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pronounced the said John to be before this time conuicted of such an heresie, and that he hath bin and is an heretike, and in the end declared it in these words:

the chapell Caruariæ, of Saint Thomas martyr, nigh vnto the cathedrall church of Worcester, being situate in the said diocesse, in the presence of me the publike notarie, and of the witnesses vnder written, the aforesaid John "In the name of God, Amen. We Thomas Badby a layman, of the said diocesse of Wor- bishop of Worcester doe accuse thee John Badcester, appearing personally before the reuerend by, being a lay man of our diocesse, of and father in Christ and Lord, lord Thomas, by the vpon the crime of heresie, before vs sitting for grace of God bishop of Worcester, sitting in the chiefe iudge, being oftentimes confessed and said chappell for chiefe iudge, was detected of conuicted of and vpon that, that thou hast and vpon the crime of heresie being heretically taught, and openly affirmed, as hitherto thou taught, and openly maintained by the foresaid dost teach, boldly attirme, and defend; that the John Badby: that is, that the sacrament of the sacrament of the body of Christ, consecrated body of Christ, consecrated by the priest vpon vpon the altar by the priest, is not the true body the altar, is not the true bodie of Christ by the of Christ; but after the sacramental words, vertue of the words of the sacrament. But that, to make the body of Christ by vertue of after the sacramentall words spoken by the the said sacramentall words pronounced, to priest to make the body of Christ, the materiall haue been in the crime of heresie; and we doe bread doth remaine vpon the altar as in the pronounce thee both to haue beene and to bee beginning, neither is it turned into the very an heretike, and doe declare it finally by these body of Christ after the sacramentall words writings."-These things were done accordingly spoken of the priest. Which John Badby be- as is aboue written, and are recited in the ing examined, and diligently demanded by the yeere, indiction, popedome, moneth, day, and foresaid reuerend father concerning the pre- place aforesaid, being present the same time misses, in the end did answere; that it was im-John Malune prior of the cathedrall church of possible that any priest should make the body Worcester, John Dudle monke, and Haule the of Christ, and that he beleuved firmely that sub-prior of the said church, Thomas Penings no priest could make the body of Christ, by of the order of the Carmelites, Thomas Fekensuch words sacramentally spoken in such sort. ham of the order of the preaching Friers, WilAnd also he said expressely that hee would liam Pomfret of the order of the Minorites, benever while he liued beleeue that any priest ing professors and masters in diuinitie, William could make the body of Christ to be handled Hales, Gualter of London, John Swippedew in the hands of the priest vpon the altar, being publike Notaries, and William Beuin his corporall forme. And furthermore he champe and Thomas Cerbris being knights, said that John Raker of Bristoll had as much Richard Wish of Tredington, Thomas Wilbe of power and authoritie to make the like body of Hembury, John Westen of Yewley, being parChrist, as any priest had. Moreouer he said, sons of churches, and Thomas Baleinges, the that when Christ sat at supper with his disci- master of saint Wolston in Worcester, and also ples, hee had not his body in his hand, to the Henry Haggely, Iohn Penerell, Thomas Trogintent to distribute it to his disciples; and he morton and William Wasseborne, esquires of said expressely, that he did not this thing. And the diocesse of Worcester and Norwich, and also he spake many other words teaching and many other worshipfull and honest men being fortifying the heresie in the same place, both witnesses and called specially to the things grieuous, and also out of order, and horrible to aforesaid.-And I Iohn Chew Clerke, of the the eares of the hearers, sounding against the dioces of Bathe and Welles, and by the authoCatholike faith.-Upon which occasion the rity apostolicall, publicque notarie of the said same reuerend father admonished and requested bishop, haue in testimonie of the premisses put the said John Badby oftentimes, and very in- my hand and seale to the examination, interstantly to charitie; for so much as he would rogation, monition, and answer of the same willingly that he should haue forsaken such Iohn Badby, and to his obstinacie, and also to heresie and opinion holden, taught, and main- the proceedings of all and singular other doings tained by him, in such sort against the sacra- as is aforesaid, which against him before the ment, to renounce, and vtterly abiure them, said bishop were handled and done, in the and to beleeue other things which the holy yeere, indiction, popedome, moneth, day, and mother the Church doth beleeue. And he in-place aforesaid, which with the forenamed formed the said Iohn on that behalfe both gently, and also laudably. Yet the said Iohn Badby, although he were admonished and requested both often and instantly by the said reuerend father, said and answered expressely, that hee would neuer beleeue otherwise than before he had said, taught, and answered. Whereupon the foresaid reuerend father bishop of Worcester seeing, vnderstanding, and perceluing the foresaid Iohn Badby to maintaine and fortifie the said heresie, being stubborne, and proceeding in the same stubbornencsse,

witnesses was personally present: and the same, euen as I heard them and saw them to bee done (being occupied with other matters) I caused to bee written and published, and into this publike forme haue compiled the same. I the foresaid notarie am also priuie vnto the words and examinations interlined between seuen or eight lines of the beginning of this instrument, which lines I also the foresaid notarie doe approue and make good.—And I Walter London clerke, of the diocesse of Worcester, and, by the authoritie apostolicall, publikę no

tarie, to all and singular the foresaid things as afore by the foresaid notarie is recited, and in the yeere, indiction, popedome, moneth, day, and place aforesaid handled and done, being with other the forerecited witnesses personally present, and to all and euery of the same (as I saw and heard them to be done, being thereunto faithfully desired and required): in testimony of the premisses haue signed and subscribed according to the accustomed manner. Hæc ex Reg. Cant. And when the articles, in the foresaid instrument contained, were by the archbishop of Canturbury publikely and vulgarly read and approued; he publikely confessed and affirmed, that hee had both said and maintained the same. And then the archbishop to conuince the constant purpose of the said John Badby, commanded the same articles againe to be read, often instructing him both by words and examples, informing and exhorting him that thereby he might bee brought the sooner to the religion that he was of. And furthermore the said archbishop said and affirmed there openly to the same Iohn, that he would (if he would liue according to the doctrine of Christ) gage his soule for him at the judgement day. And after that againe he caused those articles in the said instrument expressed to be read by the foresaid Philip Morgan, and the said archbishop himselfe expounded the same in English as before: whereunto Iohn Badby answered: As touching the first article concerning the body of Christ, hee expresly said, that after the consecration at the altar, there remaineth materiall bread, and the same bread which was before: notwithstanding (said he) it is a signe or sacrament of the liuing God.-Also, when the second article was expounded vnto him, that it is impossible for any priest, &c. To this article he answered and said, that it could not sinke into his mind that the words are to be taken as they literally lie, vnlesse he should denie the incarnation of Christ. Also being examined of the third artiele concerning lacke Raker, hee said, that if Jacke Raker were a man of good liuing, and did loue and feare God, he hath as much power so to doe, as hath the priest and said further, that he hath heard it spoken of some doctors of diuinitie, that if he should receiue any such consecrated bread, he were worthy to bee damned, and were damned in so doing.-Furthermore hee said that he would beleeve the omnipotent God in trinitie; and said moreouer, that if euery host being consecrated at the altar were the Lord's body, that then there be 20,000 gods in England. But he beleeued (he said) in one God omnipotent, which thing the foresaid archbishop of Canterbury denied not. -And when the other conclusion was expounded, That Christ sitting with his disciples at supper, &c. To this he answered and said, that he would greatly maruell, that if any man had a loafe of bread, and should breake the same and giue to every man a mouth-full, that the same loafe should afterwards be whole.When all these things were thus finished, and

all the said conclusions were often read in the vulgar tongue; the foresaid archbishop demanded of him, whether hee would renounce and forsake his opinions and such like conclusions or not, and adhere to the doctrine of Christ and Catholike faith? He answered, that, according to that he had said before, he would adhere and stand to those words, which before he had made answere vnto. Then the archbishop oftentimes required the said John, in the bowels of Jesus Christ that hee would forsake those opinions and conclusions, and that henceforth he would cleaue to the Christian faith; which thing to doe in the audience of all the lords and others that were present, hee expresly denyed and refused.-After all this, when the aforesaid archbishop of Canturbury, and the bishop of London had consulted together, to what safe keeping the said Iohn Badby (vntill the Wednesday next) might be committed; it was concluded, that hee should bee put into a certaine chamber or safe house within the mansion of the Friers preachers, and so he was: and then the archbishop of Canturbury said, that hee himselfe would keepe the keye thereof in the meane time. And when the foresaid Wednesday was expired, being the 15 day of March, and that the foresaid archbishop of Canterbury, with his fellow brethren and suffragans, were assembled the in church of Saint Paul in London; the archbishop of Canturbury taking the episcopall seat called vnto him the archbishop of Yorke, Richard London, Henry Winchester, Robert Chichester, Alexander Norwich, and the noble prince Edmund the duke of Yorke, Rafe earle of Westmerland, Thomas Beaufort knight, lord chancellour of England, and the lord Beamond with other noble men as well spirituall, as temporall, that stoode and sate by, whom to name it would bee long. Before whom the said Iohn Badby was called personally to answere vnto the articles premised in the foresaid instrument. when hee came personally before them, the articles were read by the officiall of the court of Canterbury and by the archbishop (in the vulgar tongue) expounded publikely and expresly: and the same articles, as he had before spoken and deposed, hee still held and defended, and said, whilest he liued, he would neuer retract the same. And furthermore, he said specially to bee noted, that the lord duke of Yorke personally there present, as is aforesaid, and euery man else for the time being, is of more estimation and reputation, than the Sacrament of the altar, by the priest in due forme consecrated. And whilest they were thus in his examination, the archbishop considering and weighing that hee would in no wise bee altered, and seeing moreouer his countenance stout and heart confirmed, so that he began to perswade other as it appeared in the same: these things considered, the archprelat, when hee saw that by his allurements it was not in his power, either by exhortations, reasons, or arguments, to bring the said Iohn Badby from his constant truth to his Catholike faith (executing and do


counselled him, that hauing respect vnto himselte hee should speedily withdraw himselfe out of these dangerous labyrinths of opinions, addoftentimes threathings, the which night haue daunted any man's stomacke. Also Courtney, at that time chancellor of Oxford, preached vnto him, and enformed him of the faith of holy Church.--In this meane season the prior of Saint Bartlemewes in Smithfield brought with all solemnity the Sacrament of God's body, with twelue torches borne before, and so shewed the Sacrament to the poore man being at the stake. And they demanding of him how he beleeued in it, he answered, that he knew well it was hallowed bread, and not God's body. And then was the tunne put ouer him, and fire put vnto him. And when hee felt the fire, hee cried, Mercy (calling belike upon the Lord) and so the prince immediatly commanded to take away the tunne, and quench the fire. The prince, his commandement being done, asked him if he would forsake heresie to take him to the faith of holy Church; which thing if hee would doe, he should haue goods enough, promising also vnto him a yeerely stipend [of three-pence a-day out of the king's treasury as long as he lived. This offer he rejected, and was then burnt to death.]

ing the office of his great master) proceeded to
confirme and ratifie the former sentence giuen
before by the bishop of Worcester against the
said John Badby, pronouncing him for an opening
and publike heretike. And thus shifting their
hands of him, they deliuered him to the secular
power; and desired the said temporall lords,
then and there present very instantly, that they
would not put the same Iohn Badby to deat
for that his offence, nor deliver him to be pu-
nished or put to death, in the presence of all
the lords aboue recited. These things thus
done and concluded by the bishops in the fore-
noone in the afternoone, the king's writ was
not farre behind. By the force wherof Iohn
Badby, still perseuering in his constancie vnto
the death, was brought into Smithfield, and,
there being put in an empty barrell, was bound
with iron chaines fastened to a stake having
drie wood put about him.-And as he was thus
standing in the pipe or tunne (for as yet Peril-
lus bull was not in vse among the bishops) it |
happened that the prince, the king's eldest
sonne, was there present. Who, shewing some
part of the good Samaritane, began to ende-
bour and assay how to saue the life of him,
whom the hypocriticall Leuites and Pharisies
sought to put to death. Hee admonished and

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20. The Trial and Examination of Sir JOHN OLDCASTLE, Lord Cobham, for Heresy, before the Archbishop of Canterbury: 1 Hen. V. A. D. 1413. Collected by Jolin Bale. [Holin. Chron. 544. a. 1 Hall's Chron. 24. b. Stow's Annals, 344. a. 1 Hale's P. C. 141. Fox's Acts and Monuments, 726, 845.] AFTER that the true seruaunte of Jesus prelates with their pharysees and scribes were Chryst, Johan Wycleue, a man of very excel- thus gathered in thys pestilent councell against lent lyfe and learning, had for the space of the Lorde and his Woorde, fyrst there remore than 26 yeares mooste valcauntly battell- sorted vnto them the 12 Inquisitours of Hereed with the great antichrist of Europa, or the syes (whom they had appointed at Oxford the Pope of Rome, and his diuersly disgysed host of yere afore, to serche out heretikes with all Wicanoynted hypocrites, to restore the Church leues bookes) and they brought 266 faithfull again to the pure estate that Chryst left her in Conclusyons whome they had collected as hereat bys ascensyon, he departed hens most syes of the seyd bokes. The names of the seid christely into the handes of God, the yeare of Inquisitours where these; Johan Witnam a our Lord 1387, and was buried in bis owne master in the New-college, Johan Languedon parrish-church at Lutterworth in Lecester- monke of Chry-Church in Conterbury, Wilyam shere. No small nombre of godly dysciples Ufforde regent of the Carmelytes, Thomas left that good man behynd hymn to defend the Claxton, regent of the Dominikes, Robert Gyllowlynesse of the gospell against the exceading bert, Rycharde Earthysdale, John Lucke, Rypryde, ambition, synony, auarice, ipocrysye, charde Snedisham, Richarde Flemming, Thowhoredom, sacrylege, tyrannye, ydolatrouse mas Rottborne, Robert Rondbery, and Richard worshipinges, and other fylthy frutes of those Grafdale. In the meane season caused they stifnecked pharyses. Agaynst whome Thomas their hyred seruantes to blowe it forth abroade Arundel, than Archebishop of Caunterbury, so throughout all the hole realme, that they were ferce as was Pharao, Antiochus, Herodes, or there congregated for an wholsome unite and Cayphas, collected in Pauls church at London reformacion of the church of Ingland, to stoppe an unyuersall Synode of all the papisticall so the mouthes of the comen people. Such is clergye of England, in the yere of our Lord 1413 always the comen practise of these subtile soras he had done diuerse other afore, to withstand cerers, whyls they are in doing mischief, to their moost godly enterpryse. And thys was blere the eyes of the vnlearned multytude, with the fyrst yere of king Henry V. whom they had one false craft or other. than made fit for theyr hande.-As these hygh


After a certain communication they con

cluded among themselves, that it was not possible for them to make whole Christes cote without seme (meaning thereby their patched popysh synagoge) onlesse certeyne great men were brought out of the way, which semed to be the chete mainteners of the seyd disciples of Wicleue: among whome the most noble knight sir Johan Oldcastell, the lord Cobbam (a) was complained of by the generall proctours, yea rather betrayers of Christ in his faithful members, to be the chefe principal. Him they accused first for a mighty maintener of suspected preachers in the dioceses of London, Rochester, and Hereforde, contrary to the mindes of their ordynaries: not only they affirmed him to have sent thyder the seid preachers, but also to haue assisted them ther by force of armes. notwithstanding their sinodall constitucion made afore to the contrarye. Last of all, they accused him, that he was farre other wise in beleue of the Sacrament of the Altre, or Penaunce, of Pilgrymage, or Ymage-worshipping, and of the Ecclesiastycall power, than the holy churche of Rome had taught many years afore. In the ende it was concluded among them, that wythoute anye farther delaye, processe shulde oute agaynst bym, as agaynst a moost pernycyous Heretike.-Som of that felloushyp, whyche were of more craftye experyence than the other, wold in no case haue that matter so rashlye handeled, but thought thys waye moche better. Consydering the seid lord Cobham was a man of great byrth, and in fauer at that tyme with the king, theyr counsell was to knowe first the kinges mynde, to saue all thynges right vp. This counsell was well accepted, and ther vpon the archbishop Thomas Arundell, wythe his other byshoppes, and a great part of the clergy, went strayght wayes into the kyng, as than remayninge at Kenyngton; and there layed forth most greuous complayntes against the saied lord Cobham, to his great infamy and blemysh, being a man most godly. The king gentilly harde those bloud thursty ramenours; and farre otherwise than became his princelye dignitie, he instauntly desyred them, that in respect of his noble stock and knighthode, they shuld yet fauourably deale with him; and that they wold, if it were possible, without all rigour or extreme handeling, reduce him again to the churches unite. He promised them also, that in case they were not contented to take some deliberación, his selfe wold serously common the matter with him.

Anon after the kyng sent for the seyd lord Cobham; and as he was come, he called him secretly, admonishing him betwixt him and him, to submit him selfe to bys mother the holy church, and as an obedient chyld to acknowledge him selfe culpable. Vnto whom the Christen knight made this answere, 'You most worthy prince,' saith he, am I always prompt and wylling to obeye, for so moche as I knowe you a Christen kinge, and the appointed minis

(a) So called in right of his wife, who was grand-daughter and heir of lord Cobham,

ter of God, bearing the sworde to the punishment of Yll-dcers, and for the sauegarde of them that be vertuous. Unto you next my æternal God, owe I my whole obedience, and submit my thervnto, as I haue donc euer, all that I have eyther of fortune or nature, redy at all times to fulfill what so euer ye shall in that lorde commaund me; but as touching the pope and hys spiritualty, truly I owe them neyther sute nor seruice; for so moch as I knowe bym by the Scriptures to be the great antichryste, the sonne of perdicyon, the open adversary of God, and the abominacyon standing in the holy place.' Whan the king had hearde this, with sochelyke sentences more, he wolde talke no longer with him, but lefte hym so vtterly.

And as the Archebishop resorted again vnto him for an Answere, he gaue him his full auctorite to cyte hym, examine hym, and punyshe him according to the deuelishe decrees, whiche they call the lawes of holy church. Than the seid abp. by the councell of hys other bishoppes and clergy, appointed to call before him syr John Oldcastell, the lord Cobham, and to cause him personally to appeare to answere to suche sus pect Articles as they shuid lay against him. So sent be forth his chefe sommener, with a very sharp citacion, vnto the castell of Cowling, where as he at that tyme dwelt for his solace. And as the seyd sommener was thether comen, he durste in no case entre the gates of so noble a man without his lycens; and therefore be returned home agayne, hys message not done. Than called the archebishop one John Butler unto him, whych was than the dorekeper of the kynges prive chamber, and with him he couenaunted through promises and rewards to haue this matter craftely brought to passe vnder the king's name. Wherespon the seyd John Butler toke the archebyshops sommener with hym, and went vnto the sayd lord Cobham shewing him that it was the king's pleasure that he shuld obeye that citacyon, and so cyted him fraudulently. Than said he vnto them in few woordes, that in no case wold be consent to those moost deuelish practices of the priestes. As they had informed the abp. of the Answere, and that it was mete for no man priuately to cyte him after that without parell of lyfe, he decreed by and by to haue him cyted by publicke processe or open commaundment. And in al the hast possible, uppon the Wednysday before the natiuite of oure Ladye in September, he commaunded letters citatory to be set vpon the great gates of the Cathedral Church of Rochester, (which was but iij. English myles from theirs) charging him to apere personally before him at Ledys, in the 11th daye of the same moneth and yeare, all excuses to the contrary set apart. Those letters were taken downe anon after, by such as bare fauer vnto the lorde Cobham, and so conueyed asyde. After that caused the archebishoppe newe letters to be set vpon the natiuitie day of our Ladye, which also were rent downe and utterly consumed.

Than for so moche as he did not apeare at

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the day appoynted at Ledys (where as he sate
in consistory, as cruell as euer was Cayphas,
with his court of hipocrites aboute him) be
judged hym, denounced him, and condemned
him of most depe contumacy: after that whan
he had bene falsely infourmed by his hierd
spyes, and other glosing glauerers, that the sayd
lord Cobham had lawghed him to scorne, dis-
dayned all his doings, mainteined his old opi-
nions, contemned the churches power, the dig-
nitie of a bishop, and the ordre of presthode
(for all these was he than accused) in hys mody
madnes, without just profe, dyd he openly ex-
communicate him. Yet was he not for all this
ferce tiranny qualifyed, but commaunded him to
be cited a fresh, to apere afore him the Saturday
before the feast of Saint Machew the apostle,
with these cruell threatinges added therunto;
That if he did not obey at that day, he wold
more extremely handle him: and to make him
selfe more strong towardes the perfourmance
thereof, he compelled the lay-power, by most ter-
rible menacinges of curses and interdictions, to
assyst him against that cedicious apostate
schismatike, that heretike, that troubler of the
publycke peace, that enemye of the realme,
and greate adversarye of all holy chirche; for
all these hateful names dyd he giue him.


This most constaunt seruant of the lord and worthy knight sir Johan Oldcastell, the lord Cobham, beholding the vnpacable fury of Antichrist this kindeled against him, perceiuing him self also compased on every side with deadly daungers, he toke paper and penne in hand, and so wrote a Christen confession or Rekening of his Faith (which foloweth here after) and both signed and sealed it with his own hande? Wherein he also answereth to the 4 chefest Articles that the Archebishop layed against him. That doone, he toke the copye with him, and wente therwith to the kyng, trustinge to fynd mercy and fauer at his hande. None other was that Confession of his, than the common beleue or somme of the churches faith, called the Apostles Crede, of all christen men than vsed: As thus.

God Almyghtyes. I beleue also that the seconde parsonne of this most blessed Trinite, in most conuenient tyme appointed thereunto afore, toke flesh and bloud of the most blessed Virgyn Mary, for the sauegard and redempcion of the uniuersall kynd of man, which was afore lost in Adam's offence. Moreouer, I beleue that the same Jesus Christ our Lord thus being both God and man, is the onely head of the whole Christen Churche, and that all those that hath bene, or shal be saued, be membres of this most holy church: and this holy church I think to be diuided into iii. sortes or

companyes.-Wherof the first sort, be now in heauen, and they are the sayuctes from hens departed. These, as they were here conuersaunt, conformed alwayes theyre lyues to the most holye lawes and pure examples of Chryste, renouncyng Sathan, the worlde, and the flesh, wythe all their concupicences and euels. The second sort are in purgatory (yf any such be by the scriptures) abydying the mercy of God, and a full delyuerance of Payne. The thyrde sorte are here uppon the earth, and be called the Church Mylytaunt. For daye and nyght they contend agaynst the crafty assaultes of the deuel, the flattering prosperitics of thys worlde, and the rebellyouse fylthynes of the fleshe.-Thys latter congregation by the juste ordinaunce of God is also senered into three diuerse estates, that is to say into priesthode, Amonge whom knighthode, and the comens. the wyll of God is, that the one shuld ayde the other, but not destroye the other. The priestes fyrst of all secluded from all worldlynesse shuld conforme theyr lyues vtterly to the examples of Chryst and his Apostles. Euermore shulde they be occupied in preaching and teaching the Scriptures purely, and in geuing wholsom counsels of good liuing to the other More modest also, two degrees of men. more louing, gentyll, and lowleye in spirite shuld they be than any other sortes of people.

In knighthode are all they whych beare sword by lawe of office. These shuld defende Gods lawes, and see that the gospell were purely taught, conforming their lyues to the same, and secludynge all false preichers: yea these ought rather to hasard their lyues than to suffer such wycked decrees as eyther blemisheth the eternal Testament of God, or yet letteth the fre passage thereof, whereby heresies and schismes might spring in the church. For of none other ryse they as I suppose, than of erronyous constitucions, craftely fyrst creping in under bypocrites lyes for auauntage. They ought also to preserue Gods peple from oppressors, tirauntes, and theues, and to se the clergy supported so long as they teache purely, pray rightly, and minister the Sacraments frely. And if they se them do otherwise, they are bound by law of office to compell them to chaunge their doinges, and to se all thinges performed according to Gods prescript or ordinaunce.-The latter fellouship of this church are the common people, whose dewtye is to beare their good mindes and true obedience to the aforeseyd

The Christen Beleue of the Lord Cobham. "I beleue in God the Father Almighty, maker of heuen and earth; and in Jesu Christ his only Sonne our Lord, which was conceyued by the Holy Gost, borne of the Virgin Mary, suffred vnder Ponte Pilate, crucified, dead, and buried, went doun to helle, the third daye rose againe from death, ascended vp to Heuen, sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almightye, and from thens shall come agayne to judge the quicke and the dead. I beleue in the Holy Gost, the vniversall holy churche, the communion of sainctes, the forgeuenes of sinnes, the vprising of the flesh, and everlasting life. Amen.-And for a more large Declaracion of this my Faith in the Catholick Church, I stedfastly beleue that there is but one God Almighty, in and of whose godhead are these iii. parsonnes, the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy Gost, and that those iii. parsonnes are the same selfe

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