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Franklin advises the Conquest of Canada. — His Scheme adopted by
the Ministry. Journey to Scotland. - Lord Kames, Robertson,
Hume. "Parable against Persecution." - First published by
Lord Kames. How far Franklin claimed to be its Author. -His
Mission brought to a favorable Termination.. Lord Mansfield's
Agency in the Affair.- Franklin's Sentiments in Regard to Can-
ada. Writes a Pamphlet to show that it ought to be retained at
the Peace. Tour to the North of England. - Receives Public
Money for Pennsylvania. - Tour in Holland. Experiments to
prove the Electrical Properties of Tourmalin. - Cold produced
by Evaporation. Ingenious Theory for explaining the Causes
of Northeast Storms. - Invents a Musical Instrument, called the
Armonica. His Son appointed Governor of New Jersey. - Re-
turns to America.
Receives the Thanks of the Assembly. - Tour through the Middle
and Eastern Colonies. - Engages again in Public Affairs. - Mas-
sacre of Indians in Lancaster. Franklin's Pamphlet on the Sub-
ject, and his Agency in pacifying the Insurgents. — Colonel Bou-
quet's Account of his Public Services. - Disputes revived between
the Governor and the Assembly. — Militia Bill defeated. — The
Governor rejects a Bill in which the Proprietary Estates are taxed.
-The Assembly resolve to petition the King for a Change of Gov-
ernment. Petition drafted by Franklin. — Chosen Speaker of the
Assembly. Norris, Dickinson, Galloway. Scheme for Stamp
Duties opposed by the Assembly. - Franklin is not elected to the
Assembly. Appointed Agent to the Court of Great Britain.
Sails for England.
Origin of the Stamp Act. Franklin's Opposition to it. His Re-
marks on the Passage of the Act, in a Letter to Charles Thomson.
-False Charges against him in Relation to this Subject. Dean
Tucker. Effects of the Stamp Act in America. - Franklin's Ex-
amination before Parliament.
- Stamp Act repealed. Mr. Pitt.-
Declaratory Act. - - American Paper Currency. Franklin's An-
swer to Lord Hillsborough's Report against it. - New Scheme
for taxing the Colonies by supplying them with Paper Money. -
Franklin travels in Holland and Germany. - His Ideas of the Na-
ture of the Union between the Colonies and Great Britain. - Plan
of a Colonial Representation in Parliament. - Franklin visits Paris.
- His "Account of the Causes of the American Discontents." —
Change of Ministry. Lord Hillsborough at the Head of the
American Department. — Rumor that Dr. Franklin was to have an
Office under him.
Dr. Franklin is appointed Agent for Georgia. Causes the "Farmer's
Letters" to be republished in London. His Opinion of them.—
Chosen President of the American Philosophical Society. - Pro-
motes the Culture of Silk in Pennsylvania. — Encourages his Coun-
trymen to adhere to their Non-importation Agreements. - Journey
to France. Appointed Agent for New Jersey. - His Answers
to Mr. Strahan's Queries. Repeal of some of the American Rev-
enue Acts. Intimations that he would be removed from Office.-
His Remarks on that Subject.-Chosen Agent for the Assembly
of Massachusetts.. Singular Interview with Lord Hillsborough.
Objectionable Footing on which the Colonial Agents were placed
by his Lordship.- Dr. Franklin makes a Tour through the North
of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. - His Reception by
Lord Hillsborough in Ireland.— Irish Parliament. — Richard Bache.
-Bishop of St. Asaph.
Dr. Franklin meditates a Return to America. Singular Conduct of
Lord Hillsborough. - Walpole's Grant. Hillsborough's Report
against it. Franklin's Answer. Reasons for settling a New
Colony west of the Alleganies. Interview with Lord Hills-
borough at Oxford. — Franklin draws up the Report of a Commit-
tee appointed to examine the Powder Magazines at Purfleet. —
Performs new Electrical Experiments. — Controversy about Point-
ed and Blunt Conductors. - Lord Dartmouth succeeds Lord Hills-
borough.- His Character. - Franklin's Interview with him. - Pe-
titions from the Assembly of Massachusetts. - Franklin writes a
Preface to the London Edition of the Boston Resolutions; also
"Rules for reducing a Great Empire to a Small One," and "An
Edict of the King of Prussia.” — Abridges the Book of Common
Prayer. Experiments to show the Effect of Oil in smoothing
Waves. Dubourg's Translation of his Writings.
Hutchinson's Letters. How they first became known to Franklin.
- His Motives for transmitting them to Massachusetts. - Proceed-
ings of the Assembly concerning them.-Dr. Cooper's Remarks
on that Occasion. - Petition for the Removal of Hutchinson and
Oliver presented by Franklin.-Duel between Temple and Whate-
ly. Franklin's Declaration that the Letters had been transmitted
by him. Whately commences against him a Chancery Suit.-
Proceedings of the Privy Council on the Petition. Further Ac-
count of those Proceedings. - Wedderburn's abusive Speech.
The Petition rejected. — Franklin dismissed from his Place at the
Head of the American Postoffice.
Franklin remains in England to await the Result of the Continental
Congress.-Josiah Quincy, Junior. - Anecdotes. - Death of Dr.
Franklin's Wife. — Family Incidents. He receives and presents
the Petition of Congress. — Rejected by Parliament. — Galloway's
Plan of Union. - Franklin's Attempts to promote a Reconciliation
between the two Countries. - Visits Lord Chatham. Remarks
on Independence. Mrs. Howe. He draws up Articles as the
Basis of a Negotiation, at the Request of Dr. Fothergill and Mr.
Barclay. Interviews with Lord Howe respecting some Mode of
Reconciliation. He drafts another Paper for that Purpose.-Lord
Camden. Lord Chatham's Motion in Parliament. - Franklin's
Interviews with him in forming a Plan of Reconciliation. - This
Plan offered to Parliament, and rejected. Negotiation resumed
and broken off. - Franklin sails from England and arrives in
Chosen a Member of Congress.- Proceedings of Congress. - Prep-
arations for Military Defence. Petition to the King. - Franklin
assists in preparing for the Defence of Pennsylvania, as a Member
of the Committee of Safety. — Drafts a Plan of Confederation.—
His Services in Congress. Goes to the Camp at Cambridge on
a Committee from Congress.—Chosen a Member of the Pennsyl-
vania Assembly. - Writes Letters to Europe for the Committee
of Secret Correspondence. His Journey to Canada as a Com-
missioner from Congress. - Declaration of Independence. — An-
ecdotes. President of the Convention of Pennsylvania for form-
ing a Constitution. His Opinion of a Single Legislative Assem-
bly. His Correspondence with Lord Howe, and Interview with
him on Staten Island. - Appointed a Commissioner to the Court
of Versailles. Lends Money to Congress.
Proceeds to Paris, and
Voyage to France. — Arrives at Nantes.
takes up his Residence at Passy. - His Reception in France.-
Influence of his Name and Character. - Pictures, Busts, and Prints
of him. Interview with Count de Vergennes. Money obtained
from the French Court, and Military Supplies sent to the United
States. Contract with the Farmers-General. Franklin disap-
proves the Policy of seeking Alliances with the European Powers.
-Lord Stormont. - Application of Foreign Officers for Employ-
ment in the American Army. - Lafayette. Reasons why the
French delay to enter into a Treaty with the United States.
Interview with Count de Vergennes on that Subject. -Treaty of
Amity and Commerce. - Treaty of Alliance. - Franklin and the
other Commissioners introduced at Court. .
Preparations for War between France and England. - M. Gérard. —
Mr. John Adams. - Secret Advances made to Dr. Franklin for
effecting a Reconciliation between England and the United States.
- Mr. Hutton. Mr. Pulteney. - Mr. Hartley. - An Emissary
Franklin's personal Friends in Paris. - Interview
Franklin appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to the
Court of France. Machinations of his Enemies to procure his
Recall. Mr. Arthur Lee. Mr. Ralph Izard. — Visit of Sir Wil-
liam Jones to Paris. - Franklin instructs the American Cruisers
not to seize Captain Cook's Vessel. — Grants Passports to Vessels
carrying Supplies to the Moravian Missionaries on the Coast of Lab- rador. Paul Jones. - The Marquis de Lafayette. - Mr. Vaughan's Edition of Franklin's Political and Miscellaneous Writings.
A French Army sent to the United States.-Lafayette. Northern
Powers of Europe combine in Defence of Neutrals. — Franklin's
Opinion of Privateering. - Correspondence between Count de
Vergennes and Mr. Adams. - Franklin's Remarks upon it. -
Charges against Franklin by his Enemies, examined and refuted.
-- New Attempt in Congress to procure his Recall. Count de
Vergennes's Opinion of him as Minister at the French Court. -
The numerous Duties of his Office.. Colonel John Laurens..
Franklin proposes to retire from the Public Service. New Prop-
ositions for Peace, through the Agency of Mr. Hartley. - Frank-
lin's Answer to them.-His Friends at Passy and Auteuil.-
Madame Brillon. Madame Helvétius.
Negotiations for Peace. - Debates on the Subject in the British
Parliament.Change of Ministry.. Mr. Oswald sent to Paris to
consult Dr. Franklin on the Mode of Negotiating. - Grenville's
Commission; disapproved by Franklin. Mr. Fox's Views of In-
dependence. Lord Shelburne's Administration. - Mr. Fitzher-
bert. — Mr. Oswald commissioned to negotiate the American Trea-
ty.- Essential Articles of the Treaty proposed by Franklin. —
Advisable Articles.. Mr. Jay disapproves Mr. Oswald's Com-
mission. — An Alteration required and obtained. Progress of
the Treaty. Independence, Boundaries, Fisheries. Attempts
of the British Ministry to secure the Indemnification of the Loy-
alists. Mr. Adams joins his Colleagues and resists the British
Claims. Franklin proposes an Article for Indemnifying the
Americans for their Losses during the War. — British Claims
relinquished. Treaty signed. — Ratified by Congress.
Treaty signed without the Knowledge of the Court of France.—
-Count de Vergennes's Opinion of the Treaty. Unfounded Sus-
picions. Rayneval and Marbois. Franklin's Explanation of the
Grounds upon which he acted. —False Rumor concerning his Ex-
ertions in obtaining the Boundaries and Fisheries. - His Financial
Contract with Count de Vergennes. - Negotiates a Treaty with
Sweden. Mr. Hartley. Definitive Treaty of Peace signed. —
Franklin's Sentiments on this Occasion. - Animal Magnetism.-
Negotiations. His Request to be recalled is finally granted by
Congress.-Treaty with Prussia. - Franklin prepares to return
Home. Journey from Passy to Havre de Grace. Sails from
Southampton and arrives in Philadelphia.
Receives congratulatory Letters and Addresses. - Chosen President
of Pennsylvania, and holds the Office three Years. His private
Circumstances. Appointed a Delegate to the Convention for
Framing the Constitution of the United States. - His Speeches in
the Convention. His Religious Opinions. Extracts from Dr.
Cutler's Journal describing an Interview with him. — President of
the Society for Political Inquiries. - Neglect of Congress to exam-
ine and settle his Accounts. - Various Pieces written by him dur-
ing the last Year of his Life. — His Illness and Death. Funeral
Ceremonies. Tribute of Respect paid to him by Congress and
other Public Bodies. - Conclusion.
I. Remarks on the Origin and Genealogy of the Franklin Family,
II. Journal of a Voyage from London to Philadelphia,
III. Proposals relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania,
IV. American Philosophical Society, .
V. Extracts from a Private Journal,
VI. Extracts from a Private Journal,
VII. Proceedings of Congress, and of the National Assembly of
France, on the Death of Franklin,