineated in the chart. I cannot, however, fay as much of Tovy Poenammoo, the season of the year, and the circumstances of the voyaye, would not permit me to spend so much time about this island as I had employed upon the other; and the storms that we met with made it both difficult and dangerous to keep near the shore. However, from Queen Charlotte's Sound to Cape Campbell, and as far to the S. W. as latitude 43 , the chart will be found pretty accurate. Between latitude 430 and latitude 44' 20' the line may be doubted; for of some part of the coast which it represents we had scarcely a view. From latitude 440 20' to Cape Saunders, pur distance would not permit me to be particular, and the weather was besides extremely unfavourable. From Cape Saunders to Cape South, and even to Cape West, there is also reason to fear that the chart will in many places be found erroneous, as we were seldom able to keep the more, and were sometimes blown to such a distance, that it could not be seen. From Cape West to Cape Farewell, and even to Charlotte's Sound, it is not more to be trusted.
Tovy Poc-nammoo is for the most part a mountain- Country, oils, and, to all appearance, a barren country; and the people whom we saw in Queen Charlotte's Sound, those that came off to us under the snowy mountains, aud the sires to the west of Cape Saunders, were all R a the