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intended New State had any relation with my name, having understood that it was called Frank Land. It is a very great honour indeed that its inhabitants have done me, and I should be happy if it were in my power to show how sensible I am of it, by something more essential than my wishes for their prosperity.

Having resided some years påst in Europe, and being but lately arrived thence, I have vot had an opportunity of being well informed of the points in dispute between you and the State of North Carolina. I can therefore only say, that I think you are perfectly right in resolving to submit them to the discretion of Congress, and to abide by their determination. It is a wise and impartial tribunal, which can have no sinister views to warp its judgment. 'Tis happy for us all, that we have now in our own country such a council to apply to, for 'conposing our differences, without being obliged, as formerly, to carry them across the ocean to be decided, at an immense expense, by à council which knew little of our affairs, would hardly take any pain's to understand them, and which often treated our applications with contempt, and rejected them with injurious language. Let us therefore cherish and respect our own tribunal, for the more generally it is held in high regard, the more able it will be to answer effectually the ends of its institution, the quieting of our contentions, and thereby promoting our common peace and happiness.

I do not hear any talk of an adjournment of Congress concerning which you inquire; aud I rather think it likely they may continue to sit out their year, as it is but lately they have been able to make a quorum for business, which inust iherefore probably be in arrear. If you proceed in your intended journey, I shall be glad to see you as you pass

through Philadelphia. In the mean time, I have the honour to be, very respectfully, Sir, your most obedient set. vant,


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On the State of America, &c. &c.

Philadelphia, Nov. 04, 1786. MY DEAR OLD FRIEND,

It rejoiced me much to learn by your kind letter of February last, which I received about ten days since, that you are still in the land of the living; and that you are snug at Bath, the very place that I think gives you the best chance of passing the evening of life agreeably. I too am got into my niche, after being kept out of it 94 years by foreign employments. "Tis a very good house that I built so long ago 'to retire into, without being able till now to enjoy it. I am again surrounded by my friends, with a fine fainily of grand-children about my knees, and an affectionate good daughter and son-in-law to take care of me. And after fifty years public service,

1 have the pleasure to find the esteem of my country with regard to me undiminished; the late re-election of me to the Presidentship, notwithstanding the different parties we are split into, being absolutely únaniinous. This I tell you, not merely to indulge my own vanity, but because I know you love me, and will be pleased to lear of whatever happens that is agreeable to your friend.

I find Mr. Anstey, whom you recommend to me, a very agreeable sensible man, and shall render him any service that may lie in 'my power. I thank you for the New Bath Guide: I had read it formerly, but it has afforded me fresh pleasure.

Your newspapers, to please honest John Bull, paint our situation here in frightful colours, as if we were very miserable since we broke our connection with him. But I will give you some marks by which you may form your own judgment. Our husbandmen, who are the bulk of the nation, have had plentiful crops, their produce sells at high prices and for ready hard money: wheat, for instance, at 8s. and 8s. 6d. per bushel. Our working people are all employed and get high wages, are well fed and well clad. Our estates in houses are trebled in value by the rising of rents since the revolution. Buildings in Philadelphia increase amazingly, besides small towns arising in every quarter of the country. The laws govern, justice is well administered, and property as secure as in any country on the globe. Our wilderness lands are daily buying up by new settlers, and our settlements extend rapidly to the westward. European goods were never so cheaply afforded us, as since Britain has no longer the monopoly of supplying us. In short, all among us may be happywho have happy dispositions,—such being necessary to happiness even in paradise.

I speak these things of Pennsylvania, with which I am most acquainted : as to the other States, when I read in all the papers of the extravagant rejoicings every 4th of July, the day on which was signed the declaration of Independence, I am convinced that none of them are discontented with the revolution.

Adieu! my dear friend! and believe me ever with sincere esteem and affection, yours most truly,



Improvement in the Common Prayer Book, &c. &c. DEAR FRIEND,

Philadelphia, Feb. 19, 1787.

I received your favour of June last, and thank you for the kind congratulations contained in it. What you have heard of my malady is true, "that it does not grow worse.” Thanks be to God I still enjoy plea! sure in the society of my friends and books, and much more in the prosperity of my country, concerning which your people are continually deceiving themselves.

I am glad the improvement of the Book of Common Prayer' has met with your approbation and that of good Mrs. Baldwin. It is not yet that I know of, received in public practice any where; but as it is said that good inotions never die, perhaps in time it may be found useful.

I read with pleasure the account you give of the flourishing state of your commerce and manufactures, and of the plenty you have of resources to carry the nation through all its difficulties. You have one of the finest countries in the world, and if you can be cured of the folly of making war for trade, in which wars more has been always expended than the profits of any trade can coinpensate) you may make it one of the happiest. Make the best of your own natural advantages instead of endeavouring to diminish those of other nations, and there is no doubt but you may yet prosper and flourish. Your beginning to consider France no longer as a natural enemy, is a mark of progress in the good sense of the nation, of

" See Letter to Granville Sharp, Esq. July 5, 1785.

which posterity will find the benefit; in the rarity of wars, the diminution of taxes, and increase of riches.

As to the refugees whom you think we were so impolitie in rejecting, I do not find that they are missed here, or that any body regrets their absence. And certainly they must be happier where they are, under the government they admire; and be better received among a people whose cause they espoused and fought for, than among those who cannot so soon have forgotten the destruction of their habitations, and the spilt blood of their dearest friends and near relations.

I often think with great pleasure on the happy days I passed in England with my and your learned and ingenious friends, who have left us to join the majority in the world of spirits. Every one of them now knows more than all of us they have left behind. It is to me a comfortable reflection, that since we must live for ever in a future state, there is a sufficient stock of amusement in reserve for us, to be found in constantly learning something new to eternity, the present quantity of human ignorance infinitely exceeding that of human knowledge.

Adieu! my dear friend, and believe me in whatever world, yours most affectionately,


in his 82d year.


Philadelphia, April 15, 1787. (ExtRACT.) “ I am entirely of your opioion, that our independence is not quite complete till we have discharged our public debt. . This State is not behind brand in its proportion, and those who are in arrear, are actually employed in contriving means to discharge their respective balances, but they are not all equally diligent in the

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