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wrote in his behalf to an old friend, Sir Grey Cooper, Secretary of the Treasury, complaining of it. His answer was, that he had inquired, and found the report groundless; and he sent me enclosed a letter he received from the Lieutenant of the Tower, assuring him that Mr. Laurens was treated with great kindness, was very sensible of it, thankful for it, and frequently expressed his satisfaction : on this I became more easy on his account ; but a little before I received your letter, I had one (from Mr. Benjamin Vaughan, who is connected with the family of Mr. Manning) which informed me that Mr. Laurens was really in want of necessaries; and desired to know if any provision was made for his subsistence. I wrote impiediately to Mr. Hodgson, in whose hands I had lodged some money, requesting him to hold £100 of it at the disposition of Mr. Laurens, and to acquaiut Mr. Vaughan with it. About this time I received two letters; one from Mr. Burke, Member of Parliament, complaining that his friend, General Burgoyne, (in England on his parole) was reclaimed and recalled by Congress, and requesting I would find some means of permitting him to reinain. The other was from the Congress, inclosing a resolve that impowered me to offer General Burgoyne in exchange for Mr. Laurens. Perceiving by Mr. Burke's letter, that he was very desirous of obtaining his friend's liberty, and baving no immediate intercourse with the British ministry, I thought I could not do better than to enclose the resolve in my answer to his letter, and request him to negociate the exchange. When I received yours, I was in expectation of having soon an answer from Mr. Burke and Mr.' Hodgson, which would enable me to give you more satisfactory information. I, therefore, delayed writing to you
from post to post till I should hear from them; and fearing from the length of time that my letters had miscarried, I sent copies of them. It is but yesterday that I received an answer from Mr. Hodgson, dated the 21st instant, in which he writes me, “ I received your favour of the 19th ultimo, I immediately acquainted Mr. Vaughan with your directions concerning the supplying Mr. Laurens. He has been acquainted therewith ; but hitherto no application has been made to ine for the money: whenever it is, you may be assured it shall be complied with.” No auswer is come to my hands from Mr. Burke; but I see by a newspaper Mr. Hodgson sends me, that he has endeavoured to execute the commission. I enclose that paper for your satisfaction, together with a copy of your father's petition to Parliament on which I do not find that they have yet come to any result: but observing that he makes no complaint in that petition, of his being piuched in the article of subsistence, I hope that part of our intelligence from London may be a mistake. I shall, however, you may depend, leave nothing undone that is in my power, to obtain his release, and assure you that the thought of the pleasure it must afford a child, whose mind is of so tender a sensibility, and filled with such true filial duty and affection, will be an additional spur to my endeavours; I suppose Mr. Adams has informed you that he has ordered another 1001. sterling to be paid Mr. Laurens : and I hope you will soon have the happiness of hearing that he is at liberty. With very great regard, I have the honour to be, madam, &c.
To His ExcellENCY, GENERAL WASHINGTON. Capitulation of General Lord Cornwallis.- Introdution of Count de Ségur, &c. .
Passy, April 2, 1782. I received duly the honor of your letter, accompanying the capitulation of Gen. Cornwallis. All the world agree that no expedition was ever better planned or better executed; it has made a great addition to the military reputation you had already acquired, and brightens the glory that surrounds your name, and that must accompany it to our latest posterity. No news could possibly make me more happy. The infant Hercules has now strangled the two serpents' that attacked him in his cradle, and I trust his future history will be answerable.
This will be presented to you by the Count de Ségur, He is son of the Marquis de Ségur, Minister of War, and our very good friend: bui I need not claim your regards to the young gentleman on that score ; his amiable personal qualities, his very sensible conversation, and his zeal for the cause of liberty, will obtain and secure your esteem, and be better recommendation than any I can give him. * The English seein not to know either how to continue the war, or to make peace with us. Instead of entering into a regular treaty, for putting an end to a contest they are tired of, they have voted in Parliament, that the recovery of America by force is impracticable, that an offensive war against us ought not to be continued, and that whoever advises it shall be deemed an enemy to bis country.
'Alluding to the surrender of the two British armies under BURGOYNE and CORNWALLIS, Oct. 17, 1777, and Oct. 19, 1781.
Thus the garrisons of New York, and Charlestown, if continued there, must sit still, being only allowed to defend themselves. The ministry not understanding or approving this making of peace by halves, have quitted their places, but we have no certain account here who is io succeed them, so that the measures likely to be taken are yet uncertain ; probably we shall know something of them before the Marquis de la Fayette takes his departure. There are grounds for good hopes however ; but I think we should not therefore relax in our preparations for a vigorous campaign, as that nation is subject to sudden fluctuations; and though somewhat humiliated at present, a little success in the West Indies may dissipate their present fears, recal their natural insolence, and occasion the interruption of negotiation, and a continuance of the war. We have great stores purchased here for the use of your army, which will be sent as soon as transports can be procured for them to go under good convoy..
My best wishes always have, and always will attend you, being with the greatest and most sincere esteem and respect, Sir, your Excellency's most obedient, and most humble servant,
' B. FRANKLIN.
TO THE CHEVALIER DE CHASTELLUx.' (In America.) Change of Ministry in England.- Peace.-Campaign
in America.--Count de Ségur. DEAR SIR,
Passy, April 6, 1782. It gave me great pleasure to hear by the officers returned last winter from your army, that you continued in good health. You will see by the public papers that
· Afterwards the Marquis de Chastellux.
the English begin to be weary of the war, and they have reason, having suffered many losses, having four nations of enemies on their hands, few men to spare, little money left, and very bad heads.---The latter they have lately changed. As yet we know not what measures their new ministry will take. People generally think they will be employed by the king to extricate him from his present difficulties, by obtaining a peace, and that then he will kick them out again ; they being all men that he abominates, and who have been forced upon him by the Parliament.
The Commons have already made a sort of half peace with us Americans, by forbidding their troops on the continent to act offensively; and by a new law they have impowered the king to complete it. As yet I hear nothing of the terms they mean to propose ; indeed they have had hardly time to form them. I know they wish to detach us from France; but that is impossible. - I congratulate you on the success of your last glorious campaign. Establishing the liberties of America will not only make that people happy, but will have some effect in diminishing the misery of those who in other parts of the world groan under despotism, by rendering it more circumspect, and inducing it to govern with a lighter hand. A philosopher endowed with those strong sentiments of humanity that are manifested in your excellent writings,' must enjoy great satisfaction in having contributed so extensively by his sword, as well as by his pen, to the felicité publique. - M. le Comte de Ségur has desired of me a line of nii
· Principally a Treatise on Public Happiness,