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manufactures, when large and fertile tracts of the island ceased to be allotted to the waste of pasturage? On a natural system of diet, we should require no spices from India; no wines from Portugal, Spain, France, or Madeira; none of those multitudinous articles of luxury, for which every corner of the globe is rifled, and which are the causes of so much individual rivalship, such calamitous and sanguinary national disputes. In the history of modern times, the avarice of commercial monopoly, no less than the ambition of weak and wicked chiefs, seems to have fomented the universal discord, to have added stubbornness to the mistakes of cabinets, and indocility to the infatuation of the people. Let it ever be remembered, that it is the direct influence of commerce to make the interval between the richest and the poorest man wider and more unconquerable. Let it be remembered, that it is a foe to everything of real worth and excellence in the human character. The odious and disgusting aristocracy of wealth is built upon the ruins of all that is good in chivalry or republicanism; and luxury is the forerunner of a barbarism scarce capable of care. Is it impossible to realize a state of society, where all the energies of man shall be directed to the production of his solid happiness ? Certainly, if this advantage (the object of all political speculation) be in any degree attainable, it is attainable only by a community which holds no factitious incentives to the avarice and ambition of the few, and which is internally organized for the liberty, security, and comfort of the many. None must be entrusted with power (and money is the completest species of power) who do not stand pledged to use it exclusively for the general benefit. But the use of animal flesh and fermented liquors directly militates with this equality of the rights of man. The peasant cannot gratify these fashionable cravings without leaving his family to starve. Without disease and war, those sweeping curtailers of population, pasturage would include a waste too great to be afforded. The labour requisite to support a family is far lighter * than is usually supposed. The

* It has come under the author's experience, that some of the workmen on an embankment in North Wales, who, in consequence of the inability of the proprietor to pay them, seldom received their

peasantry work, not only for themselves, but for the aristocracy, the army, and the manufacturers.

The advantage of a reform in diet is obviously greater than that of any other. It strikes at the root of the evil. To remedy the abuses of legislation, before we annihilate the propensities by which they are produced, is to suppose, that, by taking away the effect, the cause will cease to operate. But the efficacy of this system depends entirely on the proselytism of individuals, and grounds its merits, as a benefit to the community, upon the total change of the dietetic habits in its members. It proceeds securely from a number of particular cases to one that is universal, and has this advantage over the contrary mode, that one error does not invalidate all that has gone before.

Let not too much, however, be expected from this system. The healthiest among us is not exempt from hereditary disease. The most symmetrical, athletic, and long-lived, is a being inexpressibly inferior to what he would have been, had not the unnatural habits of his ancestors accumulated for him a certain portion of malady and deformity. In the most perfect specimen of civilized man, something is still found wanting by the physiological critic. Can a return to nature, then, instantaneously eradicate predispositions that have been slowly taking root in the silence of innumerable ages ? Indubitably not. All that I contend for is, that, from the moment of relinquishing all unnatural habits, no new disease is generated; and that the predisposition to hereditary maladies gradually perishes for want of its accustomed supply. In cases of consumption, cancer, gout, asthma, and scrofula, such is the invariable tendency of a diet of vegetables and pure water.

Those who may be induced by these remarks to give the vegetable system a fair trial should, in the first place, date the commencement of their practice from the moment of their conviction. All depends upon breaking through a perwages, have supported large families by cultivating small spots of sterile ground by moonlight. In the notes to Pratt's Poem, " Bread ; or, The Poor,” is an account of an industrious labourer, who, by working in a small garden, before and after his day's task, attained to an enviable state of independence.

nicious habit resolutely and at once. Dr. Trotter * asserts that no drunkard was ever reformed by gradually relinquish. ing his dram. Animal flesh, in its effects on the human stomach, is analogous to a dram. It is similar to the kind, though differing in the degree, of its operation. The proselyte to pure diet must be warned to expect a temporary diminution of muscular strength. The subtraction of a powerful stimulous will suffice to account for this event. But it is only temporary, and is succeeded by an equable capability for exertion, far surpassing his former various and fluctuating strength. Above all he will acquire an easiness of breathing, by which such exertion is performed with a remarkable exemption from that painful and difficult panting now felt by almost every one after hastily climbing an ordinary mountain. He will be equally capable of bodily exertion, or mental application, after as before his simple meal. He will feel none of the narcotic effects of ordinary diet. Irritability, the direct consequence of exhausting stimuli, would yield to the power of natural and tranquil impulses. He will no longer pine under the lethargy of ennai, that unconquerable weariness of life, more to be dreaded than death itself. He will escape the epidemic madness which broods over its own injurious notions of the Diety, and “realizes the hell that priests and beldams feign.” Every man forms as it were his god from his own character; to the divinity of one of simple habits no offering would be more acceptable than the happiness of his creatures. He would be incapable of hating or persecuting others for the love of God. He will find, moreover, a system of simple diet to be a system of perfect epicurism. He will no louger be incessantly occupied in blunting and destroying those organs from which he expects his gratification. The pleasures of taste to be derived from a dinner of potatoes, beans, peas, turnips, lettuces, with a dessert of apples, gooseberries, strawberries, cur. rants, raspberries, and, in winter, oranges, apples, and pears, is far greater than is supposed. Those who wait until they can eat this plain fare with the sauce of appetito will scarcely join with the hypocritical sensualist at a lord-mayor's feast, who

* See Trotter on the Nervous Temperament.

declaims against the pleasures of the table. Solomon kept a thousand concubines, and owned in despair that all was van. ity. The man, whose happiness is constituted by the society of one amiable woman, would find some difficulty in sympathizing with the disappointment of this venerable debauchee.

I address myself not to the young enthusiast only, the ardent devotee of truth and virtue, the pure and passionate moralist, yet unvitiated by the contagion of the world. He will embrace a pure system from its abstract truth, its beauty, its simplicity, and its promise of wide-extended benefit; unless custom has turned poison into food, he will hate the brutal pleasures of the chase by instinct; it will be a contemplation full of horror and disappointment to his mind, that beings, capable of the gentlest and most admirable sympathies, should take delight in the death-pangs and last convulsions of dying animals. The elderly man whose youth has been poisoned by intemperance, or who has lived with apparent moderation, and is afflicted with a variety of painful maladies, would find his account in a beneficial change produced without the risk of poisonous medicines. The mother to whom the perpetual restlessness of disease and unaccountable deaths incident to her children, are the causes of incurable unhappiness, would on this diet experience the satisfaction of beholding their perpetual health and natural playfulness.* The most valuable lives are daily destroyed by diseases that it is dangerous to palliate, and impossible to cure, by medi

* See Mr. Newton's book. His children are the most beautiful and healthy creatures it is possible to conceive: the girls are perfect models for a sculptor; their dispositions are also the most gentle and conciliating: the judicious treatment which they experience in other points may be a correlative cause of this.

In the first five years of their life, of 18,000 children that are born, 7,500 die of various diseases, and how many more of those that survive are rendered miserable by maladies not immediately mortal! The quality and quantity of a woman's milk are materially injured by the use of dead flesh. In an island near Iceland, where no vegetables are to be got, the children invariably die of tetanus before they are three weeks old, and the population is supplied from the main land. - Sir G. Mackenzie's History of Iceland. See also Émile, chap. i. pp. 53, 54, 56. VOL. I.

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cine. How much longer will man continue to pimp for the gluttony of death, his most insidious, implacable, and eternal foe.

'Αλλα δράκοντας αγρίους καλείτε και παρδάλεις και λέοντας, αυτοι δε μιαιφονείτε εις ωμότητα, καταλιπόντες εκείνοις ουδένεκείνοις μεν γάρ ο φόνος τροφή, υμίν δε όψον εστίν.

"Οτι γαρ ουκ έστιν ανθρώπων κατά φύσιν το σαρκοφαγείν, πρώτον μεν από των σωμάτων δηλούται της κατασκευής. Ουδενί γαρ έoικε το ανθρώπου σώμα των επί σαρκοφαγία γεγονότων, ου γρυπότης χείλους, ουκ οξύτης όνυχος, ου τραχύτης οδόντων πρόσεστιν, ου κοιλίας εύτονία και πνεύματος θερμότης, τρέψαι και κατεργάσασθαι δυνατή το βαρύ και κρεώδες· αλλ' αυτόθεν η φύσις τη λειότητα των οδόντων, και τη σμικρότητι του στόματος, και τη μαλακότητα της γλώσσης, και τη προς πέψιν αμβλύτητι του πνεύματος, εξόμνυται την σαρκοφαγίαν. Ει δε λέγεις, πεφυκέναι σεαυτόν επί τοιαύτην έδωδήν, και βούλει φαγείν, πρώτον αυτός απόκτεινον· αλλ' αυτός διά σεαυτού, μη χρησάμενος κοπίδι, μηδέ τυμ. πάνω τινι, μηδέ πελέκει αλλά ως λύκοι και άρκτοι και λέοντες αυτοί ως έσθίουσι φονεύουσιν, άνελε δήγματι βούν, ή στόματι σύν, ή άρνα ή λαγωον, διάρρηξoν, και φάγε προσπεσών έτι ζώντος ως εκείνα.

"Ημείς δε ούτως εν τω μιαιφόνω τρυφώμεν, ώστε όψον το κρέας προσαγορεύομεν, είτα όψων προς αυτό το κρέας δεόμεθα, αναμιγνύντες έλαιον, οίνον, μέλι, γάρον, όξος, ηδύσμασι Συριακούς, 'Αραβικούς, ώσπερ όντως νεκρόν ενταφιάζοντες. Και γαρ ούτως αυτών διαλυθέντων και μαλαχθέντων και τρόπον τινά κρεοσαπέντων έργον εστι την πέψιν κρατήσαι, και διακρατηθείσης δε δεινάς βαρύτητας εμποιεί και νοσώδεις απεψίας.

Ούτω το πρώτον άγριόν τι ζώον έβρώθη και κακούργον, είτα όρνις τις ή ιχθύς είλκυστο και γευόμενον ούτω και προμελετήσαν εν εκείνους το νικούν επί βουν εργάτην ηλθε, και το κόσμιον πρόβατον, και τον οίκουρόν άλεκτρυόνα και κατά μικρόν ούτω την απληστίαν τονώσαντες, επί σφαγάς ανθρώπων και φόνους και πολέμους προήλθον.

Πλούτ. περί της Σαρκοφαγίας.

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