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point, is only this; that the one pretends to be infallible, and the other to be nerer in the wrong. In this latter sense, we are most of us church of England men, though few of us confess it and express it so naturally and frankly as a certain lady here, who' said, I dont know how it happens, bat I meet with nobody, except myself, that is always in the right. Je ne trouve que moi qui a toujours raison.
My grandson joins me in affectionate respeets to you and the young lady : with best wishes for your health and prosperity. Yours,
B. FRANKLIN. '.
To MR. WALTER, Printer, London. ,
On the Logographical Mode of Printing. SIR,
Passy, April 17, 1784. I have received a book, for which I understand I am obliged to you, the Introduction to Logography. I have read it with attention, and as far as I understand it, am much pleased with it. I do not perfectly comprehend the arrangement of his cases ; but the reduction of the number of pieces by the roots of words, and their different terminations is extremely ingenious; and I like much the idea of cementing the letters, instead of cast. ing words or syllables, which I formerly attempted and succeeded in, having invented a mould, and method by which I could in a few minutes form a matrice and adjust it, of any word in any fount at pleasure, and proceed to cast from it. I send inclosed a specimen of some of my terminations, and would willingly instruct Mr. Johnson in the method if he desired it, but he has a better, He mentions some improvements that have been proposed, but takes no notice of one published here at Paris, in
1776; so I suppose he has neither seen nor heard of it. It is in a quarto pamphlet, intitled, Nouveau Systéme Tys pographique, ou Moyen de diminuer de moitié, dans toutes les Imprimeries de l'Europe, le travail et les frais de Composition, de Correction, et de Distribution, découvert en 1774, par Madame de ***, Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora. A Paris, de L'Imprimerie Royale, MDCCLXXVI. It is dedicated to the King, who was at the expence of the experiments. Two commissaries were named to examine and render an account of them; they were M. Desmarets, of the Academy of Sciences, and M. Barbou, an eminent printer. Their report concludes thus; “ Nous nous contenterons de dire ici que M. de St. Paul a rempli les engagemens qu'il avoit contractés avec le Gouvernement; que ses expériences projetées ont été conduites avec beaucoup de méthode, et d'intelligence de sa part; et que par des calculs longs et pénibles, qui sont le fruit d'un grand nombre de combinaisons raisonnées, il en a déduit plusieurs résul, tats qui méritent d'être proposés aux artistes, et qui nous paroissent propres à éclairer la pratique de l'imprimerie actuelle, et à en abréger certainement les procédés. Son projet ne peut que gagner aux contradictions qu'il essuiera sans doute, de la part des gens de l'art. A Paris, le 8 Janvier, 1776.". The pamphlet consists of sixty-six pages, containing a number of tables of words and parts of words, explanations of those tables, calculations, answers to objections, &c. I will endeavour to get one to send you if you desire it: ipine is bound up with others in a volume. It was after seeing this piece that I cast the syllables I send you a sample of. I have not heard that any of the printers here inake at present the least use of
the invention of Madame de ***. You will observe that it pretended only to lessen the work by one-half; Mr. Johnson's method lessens it threc-fourths. I should be glad to know with what the letters are cernented. I think cementing better than casting them together, because if one letter happeus to be battered, it may be taken away and another cemented in its place. I received no letter with the pamphlet. 'I am, Sir, &c.... B. FRANKLIN.
i ...To Mr. BENJAMIN WEBB. i A new Method of repaying Money Lent. - Dear Sir, . . Passy, April 29, 1784. .
I received your's of the lóth instant, and the memorial it inclosed. The account they give of your situation grieves me. I send you herewith a bill for ten Louis d'ors. I do not pretend to give such a sum; I only lend it to you. When you shall return to your country with a good character, you cannot fail of getting into some business that will in time enable you to pay all your debts : in that case when you meet with another honest man in similar distress, you must pay me by lending this sum to him ; enjoining him to discharge the debt by a like operation when he shall be able, and shall meet with such another opportunity. I hope it may thus go through many bands before it meets with a knave that will stop its progress. This is a trick of mine for doiúg a deal of good with a little money. I am not rich enough to afford much in good works, and so am obliged to be cunning and make the most of a little. With best wishes for the success of your memorial, and your future prosperity, I am, dear Sir, your most obedient servant,
To the Rev. Doctor Mather, Boston...".
On his Advice to the People of America. ! ; , - Rev. Sir,
Passy, May 12, 1784 :, I received your kind letter with your excellent advice to the people of the United States, which I read with great pleasure, and hope it will be duly regarded. Such writings, though they may be lightly pass. ed over by many readers, yet if they make a deep imprese sion on one active mind in an hundred, the effects may be considerable. Permit me to mention one little instance, which though it relates to myself, will not be quite uninteresting to you. When I was a boy, I met with a book entitled Essays to do Good, which I think was written by your father. It had been so little regarded by a former possessor, that several leaves of it were torn out: but the remainder gave me such a turn of thinking as to have an influence on my conduct through life ; for I have always set a greater value on the character of a doer of good, than on any other kind of reputation; and if I bave been, as you seem to think, a useful citizen, the public owes the advantage of it to that book. You inention your being in your 78th year; I ans in my 79th; we are grown old together. It is now more than sixty years since I left Boston, but I remember well both your father and grandfather, having heard them both in the pulpit, and seen them in their houses. The last time I saw your father was in the beginning of 1724, when I visited him after my first trip to Pennsylvania. He received me in his library, and on my taking leave 'shewed me a shorter way out of the house through a narrow passage, which was crossed by a beain over head. We were still talking as I withdrew, he
acconipanying me behind, and I turning partly towards him, when he said hastily, stoop, stoop! I did not under, stand him till I felt my head hit against the bedin. He was a man that never missed any occasion of giving instruction, and upon this he said to me, you are young, and have the world before you; Stoop as you go through it, and you will miss many hard thumps. This advice thus beat into my head has frequently been of use to me, and I often think of it, when I see pride mortified, and misfor, tunes brought upon people by their carrying their heads too high. · I long much to see again my native place, and to lay my bones there. I left it in 1723; I visited it in 1733, 1743, 1753, and 1763. In 1773, I was in England ; in 1775, I had a sight of it, but could not enter, it being in possession of the enemy. I did hope to have been there in 1783, but could not obtain my dismission from this employment here ; and now I fear I shall never have that happiness. My best wishes however attend my dear country. Esto perpetua. It is now blest with an excellent constitution; may it last for ever!
This powerful monarchy continues its friendship for the United States. It is a friendship of the utmost importance to our security, and should be carefully cultivated. Britain has not yet well digested the loss of its dominion over us, and has still at times some flattering hopes of recovering it. Accidents may increase those hopes, and encourage dangerous attempts. A breach between us and France, would infallibly bring the English again upon our backs; and yet we have some wild heads among our countrymen, who are endeavouring to weaken that connection! Let us preserve our reputation by performing