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laetitia mea, faint from sheer joy. solvar, relax my embrace. As to the position of ipsa, cf. IX, 96; XII, 18. — 115. his, sc. osculis. rantia verba verba narrantis. 116. promptior, more fluent. Instead of referre, P. and Sh. read refecta.

117. subit, subeunt. See v. 51 and note. 120. Invitis aquis, though the sea forbids, referring to the detention of the fleet at Aulis. In vs. 121 and 122 the emphasis is on in patriam and A patria. 123. suam urbem. The walls of Troy were said to have been built by Neptune and Apollo. - 126. casus and numinis, subjective genitives limiting mora. 131. Troasin, dative plural of Troas. sic, as they will, refers to the whole situation. Sh. 134. barbara, i.e. Trojan. 137. producet, will escort on his way to the field. P. — 138. Iovi. See v. 50, note. — 141. haec, sc. nova nupta (v. 133). — 143. Nos, we, Grecian wives.

145. diverso in orbe, in a different part of the world. - 146. cera, a waxen mask or likeness. Such images were often colored and made with considerable art; and were successful as likenesses. Sh. Cf. Trist. 2, 521; Martial, 7, 44. See Rh., s. Cera.

- 149. plus est, etc. She imagines some mysterious connection or sympathy to exist between Protesilaus and his imago. 152. tamquam queror, I make my plaint to it, as though it could reply. Ry. — 154. per faces, P. paraphrases as follows: by the marriage-torch, whose fires are ever felt by my constant soul.

utinam, the only instance in Ovid of ut in this sense. P. - 156. quod ... referre, i.e. may you return alive. 158. sive ... timeo, i.e. sive mortuus eris, an intentional aposiopesis, in order to prevent the unlucky omen, which speaking of death would involye. P.

155. ut


Ovid's Lament over the death of his friend Tibullus.

1. Memnona, the son of Tithonus, brother of Priam, and Eos (Aurora). Memnon went to the assistance of his kindred when Troy was besieged, and according to the later writers fell by the hand of Achilles.3. indignos, i.e. in undeserved mourning, implying that the death of Tibullus was premature. solve capillos, unbind thy tresses fair in loose attire." - 4. ex vero, according to truth, for elegiac verse was originally applied to mournful themes. 5. vates operis, priest of thy worship or service. Pr.; "thy bard, the herald of thy fame.— 13. Fra· 17. At

tris. Aeneas was the son of Venus. 15. confusa, overwhelmed with grief. - 16. iuveni, sc. Adonis, the boy beloved by Venus, cut off in the bloom of youth by a wound from the tusks of a wild boar. introduces an objection, to which silicet True, but know that, etc., replies in v. 19. Pr. – 20. inicit manus, a legal phrase takes forcible possession of, seizes man as his property. Pr. 21. pater, sc. Apollo. mater, sc. Calliope. Orpheo, a more common form of the dative than that in ei. - 23. Aelinon (al Aivos, woe is me for Linos), originally the lamentation of Apollo for the death of his son Linos, killed by Hercules in a moment of passion. 24. invita lyra, with sad reluctant lyre. Pr. — 30. tela, sc. of Penelope. 32. cura, amor, sc. of Tibullus.

- 33. nunc, sc. whatever may have been the case once; emphatic.

34. sistra. See Tibullus, II, 24, note. 36. sollicitor putare, poetical construction for ut putem or ad putandum, which would be required in prose. 37. moriere pius, i.e. yet piety will not keep you from death. Pr., who also calls confide (as well as vive and cole) a hypothetical imperative trust if you like. – 40. Instead of toto, Pr., following two Mss., reads tanto as contrasting better with parvo. 43. potuissent, sc. flammae. — 44. sustinuere, dared to perpetrate. 46. negant. Notice the mood, and cf. putent, v. 18. See A. 320, a; G. 634, Rem. I; H. 503, I, note 3. — 47. Phaeacia tellus. Cf. Tibullus, II, 3. — 48. vili humo, common earth, unhallowed by the offerings of relatives, without urn, tomb, or inscription. Pr. 49. Hinc, i.e. In consequence of your return. madidos, wet with tears, or dewy with the damp of death. Pr. 53. cumque tuis, = and together with thy kindred. priorque. Cf. 55. felicius, explained by Vixisti .

- 57. quid tibi sunt, etc., what right hast thou to grieve for a loss not thine but mine. Pr.

- 58. me, emphatic. - 60. Cf. Tibullus, II, 56. 62. Calvo, C. Licinius Calvus, the poet and orator, a contemporary and friend of Catullus. docte refers to his familiarity with Greek literature, and the Grecian tone and spirit which pervade his poems. — 63. si falsum ... amici, if. false the charge of amity betrayed,seems to refer to some ill-feeling between Tibullus and Gallus, the cause of which has been variously conjectured. — 64. Galle, the elegiac poet, and celebrated as the friend of Virgil's youth. — 65. His ... est. Respecting the series of elegiac poets see p. 196. Instead of Siqua Pr. reads Siquid: If only the shade of what was once a living form be something real. — 66. números pios, i.e. numeros piorum. — 68. “may earth lie lightly where thy ashes rest."

v. 32.



THE FASTI.* I. 1-140.

1-26. A FORMAL dedication of the poem to Caesar Germanicus (b. 15 B.C., d. 19 A.D.), the son of Drusus, nephew and adopted son of the emperor Tiberius, and heir to the throne; composed (with the exception of vs. 1, 2, 7, 8, 13, and 14, which perhaps formed the original commencement) soon after the death of Augustus, A.D. 14, probably for the purpose of inducing Tiberius, through the intercession of Germanicus, to recall the poet from exile.

Germanicus' father, Drusus Claudius Nero, and the emperor TIBERIUS Claudius Nero were the sons of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla, afterwards the third wife of AUGUSTUS.

The emperor CLAUDIUS was a brother of Germanicus; and the latter by his wife Agrippina I (daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the daughter of Augustus) was the father of the emperor CALIGULA and of Agrippina II, the mother of the emperor NERO (by her first husband Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus), who was afterwards the wife of her uncle the emperor CLAUDIUS.


1. The Roman calendar or almanac (sometimes called Fasti Calendares); which contained an enumeration of the months and days of the year in regular order, with a letter attached to each indicating whether it was Fastus, stus, Intercisus, Comitialis, or Ater, the position of the Nones, Ides, Nundinae, and different Festivals; frequently, also, astronomical observations on the risings and settings of the fixed stars, the time of the equinoxes and solstices, and the commencement of the seasons; and sometimes brief notices of important events.

Several specimens of such Fasti on stone, more or less perfect, have been discovered, but none of them older than the Augustan Age. One of them, the Tabula Maffeana, • which dates from A.D. 3 or 5, contains the twelve months complete.

2. Fasti Annales or Historici. — The most important of these were the Annales Maximi, chronicles in which were recorded the names of the chief magistrates for each year, together with a short account of remarkable events and the days on which they occurred. And in prose-writers fasti is commonly employed as the technical term for such registers of magistrates, which formed part of the public archives.

Fasti Capitolini is the name given to a number of fragments of marble tablets discovered in excavating the Roman forum and deposited in the Capitol, which contain a list of consuls, dictators, censors, triumphs, etc., from the establishment of the Republic to the death of Augustus, though defective in many places. It was executed probably at the beginning of Tiberius' reign.

Similar collections, derived from different sources, have received the names of Fasti Consulares, Fasti Triumphales, etc.

1. Tempora, includes both the months and their divisions, and the different kinds of days — festivals, half-holidays, and days for ordinary business. causis, their origin, i.e. the reasons or grounds on which the distinctions were established. Py. Probably the word has reference to the Astia of Callimachus, an epic poem now lost, but of which there was in Ovid's time a Latin translation, describing the origin of various customs and legends of the Greeks. digesta, properly an agricultural term, meaning planted out in rows; arranged in order. 2. lapsa, which set. Cf. Lucretius I, 2 and note. signa, constellations. This part of the material for his work Ovid obtained from his friend Clodius Tuscus, who wrote a treatise on the risings and settings of the stars, of which there is a Greek translation extant. - 3. pacato, conciliated.

5. officio, properly the personal service of a client to his patron, as in attending him in public; hence a compliment of any kind. Py. — 6. numine

ades, give a gracious hearing to. - 7. recognosces, you will renew your acquaintance with, also a complimentary expression, implying that Germanicus was a man of learning. annalibus priscis. These were twofold, public and private. The public chronicles were the Annales Maximi, the Libri Pontificales, and the acta diurna and acta Senatus (from B.C. 59). The most important private sources of information were the works of the “ Annalists,” Cato's Origines, and Varro's Antiquitates rerum divinarum et hu

9. et, also. domestica vobis, i.e. instituted by or in honor of your own gens (the Julian by adoption). Py. 10. pater, i.e. Tiberius, his father by adoption. avus, Augustus, whose step-son and adopted son Tiberius was. — II. Quae, sc. praemia. pictos, illuminated, red-lettered. The Festival days in the Fasti were thus distinguished. signantia, refers to the marks made in the Fasti against such days. 12. Druso, the younger Drusus, son of Tiberius and adopted brother of Germanicus. praemia feres, i.e. will hereafter obtain the same honors (praemia) in the Roman calender which your seniors (illi) have already secured. Py. - 13. Caesaris aras, i.e. temples built or restored by Augustus. 14. sacris, i.e. diebus. 15. Annue, Be propitious, sc. mihi. per ... ire, to recount your praiseworthy deeds. - 17. Dan dederis, equivalent to conditional clauses. — 18. voltu tuo, according to the expression of your face. 19. movetur, emittitur, is put forth. Py. 20. Clario, Claros, on the coast between Colophon and Ephesus, was the seat of an ancient and celebrated oracle of Apollo. — 21. sensimus, we (the Romans generally) are well aware. culti ... oris, Germanicus was distinguished for his amiable and virtuous character, his high sense of honor, his literary culture, and his eloquent oratory, as well as for his military genius. 22. tulit, sc. facundia tua. - 23. nostras artes, sc. poetry. impetus, inspiration, sc. ingenii tui. 24. ingenii. The double i of the genitive is rare in the Augustan poets, but sometimes used through the necessity of the metre. See A. 40, b, foot-note; H. 51, 5; M. 37, Obs. 1. — 25. licet is a word of more general meaning; fas est implies the divinity of Germanicus: If it is otherwise permissible, and if I have your divine assent. Hm. Py. paraphrases the clause : Si licet me rogare et si fas est tibi concedere roganti. Merkel and Ky. read Scilicet ut.


26. annus, i.e. the poem on the year.
Vs. 27-62 form the introduction to the poem.

27. Tempora . ... suo. In very early times the Roman year consisted of 304 days, divided into ten months, beginning with March. This was succeeded by a pure lunar year of twelve months, according to Ovid (IV, 30, 31), January being added at the beginning of the year, and February at the end, and the latter being put into the second place, afterwards, by the Decemviri ; but according to other accounts, both January and February being added at the end of the year. The former month, therefore, may have been originally called after Janus, not because it was the first month in the year, but because it was the month which immediately followed the winter-solstice, when the sun may be said to resume his career.

The epoch, however, at which January and February became the first and second months, there is no satisfactory evidence to determine. After B.C. 154 the consuls always entered upon their office on the ist of January, and after B.C. 46 that day was assumed as the calendar period for beginning the year.

At what time any system of intercalation was first brought into use is not known; but the intercalations were made in the month of February between the 23d and the 24th.

The prerogative of adjusting them was in the hands of the Pontifices, who lengthened or shortened the year, at pleasure, until the whole calendar was involved in the greatest uncertainty and confusion, and the civil year was about two months in advance of the seasons. Caesar, in the year 46 B.C., by the insertion of two intercalary months between November and December, besides the ordinary intercalation in February, rectified the error and established the solar year and the Julian calendar. See Ry., pp. 362–376; Dict. of Antiqq., pp. 226-233; Momm. I, 275–278; IV, 661.

31. quae moverit, such as influenced him. Hm.; which may have moved him, potential subjunctive. Ky. 32. habet, historical present. 33. “As long a period as suffices for the birth of an infant.Hm. 34. temporis, partitive gen., dependent on hoc. 36. tristia signa, the signs of mourning.

respexit. trabeati. The trabea, purple robe with white stripes, was one of the insignia of royalty, and was

- 37. vidit

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