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CONTENT S.

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v.44

Thespis's pretensions to be considered as the father of

tragedy.

127. Of the nature and character of the first drama.

128. Athenian history resumed, and continued from the

death of Pisistratus to that of Hipparchus.

129. The same continued, to the expulsion of Hippias.

130. Concluded with the battle of Marathon.

131. The subject of the drama resumed. Of the old tragic

poets Pratinas and Phrynichus.

132. Of the poet Æschylus.

133. Of Æschylus as compared with Sophocles and Euripides.

134. Of the tragedies of Æschylus.

135. Of the Greek comedy. Of Aristotle's definition and

chronology of the first comedy. Of Epicharmus, con-

sidered as the first writer of comedy.

136. Fragments of Epicharmus. Account of Phormis, Chioni-

des, Magnes, and Dinolochus, the founders of comedy.

157. Of Cratinus and his comedy in reply to the satire of

Aristophanes. Of Eupolis; his fragments compared

with certain passages in Ben Jonson.

138. Of Aristophanes ; his history, character, and works.

139. Aristophanes defended from the criticisms of Plutarch,

also from the account which Ælian gives of his attack

upon Socrates.

140. The motives and grounds for Aristophanes's attack upon

Socrates more fully considered, with some anecdotes of

that philosopher's school anıl private character. The

dates of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes

ascertained.

141. Of the remaining writers of the old comedy ; viz. Amip-

sias, Plato, Crates, Phrynichus, Pherecrates, Amphis,

Hermippus, Hipparchus, Philonides, and Theopom-

pus, with their fragments translated.

142. Of the middle comedy of the Greeks. Anecdotes of

Alexis : fragments of that dramatic poet collected.

143. The same collection continued and concluded. Anec-

dotçs of Antiphạnes.

144. Collection of fragments ffoni: the comedies of Anti-

phanes:

145. Of Anaxandrides. Of 'Aristophon, with fragments of

that poet. Of Axionicus; Bathon, Chæremon, Clear-

chus, Critory, Cobytus, :Demoxenus, Demetrius, and

Diodorus, with. fragments of the latter. Of Dionysius

and Ezhipfus

146. Fragmeat ofEpicrates Of Eriphus and Eubulus, with

fragments of the latter. Of Euphron, Heniochus,

Mnesimachus, and fragments of each.

147. Fragments of the poet Moschion. Of Nicostratus,

Philippus, Phænicides, Sotades, and Straton, with

various fragments of their respective comedies.

148. Fragments of Theophilus, Timocles, and Xenarchus.

Conclusion of the catalogue of writers of the middle

comedy. General observation upon these poets, and

the author's address to his readers upon this portion of

his work.

149. Account of the new comedy of the Greeks, and of the

several writers of that æra. Anecdotes of Menander.

150. Various fragments of Menander translated.

151. Anecdotes of the poet Philemon, and a selection of his

fragments.

152. Anecdotes and fragments of Diphilus, of Apollodorus

Gelous, of Philippidas, and of Posidippus. General

remarks upon the conclusion of the subject. The

author defends himself against the charge of having

attacked the moral doctrines of Socrates,

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I now propose to review the state of literature in Greece antecedent to the time when Pisistratus founded his library in Athens.

Letters, or the alphabet, were probably imported into Greece from Phænicia : this is ascribed to the poet Linus : this poet, according to the fabulous taste of the times, was of divine origin, being reputed the son of Apollo by Terpsichore, according to other accounts of either Mercury, or Amphimarus, by Urania : if in a pedigree so doubtful we may chuse for ourselves, Mercury, as inventor of the lyre, seems to have a preferable claim to Amphimarus or Apollo, for Linus is said to have been the father of lyric poetry ; "he is also recorded as the instructor of Hercules in letters, but if the elder Ore pheus was also his disciple, he must have been of too early an age to have been contemporary with Hercules, for Orpheus is placed eleven ages before the siege of Troy. Hercules may have been instructed by the Theban Linus, who was considerably

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junior to this of Chalcedon : Linus of Thebes was the son of the poet Eumolpus, and imparted to Greece the knowledge of the globes ; he also before the time of Hesiod composed a poem, in which he gives the genealogy of the deities; all we know respecting it is that it differs in some particulars from Hesiod's Theogony: he paid dearly for the honour of being Hercules's preceptor, for that deified hero put Linus to death ; though he gave the genealogy of the heathen gods, he is supposed to have taught a sublimer doctrine of the Unity of the Supreme Being.

of the name of Orpheus grammarians reckon no fewer than five epic poets; their histories are involved in fable, and their distinctions uncertain and obscure. The Thracian Orpheus, who is the elder of the name, is said to have been the disciple of Linus, and to have lived before the Trojan war eleven ages :

was a prophet as well as a poet, and instituted many ceremonies in the Pagan theology; he delivered precepts in verse relative to the modes of initiation : the mysterious rites of Ceres and Bacchus are supposed to have originated with him, but as it is pretty clear that these rites were Egyptian, they might be introduced, but not invented, by Orpheus.

The second Orpheus was sirnamed Ciconæus or Arcas, and was also of Thracian extraction ; he is said to have flourished two generations before the siege of Troy; he also was an heroic poet and wrote fables and hymns addressed to the deities. Orpheus Odrysius and Orpheus Camarinæus were epic poets, but he, who was sirnamed Crotoniates, was contemporary with Pisistratus, and lived in great favour and familiarity at the Athenian court; he is said to have written the Argonautics; the

hymns and the poems de Lapidibus' now in our hands.

The antients, in the true spirit of fable, ascribed miraculous powers to the harmony of Orpheus's lyre, and almost all the Roman poets have echoed his praises in the same fanciful strain. Ovid gives us a list of forest trees that danced to his lyre, as long as a gardener's calendar : (Metam. fab. 2. lib. 10.) Seneca in his Hercules Furens' gives him power over woods, rivers, rocks, wild beasts, and infernal spirits (Herc. Fer. 569.) Horace adds to these the winds, and Manilius places his lyre amongst the constellations, having enumerated all his supernatural properties in the following short but comprehensive and nervous description,

At lyra diductis per cælum cernibus inter
Sidera conspicitur, qua quondam ceperat Orpheus
Omne quod attigerat cantu ; manesque per ipsos
Fecit iter, domuitque infernas carmine leges.
Huic similis honos, similisque potentia causa :
Tunc silvas et sara trahens, nunc sidera ducit,
Et rapit immenfum mundi revolubilis orbem.

MANIL

Of the name of Musæus there were also several poets; the elder, or Athenian Musæus, son of Antiphemus, was the scholar of Orpheus. The poetry of these antient bards was chiefly addressed to the services of religion; their hymns were chaunted as parts of divine worship, and the power of divination was ascribed to them, as the natural tribute of a barbarous multitude to men of superior and en. lightened talents : the knowledge of simples, and their use in healing diseases or wounds, was amongst the arts by which these early benefactors to mankind attracted the reverence of the vulgar, and MuSæus is said to have composed a poem on the cure

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