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therefore, as one of their body, with a breach of faith, with holding his station in the university by subscribing articles which he did not believe, and openly maintaining errors which they are most evidently intended to condemn. No sooner are these resolutions of the Hebdomadal Board made public, than a storm of pamphlets rages. Week after week, and almost day after day, some new messenger of the press claims a hearing from the vice-chancellor or the members of convocation; some come forward to justify the members of the board, and to cheer them onwards in their work; but by far the greater number dissuade, threaten, denounce, and prophecy all manner of evils to church and state, if the proposed measures should be carried. There were, as we have seen, three distinct propositions to be submitted to convocation; the first, that a declaration should be made, on evidence furnished by Mr. Ward's book, that he had broken faith with the university; the second, that he should be deprived of those degrees, which it was considered he had forfeited by his violated engagement; and the third was, that the statute respecting subscription should be so amended as to give additional security for a fair and honest subscription, by rendering prevarication almost impracticable. All these measures were attacked by some, the second and third by many more, and the third by not a few who approved of the others. Among the combatants of this field were, Mr. Oakeley, determined, if possible, to save his friend or to share his danger, who endeavoured to prove historically the hypocrisy of the compilers of the Articles, by shewing that, however apparently they condemned the tenets and practices of Rome, it was intended that papists, by signing them should gain access to the church, with its honours and emoluments ;-Mr. Keble, who protests against the proceedings as being unfair and cruel in themselves,' and 'likely to be ruinous under our present circumstances ;'- Dr. Moberley, head master of Winchester college, who ridicules the Hebdomadal Board as a set of noodles, incapable of writing with either sense or grammar, but in their own bungling manner determining to do what is neither legal, nor just, nor wise;—the Rev. F. D. Maurice, professor of literature in King's College, London, who, though condemning Mr. Ward's opinions and practice, deprecates his trial before a tribunal comprising 'a miscellaneous mob of gentlemen from London clubs and country parsonages ;'
—and Mr. Winstanly Hull, barrister of Lincoln's Inn, who while admitting that Mr. Ward has broken faith with the university, and what is of far more consequence, broken also his ordination vow,' condemns the proposed measures, and would have the case carried before some ecclesiastical tribunal, and treated theologically. These are some of the principal, though
in their litrequires thannexed to s degrees om as compel that the
but a few of those who took part against the proceedings of the Hebdomadal Board. On the other hand, Mr. Garbett, professor of poetry in the university, advocates at some length, and with considerable warmth and power, the whole of the measures; Mr. Bricknell, one of the Oxford city lecturers, strongly urges the board to go forward ; and Dr. Tait, head master of Rugby school, in a very lucid manner, supports the first and second propositions, but dissuades from the third. In addition to these, a case, drawn up by the friends of Mr. Ward, with much inge: nuity, and submitted to Sir J. Dodson, Queen's advocate, and R. Bethell, Esq., Q.C., together with the opinion of these gentlemen, is published, who decide that The House of Convocation has not the power of depriving Mr. Ward of his degrees in the manner or on the grounds proposed;' that 'the court of Queen's Bench would, by mandamus, compel the uni. versity to restore Mr. Ward to his degrees; and that the new sense' which is to be annexed to subscription, 'is contrary to law, which requires the clerical subscribers to take the Articles in their literal and grammatical sense. But other counsel having been consulted on the part of the university authorities, an opposite opinion is obtained, which decides that the university has the power to degrade,' in such circumstances; and that the extracts set forth in the notice contain sufficient cause to justify the House of Convocation, as representing the university, in coming to a decision on the subject, with a view to the degradation of Mr. Ward. This opinion had the sanction of Sir F. Thessiger, solicitor-general, Sir C. Wetherall, Messrs. J. Addams, and J. Cowling. .
As to the points of law which have been raised respecting the competency of the tribunal appointed to decide on Mr. Ward's case, we confess we feel but very little interest; but as lookers on, we are in a favourable position to form an opinion on the moral part of the question. The most direct and natural mode of treating such a case, would seem to be by an ecclesiastical proceeding; Mr. Ward, being by his own confession a Roman catholic in prin. ciple, while enjoying the emoluments of a protestant establishment, and sustaining the office of minister in a protestant church, should, in all fairness and honesty, be compelled to relinquish those emoluments, and to resign that office, to say nothing of the inconsistency of his remaining a member of a community, to the founders of which, and to their principles, he professes a 'burning hatred.' But unhappily, in the church of which Mr. Ward is a member, secular and spiritual concerns are so mixed up and confounded together, that we know of no mode of proceeding which could have been adopted by any ecclesiastical authority, of which, as conscientious be
lievers in the New Testament, we could have approved. It would have been more accordant with our sense of justice, and with the views we entertain of the qualifications which literary degrees should designate, had Mr. Ward been deprived of his fellowship, and his ministerial office, and allowed to go over to the church of his devout affection and admiration, with 'all his blushing honours thick upon him. But the Hebdomadal Board were not at liberty to follow out their own notions of equity; they were, to a certain extent, bound by statutes ; the university had been openly challenged to take up the case, or to allow judgment to go by default in favour of signing protestant articles in a popish sense; and, observes Dr. Tait, as the bishops of our church seemed unwilling to move in the case, the thanks of the community are due to the heads of houses in Oxford, for taking upon themselves the odium and trouble of this most painful conflict. (Letters to the Vice-chancellor, p. 9.)
The points at issue between the university authorities and Mr. Ward, and on which the House of Convocation had to decide, were these: they aver that he has broken faith with the university, by abjuring the very doctrines, the declared belief of which was a necessary condition of his obtaining and enjoying certain academical advantages; and that therefore the representatives of the university ought to deprive him of these ad. vantages. Mr. Ward's advocates deny the charge advanced, and denounce the punishment proposed. As to the kind of punishment, we have already stated our doubts whether it is of the most appropriate character; but considering the nature of the delinquency, we cannot pronounce it severe. The conduct of Mr. Ward and his associates appears to us to exhibit insincerity so gross and palpable, to be such a sacrifice of truth and honesty to expediency, that every upright mind not bewitched and fascinated by the mother of abominations,' must regard it with the deepest reprobation.
And what is it which the advocates of this tortuous policy, this jesuitical craft, this double-faced theology, plead in defence of such conduct? It is curious to know by what process these tractarian Rosicrucians propose to convert falsehood into truth, deceit into sincerity, and earthly cunning into heavenly wisdom. The following are some of the manipulations which become apparent; whether there may not be others hidden from the observation of the uninitiated in the dark recesses of mental reservation, it is not for us to say. 1. The 'natural spirit,' of an article, unfavourable to Roman catholicism, is separated from its 'dry wording,' so that the real meaning of the words, by a kind of dissolving view, strangely disappears, and some. thing essentially different rises on the same canvass. Every proposition which is difficult to be managed, like the ob
different view, strareal meanings
ject in the pantomime touched by the wand of harlequin, undergoes a complete and sudden transformation, to the surprise of all beholders, and thus, mirabile dictu, affirmations deny, censures commend, and prohibitions the most absolute give unbounded license. This wonderful art, almost sunk into desuetude, was, after the lapse of ages, revived by the far-famed monk of Littlemore, and by him taught to his disciples, and to none with more success than to the author of the Ideal of a Church. And thus adroitly does the fellow of Balliol apply it; the articles breathe an uniform intelligible spirit;' yet, unhappily this spirit is not different merely from an 'orthodos,' that is a Roman catholic spirit, but is 'absolutely contradictory to it. By the admirable dexterity of the operator, however, the offensive spirit is evaporated, the 'prima facie meaning is evaded, and all the protestantism having been extracted out of the dry words, such a spirit is infused into them that the pope himself need not hesitate to sign them.
2. By a process very similar, the difficulty connected with the natural meaning of an article may be easily removed. Instead of the natural,' that is the true and proper 'sense,' a 'nonnatural,' that is, a forced and false 'sense may be put on it. The article is still signed in a sense, it matters not however contrary to nature and reason. For instance, the twelfth article,' as Mr. Ward acknowledges, is 'as plain as words can make it, on the evangelical side,' but, by his dexterity, away goes all ‘its natural meaning,' explained away,' and it is signed in a'non-natural' sense; that is, in a sense exactly opposite to its meaning; Mr. Ward's conscience is satisfied, and 'Brutus is an honourable man.'
3. The reformers, and the compilers of the Articles, it is said, were willing to include within the pale of the reformed church as many as could conscientiously sign these documents, though differing with themselves in some minor points. This is a piece of logical apparatus of great potency and convenience. It is no sooner applied, than forth comes this inference; these sagacious framers and compilers of articles, so anxious for uniformity, meant the very opposite of what their articles affirmed, or at least with a cunning, worthy of the Delphic responses, so contrived the wording of them that they might equally mean either of two things which are absolutely contradictory. But alas, for the ingratitude of human nature; Mr. Ward cannot forget his 'burning hatred' to the Reformation, and all which pertains to it; instead, therefore, of being thankful, he turns on these men, some of whom, with all this supposed laxity of principle, were unaccountably willing to die for their opinions, and with a sardonic grin tells them how completely their own duplicity has recoiled on themselves.'
4. Another expedient to which these gentlemen have recourse, is the difference between 'holding' doctrines and teaching them. The Articles may be subscribed, while Roman doctrines are held in all their extent, providing the liberty of teaching' them is not assumed. Then of course such publications as those with which the kingdom has been deluged, from the pens of Dr. Pusey, Messrs. Newman, Keble, "Oakeley, Ward, and Palmer of Magdalen, pregnant as they are with Romanism of every kind, inculcated in the most zealous and plausible manner, must not be called 'teaching;' the active diffusion of antiprotestant opinions, by professors, by college tutors, by oral communication in daily intercourse, and by extensive epistolary correspondence, will not come under the charge of teaching.' It is taken for granted also that a minister's faith, has no necescary connection with his public lahours, that it will not influence his preaching, that his head and heart may be completely saturated with Roman doctrines, without any of them ever oozing out, that a man of zeal and warmth shall constantly keep in abeyance those very doctrines which he deems the life of his spirit, and longs above all things to see prevalent in the church. It is assumed, moreover, that it is perfectly consistent with ministerial responsibility, to withhold part of what is believed to be the whole counsel of God,' to keep back that which is profitable,' and from considerations of expediency, to allow the people, so far as public teaching is concerned, to remain in. ignorance of saving truth, and to 'perish for lack of knowledge !
We confess that to read such statements, to repeat such enormous fallacies, puts our patience to no ordinary test, that we feel towards these various apologies for dishonesty, an indignation which it is difficult to repress. A man of common integrity must we conceive be strangely destitute of feeling, who can see unmoved the majesty of truth thus insulted, the interests of morality thus betrayed, and deceit and guile so openly, and so unblushingly avowed. Amidst so much wordy discussion about the latitude of interpretation which the Thirtynine Articles admit, and the constant repetition of their compatibility with the whole cycle of Roman doctrine,' the mind is in danger of being misled, and of losing sight in some measure of the utter repugnance of these two opposites; it may be of advantage, therefore, to see them in juxta-position. We hope that such an exhibition of them in a few particulars may not be considered misplaced.
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