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by many competent writers. Professor A. W. Ward's

History of English Dramatic Literature' supplies what was conspicuous by its absence from our libraries in 1862, namely, a comprehensive and excellently balanced survey of the works of the chief dramatists. The New Shakspere Society has instituted an original method of inquiry into questions of text, chronology, and authorship. Mr. Swinburne, Professor Dowden, and Mr. Gosse have published monographs of fine critical and ästhetic quality. Mr. W. C. Hazlitt, Mr. Churton Collins, Mr. A. H. Bullen, and the late Richard Simpson—to mention only a few prominent names-have enriched our stores of accessible documents with plays reprinted from rare copies or published for the first time from MS. Professor Arber and Dr. Grosart have placed at the student's disposition masses of useful materials, extracted from sources inaccessible to the general reader, and edited with unimpeachable accuracy.

American scholarship, meanwhile, has not been altogether idle in this field ; while German criticism has been voluminously prolific.

To mention all the men of distinction whose varied labours have aided the student of Elizabethan Dramatic Literature during the last twenty years, would involve too long a catalogue of names and publications.

I may well feel diffidence in bringing forth my own

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studies to the light of day, after this computation of recent and still active workers on the subject. Elizabethan Dramatic Literature is a well-defined speciality, important enough to occupy a man's life-labours. I cannot pretend to be a specialist in this department ; nor have I sought to write for specialists. It has been iny intention to bring the history of the English Drama within the sphere of popular treatment; not shrinking from the discussion of topics which are only too familiar to special students; combining exposition with criticism ; and endeavouring to fix attention on the main points of literary evolution.

I have only to add in conclusion that the present volume has been produced under the disadvantageous conditions of continued residence in the High Alps, at a distance from all libraries except my own.

But for the

generous and disinterested assistance rendered me by Mr. A. H. BULLEN, I should almost dread to print a work of this nature, composed in such unfavourable circumstances. To this gentleman, so well known by his edition of Day's works and by his series of Old Plays in course of publication, my warmest thanks are due for reading each sheet as it passed through the press, and for making most valuable suggestions and corrections, which give me confidence in the comparative accuracy

of

my statements.

Davos Platz: Nov. 9, 1883.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER II.

THE NATION AND THE DRAMA.

I. The Function of a Great Drama-To be both National and Uni-

versal-How that of England fulfilled this–England and the

Renaissance-Fifty Years of Mental Activity.-II. Transitional

Character of that Age in England.-111. Youthfulness—Turbu-

lence- Marked Personality.-IV. The Italians of the Renaissance

-Cellini.–V. Distinguishing Characteristics of the English--

Superior Moral Qualities-Travelling-Rudeness of Society,

The Medley of the Age.—VI. How the Drama represented

PAGE

CHAPTER III.

MIRACLE PLAYS.

1. Emergence of the Drama from the Mystery-Ecclesiastical

Condemnation of Theatres and Players-Obscure Survival of

Mimes from Pagan Times—Their Place in Medieval Society.

-II. Hroswitha-Liturgical Drama.—III. Transition to the

Mystery or Miracle Play-Ludi— Italian Sacre Rappresentazioni

-Spanish Auto-French Mystère-English Miracle.-IV. Pas-

sage of the Miracle from the Clergy to the People-From Latin

to the Vulgar Tongue-Gradual Emergence of Secular Drama.

-V. Three English Cycles-Origin of the Chester Plays-Of

the Coventry Plays-Differences between the Three Sets-Other

Places famous for Sacred Plays.-VI. Methods of Representa-

tion-Pageant-Procession-Italian, French, and Spanish Pecu-

liarities—The Guilds-Cost of the Show-Concourse of People-

Stage Effects and Properties.-VII. Relation of the Miracle to

Medieval Art-Materialistic Realism---Place in the Cathedral

Effect upon the Audience.- VIII. Dramatic Elements in the

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