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tolary composition, and stamped beyond all question as authorities of the first character; though certainly not written with a view to publication. Here will be seen to equal advantage, the philosopher and the man of business, the moralist and negociator, the profound legislator, and the familiar friend, who opens his mind and delivers his sentiments with the same ingenuousness on matters of science and policy, the conduct of private life and the interests of nations. The correspondence contained in this collection, is indeed a store of the soundest lessons of practical wisdom upon subjects of universal moment, and it is also a repository of information which will afford the best instruction to politicians, and will prove a sure guide to the future historian, who shall undertake the task of recording the several stages that have led to the establishment of American Independence, with the consequences of that event upon the states of Europe. The Memoirs and CORRESPONDENCE of Dr. FRANKLIN will shew much more clearly the great chain on which the fate of nations depends, than the debates of senates, the cabals of cabinets, or the details of battles: and to an Englishman, the Letters, now for the first time published, will be curious and important in a very high degree, as throwing a strong' light upon the early part of the present reign, and upon the characters of those persons who had a principal share in the counsels which produced the dismemberment of the British empire, and the creation of a power, which, from being a dependent state, has become its most formidable rival.

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Petition.-America known to the Euro-

peans before Columbus -

- 20

Dr. Franklin to Samuel Danforth, Esy. July 5, 1773.


to His most Serene Highness Don Gabriel of

Bourbon, Philadelphia, Dec. 12, 1775.

On receiving his version of Sallust


to Dr. Priestly, Paris, Jan. 27, 1777. Phi-

losopher's Stone.-State of affairs in Ame-


. 25

to Mrs. Thompson, (at Lille) Feb. 8, 1777.

to Dr. Cooper, (Boston.) May 1, 1777.

to Mr. Winthrop, (Boston.) May 1, 1777.

10 Mr. Cushing, (Boston.) May 1, 1777.

to Mr. Thomas Viny, (Tenterden, Kent.)

Passy near Paris, May 4, 1779. .

to Mys. Wright, (London.) May 4, 1779. 34

to General Beckwith, May 17, 1779. Dis-

couraging his going to the United States

under the Expectation of being employed

in its armies


to Sir Edward Newenham, Bart. (Dublin.)

--- May 27, 1779. Respecting Irish Emigra-

tions to the United States . . 37

to General Gates, June 2, 1779. Relative

to the Chevalier De Ramondis.-Capitula-

tion of Saratoga.--Dissensions in America 38

to Richard Bache, Esq. (his son in law) June

2, 1779. Respecting Dr. F.'s Enemies in

America. His Grandsons, &c.

- 40

to Mrs. Bache, (his daughter) June 3, 1779.

Varivus Matter

to Mr. Bridgen, (London.) Oct. 2, 1779. On

copper coinage for the United States

to B. Vaughan, Esq. Nov.9, 1779. On his

Edition of some of Dr. Franklin's Writings

to Pere Beccaria. Nov. 19, 1779.

to Dr. Price, Feb. 6, 1780.

- 51

to Dr. Priestly, Feb. 8, 1780. On true Sci-

ence.-Reflections on the Inconveniences

attending all Situations in Life

- 52

to General Washington, March 5, 1780. Re-

lative to the Marquis De la Fayette. Invi-

tation to visit Europe - - 55

to the Chevalier De la Luzerne, Mar. 5, 1780.

Various Matter

Dr. Franklin to F. Hopkinson, Esq. Mar. 16, 1780. Poli-

tical Squibs.--Dr. Ingenhausz's Experi-

ments on the Leaves of Trees.-Anew Tele-

scope for ascertaining Distances - 58

- to Dr. Bond, Mar. 16, 1780. Letter of


to Dr. Cooper, Mar. 16, 1780. Relative to

- his Grandson.--The Alliance with France,

mi. Pnbemera

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