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by a greater man than ourselves,—the late Robert Hall. He foresaw, more than forty years ago, that affairs would not always proceed in the old channels; that there would ensue a disruption between class and class; that the aristocracy would attempt, at all hazards, to retain their power; hut, that the democracy would at last wrest it from them. Indissolubly connected with the former, stands the church of England; her sanctuary is identified with modern feudalism; when convenient to say so, she protests that her altars alone are the places for both spiritual and temporal refuge to the poor and destitute ; and verily, if high payment could establish their claims for such refuge, they would have much to advance on the subject, for even labour indirectly, if not directly, contributes towards tithe and churchrate. But what is the plain fact? Go down into any part of the country by any one of our railroads; stop at the first station which shall be at the distance of one, two, or three hours from our crowded capital; thence, wind along the sweet rural lanes, and find your way to the nearest parish-church. It is no doubt an attractive structure, with its silent cemetery of graves, its picturesque yew trees, and its ivy-mantled tower. The clerk or sexton has brought the keys, and your attention on entrance is fixed upon one enormous square pew, absorbing about a half-quarter of the entire space, surrounded with armorial bearings, stuffed and cushioned at the four sides with sofas like a Turkish divan, carpeted all over like a drawing-room, with a dozen ottomans, with handsomely or even superbly bound prayer books and bibles slumbering in morocco cases, a mahogany table covered with a rich crimson cloth in the centre, and a comfortable fire-place in one corner. And this is the 'home for the lonely ;' to adopt a phrase from one of our most notorious clergy, for the poor man! Why-does he ever set his foot within the limits of that oriental boudoir ?- Never,- except to clean, and dust, and take off the ginghams against Sunday ;for know, gentle readers, that the real pillow-cases are purple velvet! Where then do the peasantry worship? They kneel on those damp green stones, and sit upon those hard oaken seats, which have no backs to them, for fear, 'as the parson says, they should fall asleep during the sermon! We sketch this picture, applying as it does in its main features to so many localities, because the press has recently emitted a quantity of nauseous cant, about the hardships of the voluntary principle, and the tender mercies of the compulsory one! It may be relied upon, that whatever our establishment may profess in theory, in practice it has no bowels for pauperism. Its genius was conceived in high places. It nestles in the mansion and not in the cottage. It has fellowship essentially with the rich

in fortune, rather than with such as may be merely so in faith and good works. It kneels with the noble and the great. It worships with the proud and learned. It loves fine linen, in more senses than those associated with lawn sleeves and snowy surplices. It prays for the commonalty so long as they abjure schism and rebellion. But its blessing, however sonorous, is a formal and an empty one. It sheds no dews of soft charity on the soul. The hungry, who wait for it, depart as hungry as ever. The very print of its foot is a cloven one ! Now what we aver is, that an ecclesiastical establishment, thus identified with a foredoomed aristocracy, must ultimately perish with that aristocracy. The popular voice has already condemned both. Between them they have had their own way for several generations; and what is the social result? The population of this country increases at the rate of a quarter of a million every week; and our new churches, as Burke says, ‘pierce the skies, but do not avert the wrath of heaven l’ Schoolhouses are founded in every village; two myriads of clergy exhort, reprove, preach, and, with individual exceptions, are hated. Nonconformists have grown to be numerous, but they were not so always; so that the fault cannot lie with them. But as a writer observes with great truthfulness, ‘in spite of all our religious zeal and display, and with converts uncounted in every zone, there appears to exist some radical defect at home, some cause at work, which is incessantly sapping our social fabric, and which taints and cankers all that it touches. What catalogues of wickedness, want, and oppression, now make up the once short and simple annals of the poor. Parricide rises into a common occurrence; children slain by parents, themselves goaded by destitution into desperation; whole families extinguished by arsenic. In Somersetshire, a daughter coolly poisons her infirm parent, just saying to her sister, “we shall do better without father l’ In Suffolk, a grandmother destroys her granddaughter by the same means, and for the same reason. Near Bridgewater, a widow makes away with her daughter, mother, and brother, after having probably poisoned her husband. On the other hand, the misery of the people goes hand in hand with their wickedness.” Doctor Samuel Johnson also observes in his serious and solemn manner, “When a great proportion of the people are suffered to languish in helpless misery, that country must be ill-policed, and wretchedly governed. A decent provision for the poor is the true test of civilization. The condition of the lower orders more especially is the true mark of national discrimination.” We are of course not charging all this load of indigence and suffering upon the protestant episcopal body, or on any single institution whatsoever. We are only endeavouring to draw attention to a state of things, which must, sooner or later, produce an appalling change. If left altogether alone, then spontaneous combustion, so to speak, will be the no less hideous consequence. But meanwhile, the establishment, having committed itself to the anti-popular party, will in our judgment fall, and justly fall, with its selected friends and patrons. Should the revolution assume a violent form, its deposition will be consummated with expedition, and perhaps precipitation. Otherwise it may be more gradual than probably most voluntaries would desire. Either way, however, it must be evident that its days are numbered. Not for another age can Oxford be permitted to glory in her Laudian statutes, as though the ghost of that celebrated arch-prelate were never to be exorcised from the Bodleian and Radcliffe libraries. The bishops of London and Exeter are merely hastening forward what they themselves may possibly live to acknowledge, was stalking on quite rapidly enough. Before the bonds are broken asunder, which fasten together church and state, as also during the period of the process, whether it be longer or shorter, no doubt many individuals, and some groups of individuals, will formally withdraw to Rome. Still larger parties would, we think, join the Moravians and Episcopalian methodists, were greater opportunities offered for doing so in this country. Thousands and tens of thousands will probably become Congregationalists or Presbyterians. The Tractarians will follow their own sullen course, just as their predecessors the non-jurors did before them; yet it may be questioned whether they will maintain the piety of Ken, or the virtues of Kettlewell. They will more likely degenerate into such bigots as Collier,—dull dusty bookworms,-Egyptian slaves, labouring to make bricks without straw, to engraft fervour upon formalism, and substitute theological ethics, if we may be allowed the term, for the vigour and vitality of the gospel. Allowing for these, and other analogous secessions, there will yet remain the dead materials,—the vast carcase of the conservatives of the church of England,-a huge, wealthy, respectable sect, disposed to love order, and eschew enthusiasm ; whose best prospect of a religious revival, through the divine blessing, will be in their forcible separation from the instrumental cause of their torpor. No longer having the state to lean upon; no longer encumbered with a hierarchy and clergy looking one way and rowing another; delivered from the stupifying effects of seats in the House of Peers, lazy dignitaries in the shape of overpaid deans and chapters, the millstone of patronage, and the delusive security of the compulsory principle, they may rouse themselves into unwonted activity, and take their place, as in the United States of America, amongst the other religious denominations of the British empire.

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Notices of Windsor in the Olden Time. By John Stoughton. Bogue,

London. Pp. 236. • The author spent eleven happy years in the town of Windsor. It was natural that he should feel interested in the history and antiquities of so remarkable a place; and therefore he devoted as much time to their investigation as he could spare from more important engagements. On different occasions he laid before the Literary Institution in the town the results of his inquiries; and the papers which he read, excited so much interest as to lead to a request that he would prepare for the press a work upon the antiquities of Windsor. Having collected sufficient materials for the purpose, he felt disposed to comply with the wishes of his friends : and the little book now presented to the public is the fruit of his labours.'Preface.

We are not surprised that when Mr. Stoughton had industriously collected so much interesting information concerning their famous Windsor, the inhabitants of the royal town should have solicited him to make their gratification permanent, by committing his ' Notices' to the press. He has presented us with a volume exceeding beautiful in its appearance; while the research which has been necessary, the judgment with which his materials are selected, the skill with which they are arranged, and the true taste and correctness of sentiment which characterise the whole, entitle the volume to our praise, and we cheerfully bestow it.

• The object of the author has been to present the History of Wind. sor in such a form as to interest the general reader, and to meet that taste for antiquarian research and historical associations in connexion with remarkable places, so characteristic of the age. He has endeavoured to give some glimpses of the state of society during the succes. sive periods through which his history extends : and if in doing this he may sometimes have a little stepped out of the way, yet he trusts he has succeeded in giving an aspect of more general interest to the local scenes and circumstances he has described. Through the whole work he has also attempted to breathe that moral and religious spirit which should pervade not only the graver studies, but even the literary recreations of intellectual and spiritual beings.'-Preface, p. vii.

Mr. Stoughton has succeeded in his object; and his elegant volume will doubtless be received with the favour it deserves.

Outlines of Congregationalism. With a Historical Sketch of its Rise

and Progress in the Town of Andover. By the Rev. J. S. Pearsall.

London ; Snow. Pp. 159. MR. PEARSALL has exhibited the principles of congregationalism in a clear and able manner and in the spirit of christianity, and we wish his book may have an extensive circulation. It is one which may be unhe

sitatingly put into the hands of any, whether the uninformed of our friends or such as are strangers to our real sentiments. Should a second edition be called for, we hope to see some grammatical errors (which in the present volume we charge upon the printer) corrected. We refer to such sentences as the following : · Whilst the noiseless current of ordinary affairs too often flow past ;-As Henry, ... James, or Charles sway the sceptre ;-Have the church a right, &c. ;—The greatest solemnity and kindness of feeling was to accompany, &c.;Neither Peter nor Paul speak of, &c.'

The Convict Ship. A narrative of the results of Scriptural Instruction

and Moral Discipline, as these appeared on board the “Earl Grey' during the voyage to Tasmania, &c. By C. A. Browning, M.D., &c.

London : Smith, Elder, and Co. 1844. Pp. 324. The title will convey a correct idea of this very interesting narrative of efforts, judiciously made, for reclaiming to God and happiness a class of men of whose conversion too many christians would, we fear, be ready to despond. Strong faith, however, in the adaptation of the gospel to its intended end, with great confidence in the efficacy of prayer, when combined with zealous and persevering endeavours made in a right spirit, enabled the pious and devoted author to triumph over difficulties of no ordinary kind. His holy labours seem to have been abundantly blessed of God; and we cannot restrain the utterance of a fervent wish that just such right-minded christians were found pursuing the work of faith in every receptacle of human guilt and misery. The true philanthropist will derive both instruction and encouragement from Dr. Browning's interesting publication.

Discourses by William Anderson. Glasgow: Jackson. 1944. pp. 346. ANOTHER volume of sermons! Well, if preachers will publish, reviewers, we suppose, must read, however much they may envy those who are privileged to hold themselves excused. We say privileged,--for it is often a dull and weary task, that is assigned to us, and we are sometimes reminded of a story current in our school-boy days, for the truth of which we will not, indeed, vouch, but it is a good story enough, for all that. It seems that a certain peer, whose economical organ (if such there be — and if not, we very humbly crave pardon of the phrenologist for making one for the occasion) was largely developed, not to say enormously, contrived, since his estate abounded with rabbits, to regale himself and his chaplain day after day right frugally; till at length, on the accustomed dish being once more placed upon the board, the aforesaid chaplain intimated his sense of satiety by giving in a metrical grace of some half dozen lines a very pleasant paraphrase of Horace's Jam Satis est.

But though these are certainly the feelings with which we take up ninety-nine out of every hundred volumes of modern sermons, Mr. Anderson's book forms a pleasant exception, and we are glad he has published it: we have derived both pleasure and profit from the perusal, and heartily commend it to our readers. The author is evidently one of

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