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but I would get at my Master, for the sermon can not do any good unless there is a savor of Christ in it."

The essential elements, then, of successful preaching, and of any public speaking worth while, are truth and personality. The Christian preacher is at once an interpreter, a herald, a teacher, a counselor, an evangelist, an ambassador. His is the supreme message of life. His authority is the word of God, his religion is that of love, his inexhaustible theme is Christ. Such a work demands the highest development of all his physical and mental powers, and an unswerving consecration of heart and soul to the cause of his Master.



It is as important for the public speaker to develop his body as to develop his mind. As the medium of expression it should be kept at the highest attainable point. Many of our most gifted speakers, especially clergymen, break down from lack of physical vigor, often just at the time when their best work should be done. A strong mind in a strong body should be the aim of every public man.

Joseph Parker gave as his prescription for what he called "a great effort" in preaching a Turkish bath twice a week for three weeks, exercise on the hills every morning at daylight, a plunge in the sea in summer, and a vigorous run on the beach. "Then," said he, "there will be freshness in your breath, a ringing tone in your voice, and a 'substance in your muscle not soon exhausted. You will not enter the pulpit as a clammy, flabby old man with a heckling voice and a wandering eye, but as a giant ready for a giant's task."

A man should give a reasonable amount of time daily to his physical development. He should put to himself each night a series of questions to test his faithfulness in this respect. He may ask: Have I exercised my body sufficiently this day? Have I chosen the most nourishing food? Have I breathed deeply and abundantly of fresh air? Have I spent any time in the sun? Have I given proper attention to bathing? Have I rested and relaxed at

proper intervals? Have I been unduly hurried or excited? Have I washed out my system with generous drafts of pure drinking water? It would be advisable to write down a list of such questions in a note-book and keep a record for at least a month.

Demosthenes, in order to strengthen his lungs, used to repeat as many verses as he could in succession, climbing a hill. Gladstone chopped down trees for physical pastime. Spurgeon interested himself in geology in order to spend as much time as possible in the open air. Henry Ward Beecher gave particular attention to physical training, diet, and relaxation. Webster owed much of his greatness as a speaker to his commanding physique.

"Freshness of feeling," says Dr. Kennard, "will be preserved by maintaining a healthy appetite and digestion. Dyspepsia and the worries that wait upon its leaden steps are terribly aging. Care for the hygienics and athletics of his entire nature will reward him openly. He must not only work faithfully, but play regularly; must not only gird with mighty tension, but relax and rest at frequent intervals and give himself abundant sleep. Even the all-enduring camel must have his burden unloosed at night, but many a preacher never lays aside his heavy pack; he carries his church burdens the whole twenty-four hours and the whole twelve months through, and is writing sermons and settling disputes and raising church debts in his dreams. Is it any wonder that his soul grows seedy, and that he becomes mentally round-shouldered and decrepit?”1

The first great requisite for the public speaker physically is a well-developed chest. This may be rapidly brought about by deep breathing exercises in the open air, and by

Psychic Power in Preaching, J. Spencer Kennard, D.D.

combined breathing and physical exercises at home. After expanding the lungs somewhat fully, the chest should be gently tapped with the palms of the hands. It is helpful to rub the chest vigorously with salt and water, finishing with a rough towel. Habitually carry the chest high and full without undue straining.

The abdominal and waist muscles should be developed in a similar way. In taking a full breath, endeavor to expand the entire circle of the waist, then in exhaling allow the same muscles to contract. Inhale and exhale suddenly several times, while expanding and contracting the abdominal muscles.

During these exercises the breath may be taken through the mouth and nose, but in repose use the nose exclusively. Through diligent practise deep breathing should become an unconscious habit. Many of our most successful pulpit and platform speakers attribute their power of endurance to deep breathing and the proper use of the abdominal muscles.

The entire surface of the body should be washed at least once a day. No arbitrary rules can be laid down for every one. Whether the bath be cold or warm, tub or sponge, must be left to the discretion and convenience of the individual. In a general way, however, it may be said that the best time for a hot bath is at night, and for a cold bath in the morning. After the bath the body should be thoroughly dried with a towel, finishing off with a hand-rubbing. If this is followed with light gymnastics, it will prevent one from taking cold. In any event the circulation should be stimulated. Whenever possible the exercises that follow should be practised in the open air, or near an open window. It should be remembered that deep breathing is the very foundation of good health.



The advantage of these exercises is that they' combine three in one, giving the greatest possible results in the time expended. They should commend themselves particularly to the busy man.

1. The arms. Thoroughly relax the arms at the sides, and while inhaling deeply raise them slowly until the hands meet as high as possible above the head. Clasp the hands tightly, hold the breath, make the upper chest and arms tense or rigid, then after a few moments gently relax, dropping the arms to the sides while exhaling evenly, slowly, and deeply. When the arms are properly tensed they will tremble.

2. The chest. Stand erect, chest active, arms stretched out in front with palms together. Swing the arms suddenly to the back, at the same time deeply inhaling and rising on the toes. Each time gently relax. The movement should be rapid and animated. Keep in mind that you are developing your chest.

3. The legs. Inhale deeply, fold the arms across the chest, then raise the body up and down on the toes ten times without touching the heels to the floor. Hold the breath throughout the exercise and avoid jerkiness in the movements.

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4. The thighs. Inhale deeply, fold the arms, and while balancing yourself on the balls of the feet sink to a sitting position, up and down, six times. Inhale as you go down, exhale as you come up.

5. The abdomen. Lie flat on your back. Raise the heels from the floor and bring the knees back toward the

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