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a new constitution of civil government for ourselves and posterity; and devoutly imploring his direction in so interesting, a design, do agree upon, ordain and establish the following Declaration of Rights and Frame of Govern ment, as the CONSTITUTION of the COMMONWEALTH OF MASSA



A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the

Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

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Equality and Art. 1. All men are born free and equal, and have natural rights of all men.

certain natural, essential and unalienable rights; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing and protecting property ; in fine, that of seeking and obtaining

their safety and happiness. Right and duty II. It is the right as well as the duty of all men in society, of public religious worship.

publicly, and at stated seasons, to worship the SUPREME

BEING, the great Creator and Preserver of the universe. Protection there. And no subject shall be hurt, molested or restrained, in his

person, liberty or estate, for worshipping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; or for his religious profession or sentiments; provided he doth not disturb the public peace, or obstruct others

in their religious worsbip. Amendment, Art. [M. As the happiness of a people, and the good order and preservaXI. substituted tion of civil government, essentially depend upon piety, religion and

morality; and as these cannot be generally diffused through a community,

but by the institution of the public worship of God, and of public instrucLegislature em tions in piety, religion and morality: Therefore, to promote their happipowered to com- ness, and to secure the good order and preservation of their government, pel provision for the people of this Commonwealth have a right to invest their legislature

with power to authorize and require, and the legislature shall, from time to time, authorize and require the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies politic, or religious societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of the public worship of God, and for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality, in all cases where such provision shall not be made

voluntarily. and to enjoin at And the people of this Commonwealth have also a right to, and do, tendance there invest their legislature with authority to enjoin upon all the subjects an

attendance upon the instructions of the public teachers aforesaid, at stated times and seasons, if there be any on whose instructions they can conscientiously and conveniently attend.

for this.


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one sect to anoth

ernment secured.

all officers, &c.

Provided, notwithstanding, that the several towns, parishes, precincts Exclusive right of and other bodies politic, or religious societies, shall, at all times, have the electing religious exclusive right of electing their public teachers, and of contracting with teachers secured. them for their support and maintenance.

And all moneys, paid by the subject to the support of public worship, Option and of the public teachers aforesaid, shall, if he require it, be uniformly to

whom parochial applied to the support of the public teacher or teachers of his own religious paid, unless, &c. sect or denomination, provided there be any on whose instructions he attends; otherwise it may be paid toward the support of the teacher or teachers of the parish or precinct in which the said moneys are raised.

And every denomination of Christians, demeaning themselves peace- All denominaably, and as good subjects of the Commonwealth, shall be equally under tions equally prothe protection of the law: and no subordination of any one sect or denom- Subordination of ination to another shall ever be established by law.]

er probibited. IV. The people of this Commonwealth have the sole and Right of self-govexclusive right of governing themselves as a free, sovereign and independent State ; and do, and forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not, or may not hereafter, be by them expressly delegated to the United States of America, in Congress assembled.

V. All power residing originally in the people, and being Accountability of derived from them, the several magistrates and officers of government, vested with authority, whether legislative, executive or judicial, are their substitutes and agents, and are at all times accountable to them.

VI. No man, nor corporation or association of men, Services rendered have any other title to obtain advantages, or particular and ing the only title exclusive privileges, distinct from those of the community, leges, hereditary than what arises from the consideration of services rendered offices are absurd to the public; and this title being in nature neither hereditary, nor transmissible to children or descendants, or relations by blood, the idea of a man born a magistrate, lawgiver or judge, is absurd and unnatural.

VII. Government is instituted for the common good ; Objects of gov: for the protection, safety, prosperity and happiness of the of people to people ; and not for the profit, honor or private interest of any one man, family or class of men : Therefore the people alone have an incontestable, unalienable and indefeasible right to institute government; and to reform, alter or totally change the same, when their protection, safety, prosperity and happiness require it.

VIII. In order to prevent those who are vested with Right of people authority, from becoming oppressors, the people have a in office. right, at such periods and in such manner as they shall establish by their frame of government, to cause their public officers to return to private life ; and to fill up vacant places by certain and regular elections and appointments.


change it.

on consent.

Remedies by recourse to the law,

All, having IX. All elections ought to be free; and all the inhabithe qualifications prescribed,equal. tants of this Commonwealth, having such qualifications as ly eligible to of fice.

they shall establish by their frame of government, have an equal right to elect officers, and to be elected, for public

employments. Right of protec.

Å. Each individual of the society has a right to be protion and duty of tected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty and property, relative.

according to standing laws. He is obliged, consequently, Taxation founded to contribute his share to the expense of this protection ; to

give his personal service, or an equivalent, when necessary : but no part of the property of any individual can, with justice, be taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own consent, or that of the representative body of the people. In fine, the people of this Commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws than those to which their

constitutional representative body have given their consent. Private property And whenever the public exigencies require that the property for public uses of any individual should be appropriated to public uses, he without, &c.

shall receive a reasonable compensation therefor.

XI. Every subject of the Commonwealth ought to find to be free, com: a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all plete and prompt injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person,

property or character. He ought to obtain right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it; completely, and without any denial ; promptly, and without

delay, conformably to the laws. Prosecutions reg. XII. No subject shall be held to answer for any crimes

or offence, until the same is fully and plainly, substantially and formally, described to him; or be compelled to accuse, or furnish evidence against himself: and every subject shall have a right to produce all proofs that may be favorable to him; to meet the witnesses against him face to face, and to be fully heard in his defence by himself, or his counsel, at his election. And no subject shall be arrested, imprisoned, despoiled or deprived of his property, immunities or privileges, put out of the protection of the law, exiled or deprived of his life, liberty or estate, but by the judgment of his peers,

or the law of the land. Right to trial by And the legislature shall not make any law that shall cases, except, &c. subject any person to a capital or infamous punishment,

excepting for the government of the army and navy, without trial by jury.

XIII. In criminal prosecutions, the verification of facts, proved in the vicinity.

in the vicinity where they happen, is one of the greatest securities of the life, liberty and property of the citizen.


jury, in criminal

Crimes to be

and seizure reg.

and bear arms.

XIV. Every subject has a right to be secure from all Right of search unreasonable searches and seizures of his person, his houses, ulated his papers, and all his possessions. All warrants, therefore, are contrary to this right, if the cause or foundation of them be not previously supported by oath or affirmation, and if the order in the warrant to a civil officer, to make search in suspected places, or to arrest one or more suspected persons, or to seize their property, be not accompanied with a special designation of the persons or objects of search, arrest or seizure : and no warrant ought to be issued but in cases, and with the formalities, prescribed by the laws.

XV. In all controversies concerning property, and in all Right to trial by suits between two or more persons, except in cases in which cept, &c. it has heretofore been otherways used and practiced, the parties have a right to a trial by jury; and this method of procedure shall be held sacred, unless, in causes arising on the high seas, and such as relate to mariners' wages, the legislature shall hereafter find it necessary to alter it.

XVI. The liberty of the press is essential to the security Liberty of the of freedom in a state: it ought not, therefore, to be restrained press. in this Commonwealth.

XVII. The people have a right to keep and to bear arms Right to keep for the common defence. And as, in time of peace,


Standing armies are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be maintained dangerous. Milwithout the consent of the legislature ; and the military ordinate to civil. power shall always be held in an exact subordination to the civil authority, and be governed by it.

XVIII. A frequent recurrence to the fundamental prin- Moral qualificaciples of the constitution, and a constant adherence to those tious for office. of piety, justice, moderation, temperance, industry and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the advantages of liberty, and to maintain a free government. The people ought, consequently, to have a particular attention to all those principles, in the choice of their officers and representatives: and they have a right to require of their lawgivers Moral obligations and magistrates, an exact and constant observance of them, magistrates. in the formation and execution of the laws necessary for the good administration of the Commonwealth.

XIX. The people have a right, in an orderly and peace- Right of people able manner, to assemble to consult upon the common good; sentatives give instructions to their representatives, and to request of petition legislathe legislative body, by the way of addresses, petitions or remonstrances, redress of the wrongs done them, and of the grievances they suffer.

XX. The power of suspending the laws, or the execution Power to suspend of the laws, ought never to be exercised but by the legisla- execution.


Freedom of de

Frequent segBions, and objects thereof.

Taxation founded on consent.

Erpost facto laws

Legislature not to

ture, or by authority derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases only as the legislature shall expressly provide for.

XXI. The freedom of deliberation, speech and debate, besondere ad in either house of the legislature, is so essential to the rights

of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever.

XXII. The legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening and confirming the laws, and for making new laws, as the common good may require.

XXIII. No subsidy, charge, tax, impost or duties, ought to be established, fixed, laid or levied, under any pretext whatsoever, without the consent of the people, or their representatives in the legislature.

XXIV. Laws made to punish for actions done before prohibited.

the existence of such laws, and which have not been declared crimes by preceding laws, are unjust, oppressive and inconsistent with the fundamental principles of a free government.

XXV. No subject ought, in any case, or in any time, to complete or treabe declared guilty of treason or felony by the legislature.

XXVI. No magistrate or court of law shall demand fines, and cruel excessive bail or sureties, impose excessive fines, or inflict punishments pro

cruel or unusual punishments.

XXVII. In time of peace, no soldier ought to be quarquartered in any tered in any house without the consent of the owner; and

in time of war, such quarters ought not to be made but by the civil magistrate, in a manner ordained by the legislature.

XXVIII. No person can in any case be subjected to Wtros lo martial, martial, or to any penalties or pains, by virtue of that law,

except those employed in the army or navy, and except the

militia in actual service, but by authority of the legislature. Judges of su XXIX. It is essential to the preservation of the rights

of every individual, his life, liberty, property and character, that there be an impartial interpretation of the laws, and administration of justice. It is the right of every citizen to

be tried by judges as free, impartial and independent as the Tenure of their lot of humanity will admit. It is, therefore, not only the

best policy, but for the security of the rights of the people, and of every citizen, that the judges of the supreme judicial court should hold their offices as long as they behave themselves well, and that they should have honorable salaries

ascertained and established by standing laws. ecutive, judicial,

XXX. In the government of this Commonwealth, the berislative legislative department shall never exercise the executive

Excessive bail or


No soldier to be


Citizens exempt

preme judicial court.



Separation of ex

and departments

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