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the feast of St. John Baptist, who was beheaded ; the gridiron against August 10th, the
1 feast of St. Lawrence, who suffered martyrdom on one ; a wheel on the 25th of November, for St. Catherine, and a decussated cross on the last of that month, for St. Andrew, who are said also to have suffered death by such instruments. Of the 3d kind, are the star on the 6th of January, to denote the Epiphany; a true lover's knot against the 14th of February, for Valentine's-day; a bough against the 2d of March, for St. Ceadda, who lived a Hermit's life in the woods near Litchfield ; a bough on the 1st of May, for the May-bush, then usually set up with great solemnity; and a rake on the 11th of June, St. Barnabas -day, importing that then it is hay-harvest. So, a pot is set against the 23d of November, for the feast of St. Clement, from the ancient custom of going about that night to beg drink to make merry with : for the purification, annunciation, and all other feasts of our lady, there is always the figure of a heart : and lastly, for December 25th, or Christmas-day, a horn, the ancient vessel in which the Danes use to wassail, or drink healths ; signifying to us, that this is the time we ought to rejoice and make merry.
II. Respecting this second volume of the Every-Day Book, it is scarcely necessary to say more than that it has been conducted with the same desire and design as the preceding volume; and that it contains a much greater variety of original information concerning manners and customs. I had so devoted myself to this main object, as to find no lack of materials for carrying it further ; nor were my correspondents, who had largely increased, less communicative : but there were some readers who thought the work ought to have been finished in one volume, and others, who were not inclined to follow beyond a second; and, ikeb appiehensigns that it could not, or their wishes that it should not be carried further,'constrained me toʻctose it. As an “Everlasting Calendar" of amusements, sports, and pastimes, incident to the year, the Every-Day Book is complete; and I venture, without fear of disproof, to affirm, that there is not such a copious collection of pleasąny faets and illustrations, “ for daily use and diver. sion," in the language ; nor are ariy arter volumes so abundantly stored with original designs, or with curious and interesting subjects só meritoriously engraven.
III. Every thing that I wished to bring into the Every-Day Book, but was compelled to omit from its pages, in order to conclude it within what the public would deem a reasonable size, I purpose to introduce in my Table Book. In that publication, I have the satisfaction to find myself aided by many of my “ Every-Day” correspondents, to whom I tender respectful acknowledgments and hearty thanks. This is the more due to them here, because I frankly confess that to most I owe letters; I trust that those who have not been noticed as they expected, will impute the neglect to any thing rather than insensibility of my obligations to them, for their valuable favours.
Although I confess myself to have been highly satisfied by the general reception of the Every-Day Book, and am proud of the honour it has derived from individuals of high literary reputation, yet there is one class whose approbation I value most especially. The“ mothers of England" have been pleased to entertain it as an every-day assistant in their families; and instructors of youth, of both sexes, have placed it in school-libraries :-this ample testimonial, that, while engaged in exemplifying “ ners," I have religiously adhered to “morals,” is the most gratifying reward I could hope to receive.
Then came old January, wrapped well
Upon a huge great earth-pot steane he stood,
Spenser. Laus Deo !-was the first entry by entries to the days, and months, and seamerchants and tradesmen of our fore- 'sons, in “
posture, place, fathers' days, in beginning their new
and hour." account-books with the new year. LAUS Deo! then, be the opening of this vo
JANUARY, besides the names already lume of the Every-Day Book, wherein we mentioned,* was called by the Anglotake further“ note of time," and make
* In vol. i. p. 2. VOL. II.-53.
Saxons Ginli aftera, signifying the second zon. The Temperature rises in the day, Giul, or Yule, or, as we should say, the on an average of twenty years, to 40.28°; second Christmas.* Of Yule itself much' and falls in the night, in the open country, will be observed, when it can be better to 31:36°—the difference, 8.92°, representsaid.
ing the mean effect of the sun's rays for the month, may be termed the solar
variation of the temperature. To this month there is an ode with a
The Mean Temperature of the month, if verse beautifully descriptive of the Roman
the observations in this city be included, symbol of the year:t
is 36.34o. But this mean bas a range, in "Tis he ! the two-fac'd Janus comes in view ; termed the lunar variation of the tempera
ten years, of about 10.25°, which may be Wild hyacinths his robe adorn, And snow-drops, rivals of the morn :
ture. It holds equally in the decade, He spurns the goat aside,
beginning with 1797, observed in LonBut smiles upon the new
don, and in that beginning with 1807, in Emerging year with pride :
the country. In the former decade, the And now unlocks, with agate key, month was coldest in 1802, and warmest The ruby gates of orient day.
in 1812, and coldest in 1814. I have likewise shown, that there was a tendency
in the daily variation of temperature CLIMATE.
through this month, to proceed, in these
respective periods of years, in opposite Mr. Luke Howard is the author of a directions. The prevalence of different highly useful work, entitled " The Climate classes of winds, in the different periods, of London, deduced from Meteorological is the most obvious cause of these peObservations, made at different places in riodical variations of the mean temperathe neighbourhood of the Metropolis :
ture. London, 1818.” 2 vols. 8vo. Out of this
The Barometer in this mouth rises, on magazine of fact it is proposed to extract, from time to time, certain results which falls to 28.97 in.; the mean range is there
an average of ten years, to 3.40 in., and may acquaint general readers with useful fore 1.43 in.; but the extreme range in knowledge concerning the weather of our
ten years is 2.38 in. The mean height latitude, and induce the inquisitive to
for the month is about 29.79 inches. resort to Mr. Howard's book, as a careful
The prevailing Winds are the class from guide of high authority in conducting their west to north. The northerly predomiresearches. That gentleman, it is hoped, nate, by a fourth of their amount, over the will not deem this an improper use of his southerly winds. labours : it is meant to be, as far as regards himself, a humble tribute to his 30-50 inches for the year) is 0·832 in.,
The average Evaporation (on a total of talents and diligence. With these views, and the mean of De Luc's hydrometer 80. under each month will be given a state of
The mean Rain, at the surface of the the weather, in Mr. Howard's own words: earth, is 1.959 in.; and the number of and thus we begin.
days on which snow or rain falls, in this month, averages 14, 4.
A majority of the Nights in this month The Sun in the middle of this month have constantly the temperature at or continues about 8 h. 20 m. above the hori. below the foregoing point. I
Long ere the lingering dawn of that blythe morn
Howard on Climate.
Pronounced with honest warmth. In village, grange,
good, or very bad indeed! And only to
propose to be better, is something; if The Saints of the Roman calendars and nothing else, it is an acknowledgment of martyrologies,
our need to be so, which is the first step
towards amendment. But, in fact, to So far as the rev. Alban Butler, in his propose to oneself to do welí
, is in some every-day biography of Roman catholic
sort to do well, positively; for there is no saints, has written their* memoirs, their such thing as a stationary point in human names have been given, together with endeavours ; he who is not worse to-day notices of some, and especially of those than he was yesterday, is better; and he retained in the calendar of the church of who is not better, is worse." England from the Romish calendar.
It is written, “ Improve your time,” in Similar notices of others will be offered in the text-hand set of copies put before us continuation ; but, on this high festival in when we were better taught to write than the calendar of nature, particular or fur- to understand what we wrote. How often ther remark on the saints' festivals would these three words recurred at that period interrupt due attention to the season, and without their meaning being discovered ! therefore we break from them to observe How often and how serviceably they have that day which all enjoy in common, recurred since to some who have obeyed
the injunction! How painful has reflecNew Year's Day.
tion been to others, who recollecting it, Referring for the “ New-year's gifts," preferred to suffer rather than to do! the “ Candlemas-bull," and various observances of our ancestors and ourselves, The author of the paragraph quoted to the first volume of this work, wherein above, expresses forcible remembrance of they are set forth “ in lively pourtraie- his youthful pleasures on the coming in ture,” we stop a moment to peep into the of the new year.“ Haill to thee; JANU“ Mirror of the Months,” and inquire ARY!-all haill cold and wintry as thou “ Who can see a new year open upon art, if it be but in virtue of thy first day. him, without being better for the pros- The day, as the French call it, par excela pect—without making sundry wise reflec- lonce, Le jour de l'an. Come about tions (for any reflections on this subject me, all ye little schoolboys that have must be comparatively wise ones) on the escaped from the unnatural thraldom of step he is about to take towards the goal your taskwork-come crowding about of his being ? Every first of January that me, with your untamed hearts shouting we arrive at, is an imaginary mile-stone in your unmodulated voices, and your on the turnpike track of human life; at happy spirits dancing an untaught meaonce a resting place for thought and me- sure in your eyes! Come, and help me ditation, and a starting point for fresh to speak the praises of new-year's day! exertion in the performance of our jour- your day-one of the three which have, ney. The man who does not at least of late, become yours almost exclusively, propose to himself to be better this year and which have bettered you, and have than he was last, must be either very been bettered themselves, by the change,
Christmay-day, which was ; New-year's- short, with their endless round of ever day, which is ; and Twelfth-day, which new nothings, the absence of a relish for is to be ; let us compel them all three which is but ill supplied, in after life, by into our presence-with a whisk of our that feverish lingering and thirsting after imaginative wand convert them into one, excitement, which usurp without filling as the conjurer does his three glittering its place. Oh! that I might enjoy those balls—and then enjoy them all together, nothings once again in fact, as I can in with their dressings, and coachings, and fancy! But I fear the wish is worse than visitings, and greetings, and gifts, and an idle one; for it not only may not be, “ many happy returns”-with their plum- but it ought not to be. << We cannot puddings, and mince-pies, and twelfth- bave our cake and eat it too,” as the cakes, and neguses—with their forfeits, vulgar somewhat vulgarly, but not less and fortune-tellings, and blindman's-buffs, shrewdly, express it. And this is as it and sittings up to supper—with their should be; for if we could, it would pantomimes, and panoramas, and new neither be worth the eating nor the penknives, and pastrycooks' shops-in having.*"
Now, on New-year's-day as on the pre- usual ancient phrases of quaffing among vious éve, the wassail bowl is carried the English, and synonimous with the from door to door, with singing and mer- Come, here's to you,' and ' I'll pledge riment. In Devonshire,
you,' of the present day.
A massy bowl, to deck the jovial day,
tions, published by Mr. Jeffery, of Pall-
paper relating to an ancient carving represented in that work, from whence the
above engraving is, taken. The verses Mr. Brand says, “ It appears from beneath it are a version of the old lines Thomas de la Moore, * and old Havillan,t in Robert of Gloucester's chronicle, by that was-haile and drinc-heil were the Mr. Jeffery's correspondent.
* Mirror of the Months,
* Vita Edw. II. | In Architren, lib. 2,