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mocratic party. (Applausc and laughter.) Yes, sir, the clare that we will not participate in the meantime in the destruction of the Democratic party, consummated by deliberations of this Convention, nor hold ourselves or assassins now grinning upon this foor. (Loud cries of constituents bound by its action, but leave both at full “ order," " order," " put him out," and great confusion.) | liberty to act as future circumstances may dictate.

N. W. WILLIAMSON,

W. BRADLEY,
DELAWARE WITHDRAWS.

G. A. CALDWELL,

SAMUEL B. FIKLD, Mr. Saulsbury did not desire to occupy the attention of

Thos. J. YOUNG. the Convention but for a moment. The delegates from his Resoloed, That the Chairman of our delegation be State had done all in their power to promote the harmony instructed to inform the Convention in our behalf that, in and unity of this Convention, and it was their purpose to the present condition of that body, we'deem it inconsistcontinue to do so. I am, however, instructed by the ent with our duty to ourselves and our constituents to delegation to announce that they desire to be excused participate further in its deliberations. Our reasons for from voting on any further ballots or votes, unless cir- so doing will be given to the Democracy of Kentucky. cumstances should alter this determination. It is our JNO. DISHMAN,

L. GREEN, desire to be left free to act or not act, their desire being J. S. KENDALL

R. M. JOHNSON, to leave the question open for the consideration of their Jos. B. BECK,

CAL. BUTLER, constituents after their return home.

D. W. QUARLES,

R. NICKER, Mr. Steele, of North Carolina, briefly addressed the COLBERT CECIL

JAMES G. LEACH. Convention, stating that he, for the present, at least, should not retire.

Mr. Reed, of Ky., spoke briefly in defense of After explanations and debate, the motion “Shall the the course of the nine delegates from that State, main question be now put," (to go into nomination of can, who remained with the Conventiou. didates for President and Vice-President) was carried, and the Convention adjourned.

MISSOURI DEFINES HER POSITION.
KENTUCKY WITHDRAWS IN PART.

Mr. Clark, of Missouri, announced as the reOn Saturday (23d), Mr. Caldwell, of Kentucky, in be- sult of a consultation of a portion of the Mis

The circumstances in which we (the Kentucky Dele- souri delegation, that two of that delegation gation) are placed are exceedingly embarrassing, and we had decided to withdraw from the Convention. have not therefore been enabled to come to an entirely Mr. Hill, of N. C., who had refused to retire harmonious conclusion. The result is, however, that nine with his colleagues on the previous day, now of the delegates of Kentucky remain in the Convention. (applause.) There are ten delegates who withdraw from announced his intention of withdrawing. the Convention.

Mr. Cessna, of Pennsylvania, called for the The exact character of their withdrawal is set forth in a vote upon his resolution to proceed to nominate single paragraph, with their names appended, which I desire the Secretary to read before I sit down. There are candidates for President and Vice-President. five others-completing the delegation--who desire for

MR. CUSHING RESIGNS THE CHAIR. the present to suspend their connection with the action of this Convention. I will add here, that there may be no misunderstanding, that I myself am one of those live, officer, in a brief speech, and left the chair,

Mr. Cushing resigned his post as presiding and we have also signed a short paper, which I shall also ask the Secretary to read to the Convention.

Gov. Tod, of Ohio, immediately assumed the I am requested by those who withdraw from the con- chair, and was greeted with enthusiastic and present with the Convention, to say that it is their wish hearty cheers. After order was restored, he that their seats in this Convention shall not be filled or said: occupied by any others; and that no one shall claim the right to cast their votes. The right of those remaining in

As the present presiding officer of this Convention by the Convention to cast their individual vote, is not by us

common consent of my brother Vice-Presidents, with questioned in any degree. But we enter our protest great diffidence I assume the chair. When I announce against any one casting our vote.

to you that for thirty-four years I have stood up in that I will ask the Secretary to read the papers I have indi. district so long misrepresented by Joshua R. Giddings, cated, and also one which a gentleman of our delegation with the Democratic banner in my hand (applause), has handed me, which he desires to be read. I ask that know that I shall receive the good wishes of this Conventhe three papers be read.

tion, at least, for the discharge of the duties of the chair.

If there are no privileged questions intervening, the The first paper read was signed James G. Secretary will proceed with the call of the States. Leach, the writer of which animadverted in

MASSACHUSETTS DESIRES A HEARING. rather strong terms upon the action of the Convention, in the matter of the admission and Mr. Butler, of Mass., addressed the chair, and desired

Objection was made by Mr. rejection of delegates from certain States. The to present a protest.

Cavanaugh, of Minnesota, and the States were called on communication was regarded as disrespectful to the question of proceeding to a vote for President. the Convention, and, on motion of Mr. Payne, When Massachusetts was called, Mr. Butler said: Mr. of Ohio, it was returned to the writer. The President, I have the instruction of a majority of the

delegation from Massachusetts to present a written proSecretary then read the other two communica- test. I will send it to the Chair to have it read. (Calls tions from the Kentucky delegation as follows : to order.)

. And further, with your leave, I desire to say

what I think will be pleasant to this Convention. First, To the Hon. Caleb Cushing, President of the National that, while a majority of the delegation from MassachuDemocratic Convention, assembled in the city of setts do not purpose further to participate in the doings Baltimore:

of this Convention, we desire to part, if we may, to meet The Democratic Convention for the State of Kentucky, you as friends and Democrats again. We desire to part held in the city of Frankfort, on the 9th day of January, in the same spirit of manly courtesy with which we came 1861, among others, adopted the following resolution : together. Therefore, if you will allow me, instead of

Resolved, That we pledge the Democracy of Kentucky reading to you a long document, I will state, within parto an honest and industrious support of the nominee of liamentary usage, exactly the reasons why we take the the Charleston Convention.

step we do. Since the adoption of this resolution, and the assembling Thanking the Convention for their courtesy, allow me of this Convention, events have transpired not then con. to say that though we have protested against the action templated, notwithstanding which we have labored dili- of this body excluding the delegates, although we are not gently to preserve the harmony and unity of said Con- satisfied with that actionvention; but discord and disintegration have prevailed We have not discussed the question, Mr. President, to such an extent that we feel that our efforts cannot whether the action of the Convention, in excluding cer

We accomplish this end.

tain delegates, could be any reason for withdrawal. Thçrefore, without intending to vacate our seats, or to now put our withdrawal before you, upon the simple Join or participate in any other Convention or organiza- ground, among others, that there has been a withdrawal tion in this city, and with the intention of again co- in part of a majority of the States, and further and that, operating with this Convention, should its unity and perhaps, more personal to myself), upon the ground that bermony be restored by any future event, we now de-'I will not sit in a Convention where the African slave

FIRST BALLOT,

SECOND BALLOT.

STATES.

Douglas.

III | | Breckinridge.

IIIII|| Guthrie,

ray Douglas.

||||| Breckinridge.

II || Guthrie,

5

3

9 6

trade--which is piracy by the laws of my country—is ap- tion of the Cincinnati Platform, that, during the existence provingly advocated. (Great sensation.)

of the Territorial Governments, the measure of restricA portion of the Massachusetts delegation here retired. tion, whatever it may be, imposed by the Federal Consti

Mr. Stevens, of Massachusetts, said-I am not ready tution on the power of the Territorial Legislature over the at this moment to cast the vote of Massachusetts, the subject of the domestic relations, as the same has been, or delegation being in consultation as to their rights. shall hereafter be, finally determined by the Supreme Court

The call proceeded, the chairman of each Con- of the United States, should be respected by all good citivention making a speech on delivering the vote zens, and enforced with promptness and fidelity by every

. of his State; and Mr. Stevens finally stated that, although a portion of the Massachusetts delega- tion, and this resolution was adopted, with only

Mr. Payne, of Obio, moved the previous question had withdrawn, he was instructed by his remaining colleagues to cast the entire vote of

two dissenting votes. the State.

THE SECEDERS' CONVENTIOX. Mr. Russell, of New York, withdrew the name The delegates who had withdrawn from the of Horatio Seymour as a candidate. The fol- Convention at the Front-Street Theater, tolowing is the result of the ballotings for Presi-gether with the delegations from Louisiana and dent:

Alabama, who were refused admission to that Convention, met at the Maryland Institute on Saturday the 28th of June. Twenty-one States were represented either by full or partial delegations. The States not represented at all were Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine,

Michigan, New-Hampshire, New.Jersey, Ohio, Maine.

Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Wisconsin. New-Hampshire.. 5

The Hon. Caleb Cushing, of Massachusetts, Vermont

was chosen to preside, assisted by vice-preMassachusetts....10 Rhode Island.... 4

sidents and secretaries. Connecticut... 33

The Convention adopted a rule requiring a New-York, .35

.35

vote of two-thirds of all the delegates present New Jersey

27 Pennsylvania ...10

to nominate candidates for President and Vice

.10 Maryland.... 27

2

President; also that each delegate cast the vote Virginia . 1j

to which he is entitled, and that each State cast North Carolina... 1 Alabama

only the number of votes to which it is entitled Louisiana.

by its actual representation in the Convention. Arkansas

The delegates from South Carolina and Missouri.

Florida accredited to the Richmond Convenie Tennessee Kentucky.

8

tion, were invited to take seats in this. .23

A committee of five, of which Mr. Caleb Indiana.... Illinois.

Cushing was chairman, was appointed to ad

..11 Dlichigan.. 6

dress the Democracy of the Union upon the Wisconsin

principles which have governed the Convention Iowa..

4 Minnesota...

in making the nominations, and in vindication 24

of the principles of the party. The Convention Total.......178} 5 10 1817

51

also decided that the next Democratic On the first ballot, Henry A. Wise, of Virginia, received | National Convention be held at Philadelphia. $a vote from Maryland; Bocock, of Va., received 1 vote Mr. Avery, of N. C., chairman of Committee from Virginia; Daniel S. Dickinson, to vote from Virginia; on Resolutions, reported, with the unaniinous

On the announcement of the first ballot, Mr. Church, of sanction of the Committee, the Platform reNew-York, offered the following: Resolved unanimously, That Stephen A. Douglas, of mittee at Charleston, and rejected by the Con

ported by the majority of the Platform Comthe State of Illinois, having now received two-thirds of all the votes given in this Convention, is hereby declared, in ac-vention, (see page 30) which was unanimously cordance with the rules governing this body, and in accordo adopted. ance with the uniform customs and rules of former Demo

The Convention adopted a resolution incratic National Conventions, the regular nominee of the Democratic party of the United States, for the ofice of structing the National Committee not to issue President of the United States.

tickets of admission to their next National ConMr. Jones, of Pennsylvania, raised the point of order, vention in any case where there is a bona fide that the resolution proposed practically to rescind a rule of the Convention (requiring two-thirds of a full Conven

contestant. tion, 202 votes, to nominate), and could not, under the The Convention then proceeded to ballot for rules, be adopted without one day's notice.

a candidate for President; and John C. BreckinThe Chair ruled that the resolution was in order, and after a lengthy and animated debate it was withdrawn till ridge, of Ky., received the unanimous vote of after another ballot should be taken. When the result of the delegates present as follows : the second ballot had been announced, Mr. Church's re- Vermont.... Florida.. 3 Tennessee solution was called up again and passed.

Massachusetts. 8 Alabama.. 9 Kentucky. 45 Benj. Fitzpatrick, of Alabama, was nominated New-York Louisiana. 6 Minnesota..... 1

7 California.... for Vice-President, receiving 1987 votes, and Pennsylvania... Mississippi

4 Oregon.... Mr. William C. Alexander, of N. J., 1. [Mr. Virginia........11: Arkansas. Fitzpatrick declined the nomination two days North Carolina. 8) Missouri.......

105 afterward, and the National Committee supplied Georgia.......10 the vacancy, by the nomination of Herschel V.

For Vice-President Gen. Joseph Lane, of Johnson, of Georgia].

Oregon, l'eceived the unanimous vote of the Gov. Wickliffe, of Louisiana, offered the following resolu

Convention (105), on the first ballot. And tion as an addition to the Platform adopted at Charleston then, after listening to a speech from Mr. Yancy,

Resowed, That in its accordance with the interpreta the Convention aujourned sine die.

Ohio

..13
.11

23 .18

6

1

.... 2

4 8

4

HISTORY OF THE STRUGGLE

FOR

SLAVERY EXTENSION OR RESTRICTION.

MAINLY BY DOCUMENTS.

SLAVERY IN THE COLONIES.

and the whole continent, North and South of

the tropics, became a Slave-mart before the Lust of gold and power was the main im- close of the sixteenth century. pulse of Spanish migration to the regions beyond Holland, a comparatively new and Protestant the Atlantic. And the soft and timid Abori. State, unable to shelter itself from the regines of tropical America, especially of its proaches of conscience and humanity behind a islands, were first compelled to surrender what. Papal bull, entered upon the new traffic more ever they possessed of the precious metals to tardily; but its profits soon overbore all scruples, the imperious and grasping strangers; next and British merchants were not proof against the forced to disclose to those strangers the sources glittering evidences of their success. But the whence they were most readily obtained ; and first slave ship that ever entered a North finally driven to toil and delve for more, wher- American port for the sale of its human merever power and greed supposed they might chandise, was a Dutch trading-vessel which most readily be obtained. From this point, the landed twenty negro bondmen at Jamestown, transition to general enslavement was ready and the nucleus of Virginia, almost simultaneously rapid. The gentle and indolent natives, unac. with the landing of the Pilgrims of the Maycustomed to rugged, persistent toil, and revolt- flower on Plymouth Rock, December 22d, 1620. ing at the harsh and brutal severity of their The Dutch slaver had chosen his market with Christian masters, had but one unfailing re- sagacity. Virginia was settled by CAVALIERSsource-death. Through privation, hardship, gentlemen-adventurers aspiring to live by their exposure, fatigue and despair, they drooped and own wits and other men's labor—with the necesdied, until millions were reduced to a few miser- sary complement of followers and servitors. able thousands within the first century of Span- Few of her pioneers cherished any earnest liking ish rule in America.

for downright, persistent, muscular exertion ; A humane and observant priest (Las Casas,) yet some exertion was urgently required to clear witnessiug these cruelties and sufferings, was away the heavy forest which all but covered the moved by pity to devise a plan for their termi- soil of the infant colony, and grow the tobacco nation. He suggested and urged the policy of which early became its staple export, by means substituting for these feeble and perishing of which nearly everything required by its "Indians" the bardier natives of Western At people but food was to be paid for .in England. rica, whom their eternal wars and marauding The slaves, therefore, found ready purchasers invasions were constantly exposing to captivity at satisfactory prices, and the success of the first and sale as prisoners of war, and who, as a race, venture induced others; until not only Virginia might be said to be inured to the hardships and but every part of British America was supplied degradations of Slavery by an immemorial ex- with African slaves. perience. The suggestion was unhappily ap- This traffic, with the bondage it involved, had proved, and the woes and miseries of the few no jus cation in British nor in the early remaining Aborigines of the islands known to colonial laws; but it proceeded, nevertheless,

“West Indies," were inconsiderably pro much as an importation of dromedaries to re. longed by exposing the whole continent for un- place with presumed economy our horses and numbered generations to the evils and horrors oxen might now do. Georgia was the first of African Slavery. The author lived to per among the colonies to resist and condemn it in ceive and deplore the consequences of his ex- her original charter under the lead of her noble pedient.

founder-governor, General Oglethorpe ; but The sanction of the Pope having been ob- the evil was too formidable and inveterate for tained for the African Slave-trade by represen- local extirpation, and a few years saw it estabtations which invested it with a look of philan- lished, even in Georgia; first evading or defythropy, Spanish and Portuguese mercantile ing, and at length molding and transforining the avarice was readily enlisted in its prosecution, I law.

us as

It is very common at this day to speak of our tions on emancipation : Maryland adopted boor revolutionary struggle as commenced and hur- of these in 1783. North-Carolina, in 1786, deried forward by a union of Free and Slave clared the introduction of slaves into that State colonies; but such is not the fact. However “ of evil consequence, and highly impolitic,” slender and dubious its legal basis, Slavery ex- and imposed a duty of £5 per head thereon. isted in each and all of the colonies that united New-York and New-Jersey followed the example to declare and maintain their independence. of Virginia and Maryland, including the domesSlaves were proportionately more numerous in tic in the same interdict with the foreign slavecertain portions of the South ; but they were trade. Neither of these States, however, deheld with impunity throughout the North, ad. clared a general emancipation until many years vertised like dogs or horses, and sold at auction, thereafter, and Slavery did not wholly cease in or otherwise, as chattels. Vermont, then a ter- New-York until about 1830, nor in New-Jersey ritory in dispute between New-Hampshire and till a much later date. The distinction of Free New-York, and with very few civilized inhabi- and Slave States, with the kindred assumption tants, mainly on its Southern and Eastern bor- of a natural antagonism between the North and ders, is probably the only portion of the revolu- South, was utterly unknown to the men of the tionary confederation never polluted by the Revolution. tread of a slave.

Before the Declaration of Independence, but The spirit of liberty, aroused or intensified during the intense ferment which preceded it, by the protracted struggle of the colonists and distracted public attention from everything against usurped and abused power in the else, Lord Mansfield had rendered his judgment mother country, soon found itself engaged in from the King's Bench, which expelled Slavery natural antagonism against the current form of from England, and ought to have destroyed it domestic despotism. “ How shall we complain in the colonies as well. The plaintiff in this of arbitrary or unlimited power exerted over us, famous case was James Somerset, a native of while we exert a still more despotic and inex. Africa, carried to Virginia as a slave, taken cusable power over a dependent and benighted thence by his master to England, and there inrace !" was very fairly asked. Several suits cited to resist the claim of his master to his were brought in Massachusetts—where the fires services, and assert his right to liberty. In the of liberty burnt earliest and brightest-to test first recorded case, involving the legality of the legal right of slave-holding; and the lead-modern Slavery in England, it was held (1677) ing Whigs gave their money and their legal that negroes, being usually bought and sold services to support these actions, which were among merchants as merchandise, and also generally, on one ground or another, success. being infidels, there might be a property in them ful. Efforts for an express law of emancipation, sufficient to maintain trover.” But this was however, failed even in Massachusetts; the overruled by Chief Justice Holt from the King's Legislature, doubtless, apprehending that such Bench (1697,) ruling that “so soon as a negro a measure, by alienating the slave-bolders, would lands in England, he is free;" and again, (1702) increase the number and power of the Tories; that “there is no such thing as a slave by the but in 1777, a privateer having brought a lot of law of England." This judgment proving excaptured slaves into Jamaica, and advertised ceedingly troublesome to planters and mer. them for sale, the General Court, as the Legis- chants from slave-holding colonies visiting the lative Assembly was called, interfered and had mother country with their servants, the merchants them set at liberty. The first Continental Con- concerned in the American trade, in 1729, progress which resolved to resist the usurpations cured from Yorke and Talbot, the Attorney and oppressions of Great Britain by force, had General and Solicitor General of the Crown, a already declared that our struggle would be written opinion that negroes, legally enslaved " for the rights of human nature,” which the elsewhere, might be held as slaves in England, Congress of 1776, under the lead of Thomas and that even baptism was no bar to the masJefferson, expanded into the noble affirmation ter's claim. This opinion was, in 1749, held to of the right of “all men to life, liberty, and the be sound law by Yorke (now Lord Hardwicke,) pursuit of happiness," contained in the immor. sitting as judge, on the ground that, if the contal preamble to the Declaration of Independence. trary ruling of Lord Holt were upheld, it would A like averment that “all men are born free abolish Slavery in Jamaica or Virginia as well and equal,” was in 1780 inserted in the Massa- as in England; British law being paramount in chusetts Bill of Rights; and the Supreme each. Thus the law stood until Lord Mansfield, Court of that State, in 1783, on an indictment in Somerset's case, reversed it with evident reof a master for assault and battery, held this luctance, and after having vainly endeavored to declaration a bar to slave-holding henceforth in bring about an accommodation between the the State.

parties. When delay would serve no longer, A similar clause in the second Constitution of and a judgment must be rendered, Mansfield New-Hampshire was held by the courts of that declared it in these memorable words : State to secure Freedom to every child, born

" We cannot direct the law: the law must direct us. therein after its adoption. Pennsylvania, in

The state of Slavery is of such a nature that it is 1780, passed an act prohibiting the further in- incapable of being introduced on any reasons, moral or troduction of slaves, and securing Freedom to political, but only by positive law, which preserves its all persons born in that State thereafter. Con- whence it was created, is erased from the memory. It is necticut and Rhode Island passed similar acts so odious that nothing can be sufficient to support it but in 1781. Virginia, in 1778, on motion of Mr. positive law. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may Jefferson, prohibited the further importation of Lollow from the decision, I cannot say that this case is slilves; and in 1782, removed all legal restric-fore the black must be discharged."

allowed or approved by the law of England, and there The natural, if not necessary, effect of this The report of the committee was in the decision ou Slavery in these colonies had their following words: connection with the mother country been continued, is sufficiently obvious.

THE JEFFERSONIAN ORDINANCE, 1784.

Resoloed, That the territory ceded, or to be ceded SLAVERY UNDER THE CONFEDERATION. by individual States to the United States, whensoever

the same shall have been purchased of the Indian The disposition or management of unpeopled inhabitants and offered for sale by the United States, territories, pertaining to the thirteen recent shall be formed into additional States, bounded in the colonies now confederated as independent following manner, as nearly as such cessions will admit :

that is to say, northwardly and southwardly by parallels States, early became a subject of solicitude of latitude, so that each State shall comprehend from and of bickering among those States, and in south to north, two degrees of latitude, beginning to Congress. By the terms of their charters, count from the completion of thirty-one degrees north of some of the colonies had an indefinite extension but any territory northwardly of the forty-seventh degree

the equator ; [the then southern boundary of the U. s.] westwardly, and were only limited by the power shall make part of the State next below. And eastof the grantor. Many of these charters con wardly and westwardly they shall be bounded, those on flicted with each other—the same territory dian of the lowest point of the rapids of the Ohio on the

the Mississippi, by that river on one side, and the meribeing included within the limits of two or more other; and those adjoining on the east, by the same totally distinct colonies. As the expenses of meridian on their western side, and on their eastern by the Revolutionary struggle began to bear Great Kanawha. And the territory eastward of this last heavily on the resources of the States, it was meridian, between the Ohio, Lake Erie, and Pennsylkeenly felt by some that their share in the vania, shall be one State. advantages of the expected triumph would be chased and offered for sale shall, either on their own

That the settlers within the territory so to be purless than that of others. Massachusetts, Con-petition or on the order of Congress, receive authority necticut, New-York, Virginia, North Carolina, from them, with appointments of time and place, for and Georgia, laid claim to spacious dominions their free males of full age to meet together for the pur

pose of establishing a temporary government, to adopt outside of their proper boundaries; while New the constitution and laws of any one of these States, so Hampshire (save in Vermont), Rhode Island, that such laws nevertheless shall be subject to altera. New-Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and South tion by their ordinary Legislature, and to erect, subject

to a like alteration, counties or townships for the elecCarolina, possessed no such boasted resources tion of members for their Legislature. to meet the war-debts constantly augnienting. That such temporary government shall only continue in: They urged, therefore, with obvious justice, force in any State until it shall have acquired twenty thouthat these unequal advantages ought to be Congress, they shall receive from them authority, with surrendered, and all the lands included within appointments of time and place, to call a convention of the territorial limits of the Union, but outside representatives to establish a permanent constitution of the proper and natural boundaries of the the temporary and permanent governments be estab

and government for themselves : Provided, That both several States, respectively, should be ceded to, lished on these principles us their basis : and held by, Congress, in trust for the common 1. That they shall forever remain a part of the

United States of America. benefit of all the States, and their proceeds em

2. That in their persons, property, and territory, ployed in satisfaction of the debts and liabilities they shall be subject to the Government of the United of the Confederation. This reasonable requisi- States in Congress assenbled, and to the Articles of tion was ultimately, but with some reservations, Confederation in all those cases in which the original

States shall be so subject. responded to.

3. That they shall be subject to pay a part of the The IXth Continental Congress, under the Ar- Federal debts, contracted or to be contracted, to be ticles of Confederation, assembled at Philadel. apportioned on them by Congress, according to the same

common rule and measure by which apportionments phia, Nov. 3, 1783, but adjourned next day to thereof shall be made on the other States. Annapolis, Md. The House was soon left without 4. That their respective governments shall be in a quorum, and so continued most of the time-republican forms, and shall admit no person to be a of course, doing no business-till the 1st of citizen who holds a hereditary title.

5. That after the year 1800 of the Christian era, March, 1784, when the delegates from Virginia, there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary serviin pursuance of instructions from the Legisla- tude in any of the said States, otherwise than in ture of that State, signed the conditional deed been duly convicted to have been personally guilty.

punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have of cession to the Confederation of her claims to That whenever any of the said States shall have, of territory northwest of the Ohio River, New free inhabitants, as many as shall then be in any one of York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts had al- the least numerous of the thirteen original States, such

State shall be admitted, by its Delegates, into the Conready made similar concessions to the Confede gress of the United States, on an equal footing with the ration of their respective claims to territory said original States ; after which the assent of two-thirds westward of their present limits. Congress

of the United States, in Congress assembled, shall be

requisite in all those cases wherein, by the Confederation, hereupon appointed Messrs. Jefferson of Vir- the assent of nine States is now required, provided the ginia, Chase of Maryland, and Howell of Rhode consent of nine States to such admission may be obIsland, a Select Committee to report a Plan of tained according to the eleventh of the Articles of

Confederation. Until such admission by their Delegates Government for the Western Territory. This into Congress, any of the said States, after the establishplan, drawn up by Thomas Jefferson, provided ment of their temporary government, shall have authofor the government of all the Western terri- rity to keep a sitting member in Congress, with a right

of debating, but not of voting. tory, including that portion which had not yet

That the territory northward of the forty-fifth degree, been, but which, it was reasonably expected, that is to say, of the completion of forty-five degrees would be, surrendered to the Confederation by from the equator, and extending to the Lake of the the States of North Carolina and Georgia (and under the forty-fifth and forty-fourth degress, that which which now forms the States of Tennessee, lies westward of Lake Michigan, shall be called MichiAlabama and Mississippi), as well as that which gunia; and that which is eastward thereof, within the had already been conceded by the more Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, shall be called Chersonesus,

peninsula formed by the lakes and waters of Michigan, northern States.

land shall include any part of the peninsula which may

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