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that a good motion never dies ; and may encourage us in making such; though hopeless of their taking immediate effect.

I doubt whether I shall be able to finish my Memoirs, and if I finish them whether they will be proper for publication : you seem to have too high an opinion of them, and to expect too much from them.

I think you are right in preferring a mixed form of government for your country, under its present circumstances; and if it were possible for you to reduce the enormous salaries and emoluments of great offices (which are at bottom the source of all your violent factions) that form might be conducted more quietly and happily: but I am afraid that none of your factions, when they get. uppermost, will ever have virtue enough to reduce those salaries and emoluments, but will rather chuse to enjoy them. I am, my dear friend, yours very affectionately,


To Dr. Rush.

Requesting him to suppress his Encomium on the Writer, in one of his Discourses, if published.


[without date, but supposed to be in 1789.] MY DEAR FRIEND,

During our long acquaintance you have shown many instances of your regard for me, yet I must now desire you to add one more to the number, which is, that if you publish your ingenious discourse on the moral sense, you will totally omit and suppress that most extravagant encomium on your friend Franklin, which hurt mo

exceedingly in the unexpected hearing, and will mortify me beyond conception, if it should appear from the press. Confiding in your compliance with this earnest request, I am eset, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,


Dear Sir,

Philadelphia, Nov. 5, 1789.

I received your favor of July 25, but had no opportunity of showing any civility to the bearer whom you mention as coming under the auspices of William Franklin, Esq. as he did not show himself to me.

I am obliged by your kind enquiries after my health, which is still tolerably good, the stone excepted; my constitution being such as, if it were not for that malady, might have held out yet some years longer.

I hope the fire of liberty, which you mention as spreading itself over Europe, will act upon the inestimable rights of man, as common fire does upon gold; purify without destroying them; so that a lover of liberty may find a country in any part of Christendom!

I see with pleasure in the public prints, that our Society' is still kept up and Mourishes. I was an early member; for when Mr. Shipley sent me a list of the subscribers, they were but seventy; and though I had no expectation then of ever going to England, and acting with them, I sent a contribution of twenty guineas; in consideration of which the Society were afterwards pleased to consider me a member.

'The London Society for promoting Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, of which Mr. More was Secretary.

I wish to the exertions of your manufacturers, who are generally excellent; and to the spirit and enterprize of your merchants, who are famed for fair and honorable dealing, all the success they merit in promoting the prosa perity of your country.

I am glad our friend Small enjoys so much health, and his faculties so perfectly, as I perceive he does by his letters. I know not whether he is yet returned from his visit to Scotland, and therefore give you the trouble of the inclosed. My best wishes attend you, being ever, dear Sir, your most obedient servant, B. FRANKLIN.

To Mr. SMALL. On the Poor Laws.--The American Royalists.-The

French and English Governments. DEAR SIR,

Philadelphia, Nov. 5, 1789.

I received your several favors of April 23, May 9, and June 2, together with the manuscript concerning Ventilation, which will be inserted in our next volume.

I have long been of your opinion, that your legal provision for the poor is a very great evil, operating as it does to the encouragement of idleness. We have followed your example, and begin now to see our error; and I hope shall reform it.--I find by your letters that every man has patience enough to bear calmly and coolly the injuries done to other people : you have perfectly forgiven the Royalists, and you seem to wonder that we should still retain any resentment against them for their joining with the savages to burn our houses, and murder and scalp our friends, our wives, and our children. I forget who it was that said, " we are commanded to forgive our

enemies, but we are no where commanded to forgive our friends ;" certain it is however that atrocious injuries done to us by our friends are naturally more deeply resented than the same done by enemies. They have left us to live under the government of their King in England and Nova Scotia. We do not miss them, nor wish their return; nor do we envy them their present happiness.The accounts you give me of the great prospects you have respecting your manufactures, agriculture, and commerce, are pleasing to me, for I still love England and wish it prosperity.

You tell me that the government of France is abundantly punished for its treachery to England in assisting us ; you night also have remarked that the government of England had been punished for its treachery to France, in assisting the Corsicans, and in seizing her ships in time of full peace, without any previous declaration of war. I believe governments are pretty near equal in honesty, and cannot with much propriety praise their own in preference to tlsat of their neighbours.

You do me too much honour in naming me with Timoleon. I am like him only in retiring from my public labours; which indeed my stone, and other infirmities of age, have made indispensably necessary.

I hope you are by this time returned from your visit to your vative country, and that the journey has given a firmer consistence to your health.

Mr. Penn's property in this country, which you enquire about, is still immensely great ; and I understand he has received ample compensation in England for the part he lost.

I think you have made a happy choice of rural amusements; the protection of the bees, and the destruction of the hop inseot. I wish success to your experiments, and shall be glad to hear the result. Your Theory of Insects appears the most ingenious and plausible of any that have hitherto been proposed by philosophers.

Our new constitution is now established with eleven States, and the accession of a twelfth is soon expected. We have had one session of Congress under it, which was conducted with remarkable prudence, and a good deal of unanimity. Our late harvests were plentiful, and our produce still fetches a good price, through an abundant foreign demand, and the flourishing state of our commerce. I am ever, my dear friend, yours most affectionately,


To Mr. Le Roy, or Paris.'
On the Affairs of France.

Philadelphia, Nov. 13, 1789. 'Tis now more than a year since I have heard from my dear friend Le Roy. What can be the reason ? Are you still living ? Or have the mob of Paris mistaken the head of a monopoliser of knowledge, for a inonopoliser of corn, and paraded it about the streets upon a pole ?

Great part of the news we have had from Paris, for near a year past, has been very afflicting. I sincerely wish and pray it may all end well and happy both for the king and the nation. The voice of Philosophy I apprehend can hardly, be heard among those tumults. If any thing material in that way had occurred, I am persuaded you

! A Member of the French Academy of Sciences.

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