« ZurückWeiter »
yet it is unperfyte speche. For the principall | thus, I said to this clerke, Sir, I pray you that parte of a thinge is properlye the hooll thynge: ye wolde fetche this man hither; and all the for lo, mannes soule, that may not now be wordes as nere as I can repete them, which sene here, nor touched with ony sensible that I spake to hym on Fridaye in the pryson, thing, is properly man. And all the vertue of I will reherse nowe here before you all, and a tree is in the roote thereof, that maye not before hym. be sene; for do awaye the roote, and the tree is destroyed. And, syr, as ye sayde to me right nowe, God and hys worde are of one authoritie; and, syr, Seynte Jerome witnesseth that Christe, very Godde and very man, is hidde in the letter of his lawe: thus also, syr, the gospell is hidde in the letter. For, syr, as it is full likely many diuerse men and women here in the ethe touched Christe, and sawe hym and knewe his bodeley persone, which nother touched nor sawe, nor knewe ghostely his Godhede; right thus, syr, many men now touche and see, and write and rede the scriptures of Goddis lawe, whiche nother touche, see nor rede effectuallye the gospell. For as the Godhede of Christe, that is the vertue of God, is knowen by the vertue of thorowe belefe, so is the gospell, that is Christes worde. And a Clerke said to me, Thes be full mystic matters, and unsauery, that thou shew-ye to me to be confessed of me? ye wote well est here to vs.' And I said, Sir, if ye that ar masters know not playnly this sentence, ye may sore diede that the kingdome of Heuene be taken fro you, as it was fro the princes of priestes, and fro the elders of the Jewes.-And than a Clerke (as I gesse Malueren) sayde to
And (as I gesse) the Archebishop said than to me, They that are nowe here suffyse to repete them: how saidest thou to him? And I said, Sir, that man came and asked me of diuerse thinges; and after his askynge I answered hym (as I vnderstoode) that goode was: and as he shewed to me by his wordes, he was sory of his lyuynge in courte, and right heuy for his owne vicious lyuynge; and also for the viciousnesse of other men, and speciallye of priestes euyll lyuynge: and herefore he sayde to me with a sorrowful harte (as I gessed) that he purposed fully within shorte tyme for to leaue the court, and besy him to know Gods lawe, and to conforme all his lyfe thereafter. And whan he hadde said to me thes wordis and mo other, which I woulde reherse and he wer present, he praid me to heare his confession. And I said to hym, Sir, wherefore come
that the archebishop puttith and holdeth me here as one unworthy, other to gyue or to take any sacrament of holy chirche. And he said to me, Brother I wote well, and so wote many mo other, that you and soche other ar wrongfully vexed, and herefore I will comon with you the more gladly.' And I said to hym, Certeyn I wote well that many men of this court, and specially the priestis of this housholde, wolde be full euyll a payde, both with you and with me, if they wiste that ye wer confessed of me. And he said that he cared not therefore, for he hadde full little affection in them: and (as me thought) he spake thes
Thou knowest not thyne equiuocacyons, for the kyngdome of Heuene hathe diuerse vnderstondinges. What callest thou the kingdome of Heauene, in this sentence that thou shewest here?' And I said, Sir, by good reason and sentence of doctours, the realme of Heuene is called here the vnderstonding of Godes worde.-And a Clerke said to me, Frome whome thinkest thou that this vnder-wordis, and many other, of so goode will, and stondinge is taken awaye?' And I said, Sir, by authorite of Christe himselfe, the effectuall viderstondinge of Christes worde is taken awaye from all them chefely, whiche are greate lettered men, and presume to vnderstonde high thynges and will be holden wise men, and desyre master hippe and hye state and dignite; but they will not conforme them to the lyuyng and teaching of Christe and his apostles.
of so hye desire, for to haue knowen and done the pleasant will of God: And I said than to hym, as with my foresaid protestacion I say to you now here; Sir, I counsell you for to absente you frome all euyll company, and to drawe you to them that looue and besy them to knowe and to keape the preceptis of God: and than the good Spirite of God will mooue you for to occupie besily all your wittes, in gathering to gither of all your synnes, as far as ye can bethinke you, shamynge greatly of them and sorrowyng hartely for them, ye, sir, the holy Goste will than put in your harte a good will, and a feruent desyre for to take and to holde a good purpose to hate euer, and to flie (after your connyng and power) all occasion of synne: and so than wysdome shall come to you frome aboue, lightenyng with diuerse beamis of grace, and of heaenly desyre, all your wittes, enfourmyng you how ye shall truste stedfastely in the mercie of the Lorde, knouledgyng to him onely all your vicious lyuyng, praying to him euer deuoutely of charitac-able counsell and continuance, hoping without doute, that yf ye contynew thus besiyng you feithfully to knowe and to kepe his bidding is,
Than the Archebishop said, Well, well, thou wilt judge thy souereyns. By God the kyng doeth not his deutie, but he suffer the to be condempned.' And than another Clerke said to me, Why on Friday that last was, counseldest thou a man of my lordes, that he sholde not shriue him to man, but only to God?'And with this asking I was abasshed, and than by and by I knewe that I was suttely betrayed of a man that came to me in presone on the Friday before, comunynge with me in thys matter of confessyon; and certayn by his wordes (I thoughte) that this man came than to me of full feruient and charitable will: but now I knowe he came to tempt me, and to cuse me (God forgyve him, yf it be his will). And with all myne harte whan I hadde thoughte
that he will (for he only may) forgyue you all your synnes. And this man said than to me, Though God forgyue men their synnes, yet it behoueth men to be assoyled of priestis, and to doo the penaunce that they enjoyne them. And I said to him, Sir, it is all one to assoyle men of their synnes, and to forgyue men their synnes: wherefore syns it perteinyth onely to God to forgive synne, yt suffisith in this case to counsell men and women for to leave their synne, and to comforte them that besye them thus to doo, for to hope steadfastely in the mercie of God. And ageynward, priestis owght to tell sharpely to customable synners, that if they will not make an ende of their synne, but contynew in diuerse synnes while that they may synne, all soche deserue peyn without any ende. And herfore priestis shoulde euer besy them to liue well and holily, and to teache the people besely and trewly the worde of God, shewing to all folke in open preaching, and in preuy counselyng, that the Lorde God onely forgeuyth synne. And therfore those priestis that take upon them to assoylve men of their synnes, blaspheme God: syns that it perteinyth only to the Lorde to assoyle men of all their synnes. For no doubte a thousande yeare after that Christe was man, no prieste of Christe durste take upon hym to teach the people nother priuely nor apertely, that they behoouyd nedis to come to be assolid of them, as priestis now doo. But by authoritie of Christis worde, priestis bound indured customable sinners to euerlasting peyns, which in no tyme of their lynyng worde besy them feithfully to know the biddinges of God, nor to keape them. And ageyn, all they that would occupie all their wittes, to hate and to flie occasion of synne, dreding over all things to offend God, and loouyng for to please him continually, to thes men and women, priestis shewid how the Lorde assoileth them of all their synnes. And thus Christe promysed to conferme in heuen all the binding and loosyng, that priestis by authorite of his worde bynde men in synne that ar indured therein, or loose them out of synne here upon erthe that ar verely repentaunt. And this man hearing thes wordis said, that he myght well in conscience consent to this sentence; but he said, Is it not needful to the lay people that cannot thus doo, to go shriue them to priestis? And I said, Yf a man feale himself so distrobled with ony sinne that he cannot by his owne witte auoide this synne without counsell of them that ar herein wyser than he, in soche a case the counsell of a goode prieste is full necessarie. And if a good prieste faile, as they do now commonly, in soche a case seynt Augustine saith that a man may lefully comon and take counsell of a verteuous seculer man ; but certeyn that a man or woman is ouer laden and to bestely, which cannot brynge their own synnes into their mynde, besiyng them night and day for to hate and to forsake all their synnes, doyng a sighe for them after their connyng and power. And, sir, full accordingly to this sentence, upon Midlenton Sonday two yeare (as I gesse) now agone,
I harde a monke of Feuersham, that men called Moredon, preache at Canterbury at the crosse within Christe-Church abbey, saiyng thus of confession: As thorow the suggestion of the fende, without counsell of any other body, that of themself many men and women can ymagine, and fynde meanys and wayes inough to come to pride, to thefte, to lecheie, and to other diuerse vyces: in contrarie wyse this monke said, syns the Lorde God is more redy to forgyue synne, than the fende is or may be of power to mooue ony body to synne, than who so euer will shame and sorow hartely for their synnes, knouledging them feithfully to God, amending them after their power and connyng, without counsell of any other body than of God and hymself, thorow the grace of God, all soche men and women may fynde sufficient meanys to come to Goddis mercie, and so to be cleane assolid of all their synnes. This sentence I said, Sir, to this man of yours, and the selfe wordis as nere as I can gesse.
And the Archebishop said, Holy Chirche approueth not this learnyng.' And I said, Sir, Holy Chirche of which Christ is hed in heuen and erthe, must nedys approue this sentence. For lo hereby all men and women may, if they will, be sufficiently tauchte to know and to kepe the commaundementis of God, and to hate and to flie continewally all occasion of synne, and to looue and to scke vertues besely, and to beleue in God stably, and to truste in his mercy stedfastly, and so to come to perfite charitie, and contynew therein perseuerently. And more the Lorde askith not of ony inan here now in this lyfe; and certeyn, syns Jesu Christe dyed upon the crosse wilfully to make men fre, men of the chirche ar to bolde to besy to make men thrall, bynding them under the peyne of endlesse curse (as they say) to doo many observaunces and ordinauncis, which nother the lyuyng nor teaching of Christe, nor of his Apostles approueth.
And a Clerke said than to me,Thou shewist playnely here thy disceite which thou haste learnyd of them that trauell to sowe popill among wheate. But I counsell the to go away clene frome this learning, and submyt the lowly to my lorde, and thou shalt fynde hym yet to be gracious to the.' And as faste than another Clerke said to me. How wast thou so bolde at Paulis Crosse in London, to stonde there harde with thi tippet bounden about thyne hedde, and to repreue in his sermonne the woorthy clerke Aleerton, drawyng away all that thou myghtist; ye and the same day, at afternone thou metyng that woorthy doctour in Watlyng-strete, callidst hym false flaterer and ypocrite.' And I said, Sir, I think certainly
that there was no man nor wooman that hated verely synne, and loouyd vertues, hearing the sermonne of the clerke of Oxforde, and also Alkerton's sermonne; but they sayd or might justely say, that Alkerton reproouyd the clerke untrewly, and sclaundered hym wrongfully and uncharitably. For no doute if the lyuyng and teaching of Christe chefely, and of
his apostles be trewe, no body that looueth, counsell, obeiyng meekly and wilfully to myne God and his lawe, will blame any sentence that the clerke than preachid there, syns by authorite of Goddis worde, and by approued seyntis and doctours, and by open reason, this clerke approued all thingis clerly that he preached
And a Clerke of the Archebishops said to me, His sermonne was faise, and that he shewith openly, syns he dare not stande forthe, and defende his preaching that he then preached there.' And I said, Sir, I thinke that he purposith to stande stedfastely thereby, or els he sclaundereth foully hym self, and also many other that haue great truste, that he will stande by the trewith of the gospell. For I wote well his sermonne is written both in Latyne and in Englysch, and many man haue it, and they sett great pryse thereby. And sir, if ye wer present with the Archebishop at Lambeth when his clerke apered, and was at his answer before the Archebishop, ye wote well that this clerke denyed not there his sermonne? but two days he maynteinyd it before the Archebishop and his clerkis. And than the Archebishop, or one of his clerkis said, I wote not which of them, that harlot shall be met with for that sermonne. For no man but he and thou, and soche other false harlotis praisith ony soche preaching.
And than the Archebishop said, 'Your cursed secte is besy, and it joiethe right greately to contrarie, and to destroye the priuilege and fredome of holy chirche.' And I said, Sir I knowe no man that trauell so besely as this secte dothe (which you repreue) to make rest and peace in holy chirche. For pride, couetousness and simony which distrooble moste holy chirche, this secte hatith and fliethe, and traucllith besely to mooue all other men in lyke maner unto meaknesse; and wilfull pouerte and charite, and fre ministryng of the sacramentis, this secte louyth and vsith, and is full besy to mooue all other folkis thus to doo. For thes vertues owe all membres of holy chirche to their hedde Christe.
ordinaunce, thou shalt fynde it moste profitable and best to the for to doo thus. Therefore tary thou me no lenger, graunte to doo this that I have said to the now here shortly, or deny it utterly.' And I said to the abp., Sir, owe we to beleue that Jesu Christe was, and is very God and very man? And the abp. said, Ye. And I said, Sir, owe we to beleue, that all Christis lyuyng and his teaching is trewe in euery poynte? And he said, Ye. And I said, Sir, owe we to beleue, that the lyuying of the apostles, and the teaching of Christe, and of all the prophetes, are true, which are written in the Bible for the health and saluacion of Goddes people? And he said, Ye. And I said, Syr,
owe all Christen men and women after their connyng and power for to conforme all their lyuyng to the teaching specially of Christe, and also to the teaching and lyuynge of his apostles, and of prophetes, in all thinges that are plesaunt to God, and edification to his churche ? And he said, Ye.
And I said, Sir, ought the doctrine, the bidding or the councell of ony body to be accepted or obeid unto, excepte this doctrine, thes biddinges or this counsell may be graunted and affermed by Christes lyuyng and his teaching specially, or by the lyuyng and teaching of his apostles and prophetes? And the Archebishop said to me, Otlier doctrine ought not to be accepted, nor we owe not to obey to any mannes bidding or councell, except we can perceyue that this bidding or counsell accordeth with the bidding and teaching of Christe, and of his apostles and prophets.' And I said, Sir, is not all the learninge and biddinges and counsellis of holy chirche meanes and healfull remedies to know and to withstond the preuy suggestions, and the aperte temptacions of the fende; and also wayes and healfull remedies to flee pride, and all other dedely synnes, and the braunches of them, and souereyn meanes to purchese grace, for to withstonde and ouercome all the fleschly lustes and mouynges? And the abp. said, Ye. And I said, Sir, whatsoeuer thing ye or ony other body bid or counsell me to do, accordingly to this foresaid learning, after my connynge and power throwe the helpe of God I will mekely with all myne harte obey thereto. And the Archebishop sayde to me,
Than a Clerke said to the Archebishop, Sir, it is ferre daies, and ye haue ferre to ryde to nyght: therefore make an ende with him, for he will none make. But the more, sir, that ye besy you for to drawe hym toward you, the more contumax he is made, and the ferder from Submitt the than now here mekely and wilyou.' And than Malueren said to me, Wil- fully to the ordinaunce of holy churche, which liam knele down and praye my lorde of grace, I shall shewe to the.' And I said, Sir, accordand leaue all thy fantasies, and become a childe ingly as I haue here nowe before you rehersed, of holy chirche. And I said, Sir, I have praied I will now be redy to obey full gladly to Christe the Archebishop ofte, and yet I pray hym for the hede of all holy churche, and to the learnthe loue of Christe, that he will leaue his in-ynge and biddynges and counselles of euery pleasdignacion that he hathe ageinst me; and that ynge membre of hym. he will suffer me after my counyng and power, for to doo myne office of priestebode, as I am chargid of God to do it. For I couete nought els but to serve my God to his pleasing, in the state that I stand in, and haue taken me to.
Than the Archebishop striking with his honde ferseylye upon a cupborde, spake to me with a greate spyrite, saying, By Jesu, but yf thou leaue soche addicions obliging the now here, without ony excepcion to myne ordinaunce, or that I go out of this place, I shall make the as sure as ony thefe that is in the pryson of Lantern. Aduyse the now what thou wilt do:' and
than as if he had ben angered, he went fro the cupborde where he stode to a wyndowe.
And than Malueren and another clerke came nerer me, and they spake to me many wordes full plesently; and another while they manased me, and counselled full besily to submyt me, or els they sayde, I shoulde not escape ponishing ouer mesure; for they saide shoulde be degraded, cursed and burned, and so than dampned. But now they said, thou maiste eschewe all these mischeues, yf thou wilt submit the wilfully and mekely to thys worthy prelate that hath cure of the soule. And for the pytie of Christe (said they) bethinke the, howe great clerkes the bishop of Lincoln, Herford, and Purney, wer and yet are, and also B. that is a well vnderstondinge man, which also haue forsaken and reuoked all the learnynge and opinions, that thou and soche other holde. Wherefore syns eche of them is mekill wyser than thou arte, we counsell the for the beste, that by the example of thes four clerkes thou folowe them, submyttynge the as they did. And one of the bishopes clerkes said than there, that he herde Nicoll Herforde say, that syns he forsoke and reuoked all the learning and Lolardes opinions, he hathe had mekill greater favour, and more delyte to holde ageinst them, than euer he hadde to holde with them while he helde with them.-And therefore Malueren said to me, I vnderstonde and thou wilt take the to a priest, and shryue the clene; forsake all soch opinions, and take thy penaunce of my lord here, for the holding and teaching of them, with in shorte tyme thou shalt be greatly conforted in this doing.'
treuthe, ought not, nor maye not priuely be amended dewly. Wherefore, sirs, I praye you that ye besye you not for to mooue me to folowe these these men in reuokynge and forsakynge of the trewthe and sothefastenesse as they haue done and yet doo, wherein by open euydence they steire God to great wrothe, and not Ionely ageynst them selfe but also ageynste all them that fauoure them or consente to them herein, or that comoneth with them, except it be for their amendement. For whereas thes men firste were persued of enemyes, now they haue obliged them by othe for to shaunder and persue Christe in his members. Wherfor as I truste stedfastely in the goodnes of God, the worldly couetousnesse, and the lustie lyuyng, and the slyding fro the treuth of these runagates, shall be to me and to many other men and women an example, and an euidence to stonde the more stifly by the trewith of Christe. For certeyn, right many men and women doo marke and abhorre the foulnesse and cowardnesse of these forsaide untrewe men, howe that they are ouercome and stopped with benefyces, and withdrawen fro the treuth of Goddes worde, forsaking ytterly to suffer therfore bodely persecucyon. For by this vnfeithfull doynge and apostasie of them, specially that ar great lettered men and haue knowledged openly the treuth, and now other for pleasure or displeasure of tyrantes haue taken hyer and temporal wages to forsake the trewthe, and to holde against it, slaundering and persewing them that couete to folowe Christ in the waye of righteousnesse, many men and women therfore are nowe moued: but many mo, thorow the grace of God, shall be moued hereby for to learne the treuth of God, and to doo thereafter, and to stond boldely thereby.
And I said to the Clerkes that thus besyly counselled me to folow these forsaide men, Sirs, if thes men, of whome ye counsell me to take example, had forsaked benefyces of temporall profyte, and of worldly worshippe, so that they had absented them and eschewed frome all occasyons of couetousnesse, and of fleschely lustes, and had taken them to symple lyuynge, and wilfull pouerte, they hadde herein geuen goode example to me, and to many other to haue folowed them. But now, syns all thes foure men haue slaunderovsly and shamefully done the contrarye, consentyng to receyue and to haue and to holde temporall benefyces, lyuynge now more worldly and more fleschely than they did before, conformyng them to the maners of this worlde; I forsake them herein, and in all their forsaid slaunderous doynge. For I purpose with the help of God into remission of all my synnes and of my foule cursed lyuying, to hate and to flye prively and apertly, to folow thes men, teaching and counsellying whomesoeuer that I may for to flye and eschewe the waye that they haue chosen to go in, whiche will lede them to the worste ende, if in conuenient tyme they repente them not, verely forsakynge and reuokynge openly the slaunder that they haue put and euery daye yet put to Christes Churche. For certeyn so open blasphemye and slaunder as they have spoken and done in their reuokyng and forsakyng of the
Than the Archebishoppe sayde to his Clerkes, 'Besy you no lenger aboute hym; for he and other soche as he is are confedered so to gither, that they will not sweare to be obedient, and to submytte them to prelates of holy chirche. For nowe syns I stode here, his felowe sente me worde that he will not sweare, and that he counselled hym that he sholde not sweare to me. And, losell, in that thynge that in the is, thou haste besyed the to loose thys yonge man; but blessed be God, thou shalt not haue thy purpose of hym: for he hath forsaken all thy learnynge, submyttyng him to be buxum and obedient to the ordinaunce of holy churche, and wepeth full bitterly, and curseth the full hartely for the venemous teachynge whiche thou haste shewed to hym, counsellying him to doo thereafter. And for thy false counsellynge of many other and hym, thou haste greate cause to be righte sory. For long tyme thou haste besied the to peruert whom so cuer thou mightest; therfore as many deathes thou arte worthy of, as thou hast geuen euell councelles. And therefore by Jesu thou shalt go thyther, where Nicoll Harforde and Tom Purnay were herbered. And I vndertake, or thys daye eighte dayes thou shalt be righte gladde for to doo what thynge that euer I bydde the doo.
And, losell, I shall assaye if I can make the there as soroufull (as it was tolde me) thou waste gladde of my laste going out of England; by seynt Thomas I shall tourne thy joye into sorowe.' And I sayde, Sir, there can no body preue laufully that I ioyed euer of the manner of youre goynge out of this lande. But, sir, to saye the sothe, I was joyfull whan ye were gone; for the bishop of London, in whos pryson ye lefte me, founde in me no cause for to holde me lenger in hys pryson, but at the requeste of my frendes, he delivered me to them, asking of me no manner of submittyng.
Than the Archebishoppe said to me, 'Wherfore that I ycde out of England is vnknowen to the; but be this thinge well knowen to the, that God (as I wote well) hath called me ageyne, and broughte me into this lande for to destroye the and the false secte that thou arte of, as by God I shall persue you so naroulye, that I shall not leave a steppe of you in thys lande.' And I said to the abp. Sir, the holy prophete Jeremy said to the false prophet Anany, Whan the worde that is the prophecye of a prophete is 'knowen or fulfilled, than it shall be knowen that the Lorde sent the prophete in treuthe.' -And the Archebishop, as if he hadde not been pleasid with my saiynge, turned hym awaye warde hyther and thyther, and sayde, By God I shall sette upon thy shynnes a pair of perlis, that thou shalt be gladde to chaunge thy voice.'
Thes and many mo wonderous and convicious wordes were spoken to me, manassing me and all other of the samne secte for to be punished and destroyed vnto the vttermoste. And the abp. called than to hym a Clerke, and rowned with him; and that Clerke went forthe, and sone he brought in the constable of Saltwode Castell, and the abp. rowned a good while with hym, and than the constable went forthe, and than cam in diuerse seculers, and they scorned me on euery syde, and manassed me greatly; and some counselled the abp. to burne me by and by, and some other counselled hym to
drounde me in the sea, for it is near hande there. And a Clerke standyng besyde me there, knelede downe to the abp., praiyng hym that he wolde delyuer me to hym for to saye matenes with hym, and he wolde vndertake that within thre dayes I sholde not resiste any thynge that were commaunded me to doo of my prelate. And the abp. said, that he would ordeine for me himselfe. And than after came in ageyn the constable, and spake priuely to the abp. And than the abp. commaunded the constable to lede me forthe thens with hym, and so he did; and whan we wer gone forthe thens, we wer sent after ageyn. And whan I came in ageyne before the abp. a Clerke badde me knele downe, and aske grace, and submit me lowly, and I sholde fynde it for the beste.
And I said than to the abp. 'Sir, as I haue said to you diuerse tymes to-day, I will wilfully and lowly obey and submit me to be ordenid euer after my connyng and power to God, and to his lawe, and to euery membre of holy Chirche, as ferre forth as can perceyue that thes membres accorde with their hedde Christe, and will teach me, rule me, or chastyse me by authority specially of Goddis lawe. And the Archebishop said, I wiste well he wolde not without soche addicions submit hym. Aud than I was rebukyd, scornyd, and manasyd on euery syde; and yet after this diuerse persones cried vpon me to knele down and subinit me, but I stood still and spake no worde: and than there was spokyn of me, and to me many greate wordis: and I stoode and herde them manase, curse, and scorne me; but I said nothing.Than a while after the Archebishop said to me,
Wilt thou not submit the to the ordinance of holy Chirche?' And I said, Sir, I will full gladly submit me, as I haue shewid you before. And than the Archebishop badde the constable to haue me forthe thens in haste; and so then I was led forth, and brought into a foul unhonest prison, where I came never before
After this, it is not known what became of him; but most probably he died in prison.
19. Proceedings against JOHN BADBY, for Heresy: 10 Henry IV. A. D. 1409. [Fox's Acts and Monuments, p. 679.]
IN the yeere of our Lord 1409, on Sunday being the 1st day of March, in the afternoone, the examination following of one John Badby, tailor, being a lay man, was nade in a certaine house or hall within the precinct of the preaching friers in London, in an vtter cloister, vpon the crime of heresie, and other articles repugnant to the determination of the erroneous Church of Rome, before Thomas Arundell, archbishop of Canterbury, and others his assistants, as the archbishop of Yorke, of London, of Winchester, of Oxford, of Norwich, of Salisburie, of Bath, of Bangor, et Meneuensis Episcopi, and also Edmund duke of Yorke, Thomas Bewford the chancellor of England, lord de❘ Roos the clerke of the roles, and a great num
ber of other lords both spirituall and temporall, being then at the selfe same time present; master Morgan read the articles of his opinions to the hearers, according as it is contained in the instrument read by the foresaid master Morgan, the tenor whereof followeth, and in effect is such.-In the name of God, Amen. Be it manifest to all men by this present publike instrument, that in the yeere after the incarnation of our Lord, according to the course and computation of the Church of England, otherwise in the yeere 1409, in the second indiction, in the yeere of the popedome of the most holy father in Christ and Lord, lord Gregorie the xi. by the diuine permission pope, the second day of Januarie, in