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the rates fixed by law ? Such an engagement had a great effect in fixing the value and rates of our gold and silver, Or, perhaps, a bank might be established that would answer all purposes. Indeed I think with you that those merchants here who have made difficulties on the subject of the legal tender' have not “ understood their own inte rests For there can be no doubt, that should a scarcity of money continue among us, we shall take off less of their merchandise and attend more to manufacturing and raising the necessaries and superfluities of life among ourselves which we now receive from them.” And perhaps this consequence would attend our making no paper money at all of any sort, that being thus by a want of cash driven to industry and frugality, we should gradually become more rich without their trade, than we can possibly be with it, and by keeping in the country the real cash that comes into it, have in tine a quantity sufficient for all our occasions. But I suppose our people will scarce have pa. tience to wait for this.

I have received the printed votes, but not the laws. I hear nothing yet of any objectiou made by the proprietaries to any of them at the Board of Trade.

Please to present my duty to the Assembly, with thanks for their care of me, and assure them of my most faithful services. With sincerest esteem and respect, I am, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,

B. FRANKLIN.

TO GOVERNOR FRANKLIN, New Jersey. Conversation with Lord Shelburne and Mr. Conway or

American affairs-Paper Money.-De Guerchy. - Monsieur Durand the French Minister Plenipoten.. tiary, curious about American affairs. .. Dear SON, . London, August 28, 1767.

I have no letter of yours since my last, in which I answered all preceding ones.

Last week I dined at Lord Shelburne's, and had a long conversation with him and Mr. Conway (there being no other company), on the subject of reducing American expense. They have it in contemplation to return the management of Indian affairs into the hands of the several provivces on which the nations border, that the colonies may bear the charge of treaties, &c. which they think will then be managed more frugally, the treasury being tired with the immense drafts of the superintendants, &c. I took the opportunity of urging it as one means of saving expense in supporting the out-posts, that a settlement should be made in the Illinois country ; expatiated on the various advantages, viz. furnishing provisions cheaper to the garrisons, securing the country, retaining the trade, raising a strength there which, on occasion of a future war, might easily be poured down the Missisippi upon the lower country, and into the Bay of Mexico, to be used against Cuba, or Mexico itself, &c. I mentioned your plan, its being approved by Sir William Johnson, the readiness and ability of the gentlemen concerned to carry the settlement into execution with very little expense to the crown, &c. &c. The Secretaries appeared finally to be fully conviuced, and there remained no obstacle but the Board of Trade, which was to be brought over privately before the matter should be referred to them officially. In case of laying aside the Superintendants, a provision was thought of for Sir William Johnson, &c. We had a good deal of farther discourse on American affairs, particularly on paper money : Lord Shelburne declared himself fully convinced of the utility of taking off the restraint, by my answer to the report of the Board of Trade. General Conway had not seen it, and desired me 10 send it to him, which I did next morning. They gave me expectation of a repeal next session, Lord Clare being come over : but they said there was some difficulty with others at the board who had signed that report: for there was a good deal in what Soame Jenyns had laughingly said when asked to concur in some measure, I have no kind of objection to it, provided we have heretofore signed nothing to the contrary. In this conversation I did not forget our main Pennsylvania business, and I think made some farther progress, though but little. The two Secretaries seemed intent upon preparing business for next parliament, which makes me think, that the late projects of changes are now quite over, and that they expect to continue in place. But whether they will do much or little, I cannot say,

De Guerchy the French Ambassador is gone home, and Monsieur Durand is left Minister Plenipotentiary. He is extremely curious to inform himself in the affairs of America ; pretends to have a great esteem for me, on account of the abilities shown in my examination; has desired to have all my political writings, invited me to dine with him, was very, inquisitive, treated me with great cigility, makes me visits, &c. I fancy that intriguing nation would like very well to meddle on occasion, and blow up

the coals between Britain and her colonies; but I hope we shall give them no opportunity.

I write this in a great burry, being setting out in an hour on another journey with my steady good friend Sir John Pringle. We propose to visit Paris. Durand has given me letters of recommendation to the Lord knows who. I am told I shall meet with great respect there; but winds change and perhaps it will be full as well if I do

not. We shall be gone about six weeks. I have a little · private commission to transact, of which more another time. Communicate nothing of this letter but privately to our friend Galloway. I am your affectionate father,

B. FRANKLIN.'

To GoverNOR FRANKLIN. Governor Bernard.Concersation with Lord Shelburne.

- Dean Tucker.- Lord Clare. Dear Sox, : London, Nov. 25, 1767.

I think the New Yorkers have been very discreet in forbearing to write and publish against the late Act of Parliament. I wish the Boston people had been as quiet, since Governor Bernard has sent over all their violent papers to the ministry, and wrote them word that he daily expected a rebellion. He did indeed afterwards correct this extravagance by writing again that he dow understood those papers were 'approved but by few, aud disliked by all the sober sensible people of the province. A certain noble Lord expressed himself to me with some disgust and contempt of B. on this occasion ; saying he ought to have known his people better, than to impute to the whole country sentiments that perhaps are only scrib

bled by some madman in a garret; that he appeared to be too fond of contention, and mistook the matter greatly, în supposing such letters as he wrote were acceptable to the ministry. I have heard nothing of the appointment of General Clarke to New York: but I know he is a friend of Lord Shelburne's, and the same that recommended Mr. Mc. Lean to be his secretary. Perhaps it might be talked of in my absence.

The Commissioners for the American Board went hence while I was in France; you know before this time .who they are, and how they are received, which I want to bear, Mr. Williams, who is gone in some office with them, is brother to our cousin Williams of Boston; but I assure you I had not the least share in his appointment; having, as I told you before, carefully kept out of the way of that whole affair.

As soon as I received Mr. Galloway's, Mr. T. Wharton's, and Mr. Croghan's letters on the subject of the Boundary, I communicated them immediately to Lord Shelburne. He invited me the next day to dine with him. Lord Clare was to have been there, but did not come. There was nobody but Mr. Mc. Lean. My Lord knew nothing of the boundary's having ever been agreed on by Sir William, had sent the letters to the Board of Trade, desiring search to be made there for Sir William's letters, and ordered Mr. Mc. Lean to search the Secretary's office, who found nothing. We had much discourse about it, and I pressed the importance of dispatching orders immediately to Sir William to complete the affair. His Lordship asked who was to make the purchase, i. e. be at the expense? I said that if the line included any lands within the grants of the Charter Colonies, they should pay

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