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particulars formerly furnished by Burckhardt, with which, however, in substance it agrees. We would willingly lay this information before the reader, but it is too long for extract, and would suter by abridgment.
the writer returns to the Druses in an appendix, entitled Origin of the religion of the Druses;' which he offers as * dignist of what has been written on the subject by 'De Sacy,
Adlon lenture, and other Orientalists,' whose pages he apprehends that few of his readers would have the patience to wade through. Nor uced they ; for, as it happens, all the real information this part of the book contains — which is chiefly
U Mount of llakom, the Fatemite khalif of Egypt-may be found in the third volume of the Modern Universal History
This Hakem is believed by the Druses to have been the Tytti or rather the last and greatest impersonation of the Devenity upon earth. The doctrine was started in Hakem's brincime by a man called Darazi ; and although the khalif did mut publicly take part with Darazi, he gave him much underhand encouragement, and eventually sent him secretly into Srria, supplied him with money, and enjoined him to promulwato his doctrine in the mountains, where he would find a rude People favourably disposed for the reception of novel doctrines. the existence of this doctrine to the present day among the
see is a proof that in this the khalif had judged rightly. 'The Druses do not, however, regard this Darazi as the real founder of their religion ; but rather ascribe that equivocal honour to Hamza, who afterwards took up the doctrine, and supported it with so much ability that Hakem himself, who was undoubtedly insane, no longer hesitated to sanction the monstrous pretensions on his own behalf which it involved. 'Hamza is to the Druses,' says our author, 'what Mohammed is to the Moslems, and it is to Hamza and not to Hakem that we must attribute the construction of this system, which was founded upon ideas and allegories current for a long period previously mong many sects of Moslems, particularly those who professed an especial reverence towards the descendants of Ali.''
The following is what our author gives as
• The Doctrine of the Druse Religion — The Druses believe that the appearance of Hakem is the last and most perfect of the manifestations of the Divinity, and that he is not to re-appear until the last day, when he will exercise his judgments upon men in a rigorous manner by the sword. Certain signs are to foreshadow this event, such as kings governing according to their own will, Christians having dominion over Moslems, an earthquake at Cairo, and the destruction of Aleppo by the armies of Antichrist, who is to be an apostate Unitarian, called the •blind of one eye, the imposter of the time of the resurrection.'
“Next to the Deity, in the Druse system, comes the Spirit of Universal Intelligence, the incarnation of which, in the time of Hakem, was Hamza. This intelligence was the first of the creations of God, and his delegate in the work of the creation of men and things. Various other impersonations of the Intelligence appeared before Hamza, one of which was Adam. One cannot help smiling at the way in which the scriptural account of him is treated. Adam, and two counterparts whom they give him, is believed to have been born of a father and a mother, and not of earth. “God forbid that the Creator, who is worthy of praise, and whose power is to be revered, should have formed his chosen one of earth, which is the vilest of all things. If we were to judge of things according to external appearance, he would have formed him of the most excellent substances, such as precious stones, hyacinths, and emeralds.” * Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Mohammed the founder of the Batenian religion, are all considered as false prophets, and the inventors of false systems. Hamza was the most perfect of the manifestations of the Intelligence, and the Druses apply to him many of those expressions which, in the New and Old Testament, are given to the Messiah. Hamza, and not Hakem, gives his name to the Druse era, which is 408 of the Hegira, or A.D. 1033. “The form of engagement of the votaries of the ‘Unitarian religion,” runs thus:– “Written in such a month, such a year of the years of the servant of our Lord, whose name be glorified, and of his slave Hamza Ebn Ali ebn Ahmed.” ‘‘Praise,’ says Hamza,' be accorded to him who has created me with his light, and given me the succour of his holy spirit, who has favoured me with his science, and confided to me his commands, who has revealed to me the secret of his mysteries. ‘‘I am the root of his creatures, the written book, the inhabited house, the master of the resurrection and the last day, and, with the permission of the Lord, the blower of the trumpet. . . . I am the Messiah of the nations; from me grace flows; and by my ministry vengeance will fall upon the polytheists.” * God is supposed to have four other ministers, entitled the Soul, the Word, the Preceding, and the Following ; but a description of their characteristics and various incarnations would be too abstruse a matter for the general reader. ‘The world, according to the Druses, was created at once in its present state, composed of males and females, young and old, millions in number. Every man supposed he had a father and mother of a particular name and profession, and used to visit the tombs, where he saw bones that he imagined to be those of his deceased relations. Every man knew his trade, which he imagined had been taught him by such and such a person, but all this was merely an effect of the power of the Creator: and thus was the machine of the world at once set in motion. Souls were created by the light of Hamza, their number being fixed, and neither increasing nor diminishing in the course of time. ‘The catechism of the Druses states.that at the last day God will make the true believers Pashas, Emirs, and Sultans: while those who deny Hakem, whom they consider the true Messiah, are to have rings suspended from their ears, which will be burning hot in summer and ice
cold in winter, with a dress of pig's skin, and they will be subjected to misery and drudgery in the service of the true believers.
The impersonation of the Divinity who appeared in the time of our Saviour, is called Solomon the Persian, and John, Luke, Mark, and Matthew, were his ministers. Solomon acquainted the son of Mary and Joseph the Carpenter, “whom the Christians call the Messiah," with his divine nature; but as he rejected it, Solomon infused hatred of Jesus into the hearts of the Jews, who crucified him. All critique on such ab. surdities is surperfluous.'—pp. 305—308.
We add a few paragraphs of miscellaneous matter, to mark the character of the work :
• Conversation at Damascus. The conversation at the soirées is of a general nature. Such a man is in arrear with the Defterdar or treasurer. The pasha said so and so, on such an occasion. The locusts of the Hauran are eating up the corn, and bread will be dear. Ought Damascus, which, as a holy city, is exempt from the capitation tax, to pay one of its own free-will ? &c. As may well be supposed, I was often asked about England, and my first impressions of the Thames Tunnel and of railway travelling were duly recalled, and excited a great deal of wonderment. Adjaib, adjaib, what a strange country! But more strange still, in their opinion, was the circumstance of the sove. reign being a lady.
** What, does she smoke ?-a chiboque, or a narghilé ?' "Neither the one nor the other !'
“ Adjaib! (wonderful !) When she transacts her business, does she show her face to the divan ??
Yes!' “ Adjaib!
I attempted to explain in answer to another question, that the queen alone reigned; and that the emir, her husband, did not interfere in state affairs. But this seemed to be the most incomprehensible of all arrangements, and the Franks the most extraordinary people.'-pp. 149, 150.
* The best library in Syria Taking off our shoes, we entered a small mosque (at Aleppo), and passing through an inner apartment, found ourselves at the door and screen of the library. The library is the best in Syria ; but let not the reader suppose it a Bodleian, or a Bibliothèque du Roi; it might have passed for the dusty study of a bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Around the walls of an ordinary sized room were placed substantial cases, in which the books were contained, not standing upright, but lying flat upon each other, the titles being written with ink on the leaf-edges in large characters. In the corner of the room was a pair of old-fashioned English globes, which bore a label stating that they were sold at the sign of the Atlas and Hercules, in the Poultry, London. On asking the attendant where the reading room was, he pointed to the arcades of the quadrangle we had passed through. I then asked him if he had many readers; but the answer was not indicative of much taste for literature on the part of the Aleppines. Some weeks we have books asked for ; some weeks they lie undisturbed on the shelves.' I was promised a catalogue of the books of this library, on promising to remunerate the copyist liberally; but although I asked for it afterwards repeatedly, it never was forthcoming.'--pp. 238, 239.
Turning Turk. The native christians are not so well off as they were in the time of the Egyptians, but they are exposed to no extor. tions as during the ancien régime of Turkey. Having their separate quarter, the gates of which are locked an hour after sunset, they live in more security than the inhabitants of the town (Aleppo) itself, for many robberies took place within the walls during my stay. The christian rayahs are in all temporal matters subject to the Turkish jurisdiction ; but disputes among themselves are generally settled by the superior clergy, without the intervention of the civil authority.
Several conversions to Islamism had taken place before my arrival. * Turning Turk,' as the old phrase goes, is in general a much rarer occurrence than formerly. One cause of this is the decline of the political fortunes of the Ottoman Empire. The independence of Greece, the pressure of Russia, and Mehemet Ali's system of promoting intelligent Christian rayahs wherever he could find them, tended to discourage proselytism. After his expulsion, the pride of the Moslems, and the abasement of the Christian population, produced a slight re-action; a few conversions took place in Syria, and these chiefly in Aleppo. Now and then, one of those amphibious European adventurers who roam through Turkey, ready at five minutes' notice to undertake the drill of a battalion, the service of the hospital, or the construction of a battery, turns Turk for a year or two, and then leaves the country; but this does not count. One of these worthies was, during my stay at Aleppo, discovered by the Arnaouts as having embraced Islamism somewhere in Turkey in Europe, and to save his life he was obliged to remain in hiding till they left the city. The welcome these individuals receive from their new co-religionists is by no means flattering. One day a newlyconverted Jew entered the mosque of Zachariah with the high turban of a sheikh. One of the Ulema, on perceiving him, knocked it off his head, and told him never to show himself in that guise again. The last conversion was that of an Armenian Catholic, which took place in public, at the Mehkemeh. When the renegade had made his attestation, one of the heads of the catholics said aloud, The Moslems have not been increased, and tbe Christians have not been diminished in number.''pp. 260, 262.
There is one other matter in his book which we feel reluctant to notice, but are unwilling to leave to the impression it is calculated to convey.
In Mount Lebanon, and at Beyrout, our author became acquainted with the American missionaries, and particularly with the Rev. Eli Smith, the companion of Dr. Robinson in the journeys of which an imperishable monument has been erected in the Biblical Researches in Palestine.'
Our author met with Mr. Smith at Dair-el-kamar. He says :
'I had scarcely delivered my first letters, and got over my first visits,
when I found that an unusual ferment reigned in the town in consequence of the presence of several American missionaries who were engaged in teaching the Druses. The Rev. Eli Smith, the principal missionary, on hearing of my arrival, sent me a friendly message, placing at my disposal anything which his house afforded, or which could contribute to my comfort. On calling to thank this gentleman for his unexpected kindness, I found him to be a man of simple prepossessing demeanour, and, as subsequent interviews shewed, well versed in Arabic literature, and Syrian geography. His invaluable Biblical Researches, the result of fifteen years' local experience, have been edited and published by Professor Robinson ; but this latter gentleman having merely made a cursory tour, and in most instances noted the results previously attained by Mr. Smith, ought in justice to have kept his own name more in the back-ground. This is the opinion of impartial persons, acquainted with both parties. This is probably a fact, of which the donors of the geographical society's medal were not aware.'--pp. 67, 68.
The circumstances here noted are such as could only have been learned from the missionaries, and must therefore be taken as conveying their impression. The charge against Dr. Robinson is not so serious as might at first sight appear to those unacquainted with the work to which the statement refers. The disposition to put Mr. Smith's name in the background, is rather that of the public than of Dr. Robinson. The latter unites the name of Mr. Smith, with his own, in the titlepage and throughout the work; and in the preface, and in the appendices, carefully indicates the obligations which he owes to the collections and Arabic scholarship of his companion. But the public hates to have to repeat two names when one will serve, and therefore it has taken the first and principal name a name even previously of high repute in biblical literature, and cites the work as “Robinson's Biblical Researches;' and under that name the work will ever henceforth be cited. No power on earth will ever persuade the public to refer to the work as the * Biblical Researches in Palestine of E. Robinson, D.D. and the Rev. Eli Smith. Dr. Robinson himself has yielded to this necessity, and, in his later works, has fairly thrown Mr. Smith overboard, and cites the work, without circumlocution, as 'Robinson's Palestine.'
Partnerships of this kind are seldom fortunate; and we are grieved to find that the present instance is not an exception. A work, the new matter in which is so much built upon names, it is probable that Dr. Robinson could not have rendered so complete as it now is without Mr. Smith's collections of Arabic names and his local knowledge of the country: but, on the other hand, it is not merely probable, but quite certain, that Mr. Smith could not have produced any thing like this work