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he venerates is still his own, tho he has not realized it yet. He ought. He knows the sense of that grand word, tho his analysis fails entirely to render account of it. When in innocency or when by intellectual preception he attains to say,— "I love the Right; Truth is beautiful within and without forevermore. Virtue, I am thine; save me; use me; thee will I serve, day and night, in great, in small, that I may be not virtuous, but virtue';-then is the end of the creation answered, and God is well pleased.
The sentiment of virtue is a reverence and delight in the presence of certain divine laws. It perceives that this homely game of life we play, covers, under what seem foolish details, principles that astonish. The child amidst his baubles is learning the action of light, motion, gravity, muscular force; and in the game of human life, love, fear, justice, appetite, man, and God, interact. These laws refuse to be adequately stated. They will not be written out on paper, or spoken by the tongue. They elude our persevering thought; yet we read them hourly in each other's faces, in each other's actions, in our own remorse. The moral traits which are all globed into every virtuous act and thought-in speech we must sever, and describe or suggest by painful enumeration of many particulars. Yet, as this sentiment is the essence of all religion, let me guide your eye to the precise objects of the sentiment, by an enumeration of some of those classes of facts in which this element is conspicuous.
The intuition of the moral sentiment is an insight of the perfection of the laws of the soul. These laws execute themselves. They are out of time, out of space, and not subject to circumstance. Thus in the soul of man there is a justice whose retributions are instant and entire. He who does a good deed is instantly ennobled. He who does a mean deed is by the action itself contracted. He who puts off impurity, thereby puts on purity. If a man is at heart just, then in so far is he God; the safety of God, the immortality of God, the majesty of God, do enter into that man with justice. If a man dissemble, deceive, he deceives himself, and goes out of acquaintance with his own being. A man in the view of absolute goodness, adores, with total humility. Every step so downward, is a
step upward. The man who renounces himself, comes to himself. See how this rapid intrinsic energy worketh everywhere, righting wrongs, correcting appearances, and bringing up facts to a harmony with thoughts. Its operation in life, though slow to the senses, is at last as sure as in the soul. By it a man is made the Providence to himself, dispensing good to his goodness, and evil to his sin. Character is always known. Thefts never enrich; alms never impoverish; murder will speak out of stone walls. The least admixture of a lie-for example, the taint of vanity, the least attempt to make a good impression, a favorable appearance-will instantly vitiate the effect. But speak the truth, and all nature and all spirits help you with unexpected furtherance. Speak the truth, and all things alive or brute are vouchers, and the very roots of the grass underground there do seem to stir and move to bear you witness. See again the perfection of the Law as it applies itself to the affections, and becomes the law of society. As we are, so we associate. The good, by affinity, seek the good; the vile, by affinity, the vile.
These facts have always suggested to man the sublime creed that the world is not the product of manifold power, but of one will, of one mind; and that one mind is everywhere active, in each ray of the star, in each wavelet of the pool; and whatever opposes that will is everywhere balked and baffled, because things are made so, and not otherwise. Good is positive. Evil is merely privative, not absolute: it is like cold, which is the privation of heat. All evil is so much death or nonentity. Benevolence is absolute and real. So much benevolence as a man hath, so much life hath he. For all things proceed out of this same spirit, which is differently named love, justice, temperance, in its different applications, just as the ocean receives different names on the several shores which it washes. All things proceed out of the same spirit, and all things conspire with it. Whilst a man seeks good ends, he is strong by the whole strength of nature. In so far as he roves from these ends, he bereaves himself of power, of auxiliaries; his being shrinks out of all remote channels, he becomes less and less, a mote, a point, until absolute badness is absolute death.
The perception of this law of laws awakens in the mind a sentiment which we call the religious sentiment, and which makes our highest happiness. Wonderful is its power to charm and to command. It is a mountain air. It is the embalmer of the world. It is myrrh and storax, and chlorin and rosemary. It makes the sky and the hills sublime, and the silent song of the stars is it. By it is the universe made safe and habitable, not by science or power. Thought may work cold and intransitive in things, and find no end or unity; but the dawn of the sentiment of virtue on the heart gives and is the assurance that Law is sovereign over all natures; and the worlds, time, space, eternity, do seem to break out into joy.
This sentiment is divine and deifying. It is the beatitude of man. It makes him illimitable. Through it, the soul first knows itself. It corrects the capital mistake of the infant man, who seeks to be great by following the great, and hopes to derive advantages from another, by showing the fountain of all good to be in himself, and that he, equally with every man, is an inlet into the steps of Reason. When he says, "I thought'; when love warms him; when he chooses, warned on high, the good and great deed; then, deep melodies wander through his soul from Supreme Wisdom. Then he can worship, and be enlarged by his worship; for he can never go behind this sentiment. In the sublimest flights of the soul, rectitude is never surmounted, love is never outgrown.
"The Divinity School Address."
RALPH WALDO EMERSON.
ROUNDNESS AND RESONANCE OF TONE
The orotund voice is the simple pure tone rounded out into greater fulness. The word comes from rotundus, meaning round. It is produced mainly by an increased resonance of the chest and mouth cavities, and a more vigorous action of the abdominal muscles. It always has the character of fulness, but is not necessarily a loud tone. Neither is it an "assumed" voice, but should result from
expanded thought and increased intensity of feeling. Its force varies in degree with the thought being exprest. It may be effusive or flowing, expulsive or rushing, explosive or bursting.
It is used in language of great dignity and power, in intense and ponderous thought, and in grandeur and sublimity. It is also used in public prayer, and in certain Bible and hymn reading. Coupled with the simple conversational style of speaking, it greatly enlarges the public speaker's possibilities of expression. It gives variety and appropriateness to the spoken word. An ordinary colloquial style of speaking, when long continued, becomes tame and uninteresting to an audience; but when all the gradations of soft, medium, and full orotund voice are added, the speaker is conscious of vastly increased scope and power.
It will be found helpful in the following exercises to keep the chest high and active throughout. The abdomen may expand and contract fully without letting the chest down from its full active position. If the student will also think depth and roundness during the exercises, it will assist in securing the desired qualities.
A resonant voice avails itself of all the various parts of the throat and chest that can contribute vibration. Like the strings of a violin or the stem of a tuning-fork, the voice needs some kind of solid body to give it character. This is imparted principally by the resonance chambers; viz., by the cavities of the mouth and throat, by the chest, and by the facial resonators.
1. Facial resonance. The face immediately surrounding the mouth and extending into the cheek bones can be employed to advantage in producing resonance. Inhale
a full deep breath, and begin a low humming sound on the element maw. Project the lips but do not part them, as the element is to be thought rather than exprest. The trembling sensation felt at the lips in producing this sound should be helped as much as possible until it extends up the face. This vibratory effect will be made to spread the more rapidly if the student thinks of circles while practising, of water rising from a fountain, or some other suggestive thought. While the humming is in progress keep to one tone at a time, but in turn change to other pitches. Aim to increase the vibrations and use considerable force in doing so. No harm can possibly come to the throat or voice through this exercise, so it may be practised with impunity.
2. Open resonance. Repeat the last exercise, but gradually open the mouth so that the element maw will pour forth in free liquid quality. There will be a tendency to lose the facial resonance as the mouth is opened, but this must be resisted. Open the mouth very gradually and endeavor to maintain the same degree of resonance throughout.
3. Throat resonance. Gently sing the vowel e, endeavoring to bring into vibration all the parts around the back of the mouth, particularly the soft palate and root of the tongue. As this vowel has a natural tendency to be throaty, great care should be taken to avoid rigidity and squeezing the tone.
4. Chest resonance. Inhale a full deep breath, and while singing the vowel o hold the chest high and rigid. throughout the exercise. Think of the chest as a soundingboard and make it vibrate as much as possible. Repeat this vowel in the speaking voice, with rising and falling in