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CONTENTS.

CHAP. I. Birth; Parentage; Education ; College Life; hears a Quaker

preacher ; expelled from the College; turned out of doors ; sent to France.

17 -22.
CHAP. II. 1666. Sent to Ireland; disgusted with Court life; hears th

Quaker again; leans to the Quakers; is imprisoned ; writes to the Earl of

Orrery; is released; returns to England ; turned out of doors again. 22-29.

CHAP. III. 1668. Becomes a preacher and author ; public discussion; pub-

lishes the 'Sandy Foundation Shaken ;' is imprisoned ; writes ‘No Cross

No Crown;' publishes again ; is released. 29-36.

CHAP. IV. 1669. T. Loe's death ; Penn's father relents ; sends Penn to

Ireland again; Penn's labours there ; returns to England. 36-38.

CHAP. V. 1670. Sent to Newgate; his famous trial ; liberated from New-

gate ; sickness, death, and dying advice of his father; public discussion;

travels as a minister; Letter to the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford ; apprehen-

sion and examination; imprisonment. 39 -69.

CHAP. VI. 1671. Writes and publishes various things ; works on Toleration;

released from prison ; visits Germany. 69-72.

CHAP. VII. 1672. Marries ; preaches ; writes several works. 73-75,

CHAP. VIII. 1673. Travels in England, preaching ; publishes the 'Chris-

tian Quaker,' &c.--the 'Counterfeit Christian: public discussion with

Hicks; answers J. Paldo's attacks ; Dr. H. Moore's judgment on Penn's

writings ; replies to H. Halliwell : John Perrot ; writes on The Rule of

Faith and Practice,' &c. 75--82.

CHAP. IX. 1674. Persecutions ; Letter to Bowls ; to the Middlesex justices ;

persecution spreads; Letter to the King; writes “A Treatise on Oaths

* England's present Interest ;' 'Cry of the Oppressed ;' 'Extracts;' several

other works; Letter to G. Fox; obtains G. Fox's liberty. 82 -95.

CHAP. X.-1675.-Discussion with R. Baxter,--correspondence with R. Baxter,
-writes · Saul smitten to the ground, -Letter to a Romanist, -made Arbi-

trator in E. Byllinge's affairs. 60—100.

CHAP. XI.-1676.-Writes The Skirmisher defeated; -Letters to Princess

Elizabeth,-concerned in Colonial affairs. 100-103.

CHAP. XI1.-1677.--Colonial affairs,-attends the yearly meeting of Friends,

-visits Holland and Germany again, -Letter to the King of Poland, -visits

the Princess Elizabeth,-meetings with her and her household,-Penn's

own account of his travels in Germany,-' Letter to the Churches of Jesus,

-extracts,-meetings in various places,-ill usage by the Graef of Falken-

steyn,--writes to his daughter and to the Graef,-pursues his travels and
labours,—-visits De Labadie, Anna Maria Schurmans, -goes to Embden, -

returns to England. 103-141.

ERAP. XIIJ.-1678.—Colonial affairs,-persecutions, --called a Jesuit, --noble

speech before the House of Commons-results,--publishes two works.

141-147.

CHAP. XIV.-1679.-Colonial affairs, -Address to Protestants,-England's

great interest,-Algernon Sydney, -One Project for the good of England.

147-150

CHAP. XV.-1680.-Colonial affairs,--persecution of Quakers,-petition for

land from Government,-intended use of the land. 150–154.

CHAP. XVI. 1681. Byllinge's affairs; writes on discipline; persecution of

Friends at Bristol; Letter to them; Pennsylvania granted; plan for colonis-

ing ; publishes a constitution or form of Government; sends over commis-

sioners ; Letter to the Indians. 155-163.

CHAP XVII. 1682. Narrow escape from prison; helps R. Davies, a Welsh

Quaker; death of Penn's mother: his thoughts on Government ; proposes

to go to America; advice to his wife and children; sails; his labours in

America; Laws of Pennsylvania, &c.; Treaty with the Indians ; Plans the

city of Philadelphia ; Letters; rrival of adventurers; their fare. 164--184.

CHAP. XVIII. 1683. The first-born; progress of the Colony; dispute with

Lord Baltimore; persecutions in England ; prepares to return ; Letter to

T. Lloyd ; sails ; reaches England; slanders ; death of Charles II; Penn's

intimacy with king James; his influence with him ; consequent trials

slanders; correspondence with Tillotson; two executions; news from Amer-

ica; writes a persuasive to moderation towards Dissenters, &c. ; its effects :

visits the Continent again; the Prince of Orange; faithlessness and injus-

tice of Bishop Burnet; Penn's interference in behalf of Sir Robert Stewart;

W. Sewell ; Penn's labours after his return to England; the King issues a

declaration for liberty of conscience ; cessation of persecution; presents an

Address to the King; has the King for a hearer ; writes to the King on be-

half of the Fellows of Magdalen College; publishes good advice to the

Church of England; extracts from Letters to Friends in America. 184-201.

CgAP. XIX. 1684–1688. Visits the King in company with G. Whitehead

and G. Latey; arrest of Bishops by the King ; Penn becomes unpopular;

writes to Mr. W. Popple ; abdication of James; arrival of the Prince of

Orange; examination of Penn by the Lords of the Council; his discharge;

Act of toleration passed; extracts from Letters. 201—

-208.

CHAP. XX. 1689-1690. Purposes to return to Pennsylvania ; his Letters

to the Duke of Buckingham; is arrested ; examined ; discharged ; arrested

and sent to prison; is tried ; acquitted; death of G. Fox; false accusations

of Fuller ; secludes himself ; writes his Fruits of Solitude ; receives unhappy

news from America ; becomes terribly unpopular; writes to the Quakers; is

visited by Locke; American affairs. 208-217.

CHAP. XXI. 1692. Disputes about Quaker discipline; writes 'A Key,' &c. ;

news from America; troubles with G. Keith ; Penn deprived of the govern-
ment of his Colony; is greatly tried; Preface to his Maxims, or Fruits of
Solitude; Treatise on War; friends interpose with the King and Council on
his behalf; he is restored to society; honourably acquitted ; death of his
wife ; her character ; American affairs; writes an account of the Quakers ;
restored to his Government; travels as minister of the gospel ; is taken be-

fore the magistrates at Wells. 217--281.

CAAP. XXII. 1696. Marries again; loses his eldest son : an account of his

son ; publishes ' Primitive Christianity revived,' &c. ; writes against G. Keith;

interview with Peter the Great; writes against the Bill for making the de-

nial of the Trinity blasphemy; visits Ireland; his labours and trials there;

affair at Cashel ; returns to England; answers a work sent out by the

Bishop of Cork; American affairs. 231 -242.

CHAP. XXIII. 1699. Discussion at West Dereham ; Address of Penn to

the Lords and Commons against the malicious designs of the priests; advice

to his children; revisits America ; his labours and trials there; an anecdote;

care for the Africans ; improvement of Philadelphia ; jealousies of the Ter-

ritory men; care for the Indians; travels, preaching. 242-251.

CHAP. XXIV. 1700-1. A riot; interview with Indians; labours to protect the

Indians from impositions ; public Colonial affairs ; interviews with Indians ;

notions of the Indians about God an heaven;

hears sad news from England;

public affairs ; selfishness of the Assembly; Penn's grief thereat ; prepares

to return to England ; visited by Indians ; disturbance between the Territory

members and the Province members of the Assembly ; Penn's efforts to re-

store unity; returns to England. 251–262.

CHAP. XXV. 1702–1703. Death of Queen Anne; publishes more ‘Fruits

of Solitude,' &c. ; American news; lawsuit; legislative quarrels in Pennsyl-

Tania ; pecuniary embarrassments of Penn : mortgages his Province; old

age creeps on him; afflictions; American affairs ; ill behaviour of the Assem.

bly; Penn's letter; noble response of the Settlers. 262-283.

CHAP. XXVI. 1704-18. Declines in health; has three apoplectic fits; visited by
a friend; by T. Story ; goes to Bath ; returns to Rushcombe; death; pos-

thumous slanders refuted; his will. 283290.

CRAP. XXVII-CONCLUSION. -Penn's character ; review of his labours; how

revered by the Indians-by the Settlers ; prosperity of the Colony ; happi-

1066 of the Settlers. 290—310.

APPANDIX. -Letter to Mr. Popple ; correspondence with Tillotson. 311-320.

PREFACE.

As Penn was a Quaker, it seems needful that I should give some account of the history and peculiar principles of the Quaker Society. The Quaker Society was founded by George Fox, who was born at Drayton in Leicestershire, in 1624. George Fox was pat apprentice to a man who was a shoemaker by trade, but who followed grazing, wood-selling &c. as well. George appears to have been employed chiefly as a shepherd and herdsman. He was a youth of great seriousness, of strong feeling, and of great spiritual power, and he lived in times peculiarly adapted to foster and to strengthen these peculiarities of character. Before he was twenty, he believed himself called upon by God to separate bimself from the world, and to employ himself wholly in thinking and speaking of religion, and in efforts to promote right views and feelings on religious subjects among others. For three years he travelled up and down the country, especially in the counties of Warwick, Leicester, and Northampton, seeking out serious people, and conversing with them. When about twenty three he began to preach publicly, and in the course of a few years his labours had become very extensive. In 1650, when about twenty six years of age, he was imprisoned on account of his righteous labours, in Derby gaol, where he was confined for nearly a year; and in a few years more, his name had gone forth through the length and breadth of the land, and his influence was felt

among people of all ranks, and of every sect in the country. The great peculiar doctrine that he taught was, that the light which should guide men was within them; that men's saviour and redeemer was within them; that if men would follow the light within, it would both reveal to them their sins, and lead them to righteousness and peace; that this light was given to every one, and would, if followed, lead every man to a knowledge of God and of his will, to holiness on earth, and to eternal blessedness in heaven. George Fox not only taught people that they might learn the truth without the help of outWard living teachers, but even without books or Scriptures. Though he prized the Scriptures highly, and regarded them as the productions or expressions of the inward light as enjoyed by ancient saints, yet he denied that the possession or a knowledge of the Scriptures was essential to the attainment of true religious knowledge, of Christian holiness, or of eternal life. With respect to the regular living teachers belonging to the various sects, or as he generally termed them, the priests, he regarded them as hinderances to men's improvement in knowledge and holiness.

Hence he laboured to draw men off from these, and to turn them to the great and universal teacher in their own souls. His labours were most abundant, and his success was truly wonderful. He went through every part of the country, preaching in almost every town and village of note in the land, frequently speaking for three hours and upwards at a time ; and almost every where men were convinced of the truth of his doctrines, andavowed themselves his friends. The priests raged terribly, and persecuted him shamefully. But he never seems to have flinched. He went right on. Before long a number of his friends began to preach the same doctrines, and in course of time, the land was almost filled with them. Their zeal and their courage were unbounded, and their labours were unceasing. To preaching they added the powers of the pen and the press, and sent forth papers and books without end. To such an extent did they succeed in spreading their principles, that some even of their persecutors declared, that they had ruined [i. e. drawn over to their side] almost every decent person in the kingdom.

It was when G. Fox had been employed in his reforming labours about fourteen years, that Penn first heard a Quaker preacher. In about six or eight years afterwards, Pem did himself become a Quaker preacher. From this period their peculiar principles, as unfolded in the writings of Fox and Penn, included the following.

1. They held the universality and sufficiency of the inward light, which they sometimes called the heavenly seed, the Word of God, Christ, &c.

2. They denied that the Scriptures are the only rule of faith and practice, and refused to call them God.'

3. They rejected a hired ministry, and contended that all who preach the gospel, should preach it freely.

4. They renounced all human authority in matters of religion, and refused to obey civil authority when it crossed their own convictions of what was true and right.

5. They denied that human learning, such as a knowledge of natural science, or of the dead languages, was essential to qualify a man for the ministry; and contended that Christ made and qualified his own ministers without the aid of Colleges and Universities.

6. They believed in the inspiration of the sacred writers, but they also contended that the same inspiration was granted to men at the present time, and had been granted to men in all ages and in all nations.

7. They believed in perfection; a perfection equal, if not superior, to that of Adam before his fall, denying altogether the necessity or unavoidableness of sin.

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THE WORD OF

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