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thest part of the chamber, speaking with secretary Cecil. Then she took out the queen's picture and kissed it; and I adventured to kiss her hand, for the great love evidenced therein to my mistress. She shewed me also a fair ruby, as great as a tennis-ball; I desired that she would send either it or my Lord of Leicester's picture, as a token to my queen. She said that if the queen would follow her counsel, she would in process of time get all that she had ; that in the meantime she was resolved in a token to send her with me a fair diamond. It was at this time late after supper; she appointed me to be with her the next morning by eight of the clock, at which time she used to walk in her garden.

She inquired of me inany things relating to this kingdom (Scotland), and other countries wherein I had travelled. She caused me to dine with her dame of honour, my Lady Strafford-an honourable and godly lady, who had Leon at Geneva banished during the reign of Queen Mary-that I might be always near her, that she might confer with me.

At divers meetings we had divers purposes. The queen, my mistress, had instructed me to leave matters of gravity sometimes, and cast in merry purposes, lest otherwise she should be wearied; she being well informed of that queen's natural temper. Therefore, in declaring my observations of the customs of Dutchland, Poland, and Italy, the buskins of the women was not forgot; and what country weed I thought best becoming gentlewomen. The queen said she had clothes of every sort, which every day thereafter, so long as I was there, she changed. One day she had the English weed, another the French, and another the Italian ; and so forth. She asked me which of them became her best. I answered, in my judgment, the Italian dress; which answer I found pleased her well, for she delighted to shew her golden-coloured hair, wearing a caul and bonnet as they do in Italy. Her hair was rather reddish than yellow, cưled in appearance naturally.

She desired to know of me what colour of hair was reputed best; and whether my queen's hair or hers was best, and which of them two was fairest. I answered, the fairness of them both was not their worst its. But she was earnest with me to declare which of them I judged fairest. I said, she was the fairest queen in England, and mine in Scotland. Yet she appeared earnest. I answered, they were both the fairest ladies in their countries; that her majesty was whiter, but my queen was very, lovely. She inquired which of them was of highest stature. I said : •My queen. * Then, saith she, she is too high, for myself am neither too high_nor 100 low.' Then she asked me what exercises she used. I answered, that when I received my dispatch, the queen was lately come from the Highland hunting; that when her more serious affairs permitted, she was taken up with reading of histories ; that sometimes she recreated herself in playing upon the lute and virginals. She asked me if she played well. I said reasonably, for a queen.

That same day after dinner, my Lord of Hunsdon drew me up to a quiet gallery that I might hear some music; but he said he durst not avow it, where I might hear the queen play upon the virginals. After I had hearkened awhile, I took by the tapestry that bung before the door of the chamber, and seeing her back was toward the door, I ventured within the chamber, and stood a pretty space hearing her play excellently well; but she left off immediately, so soon as she turned about and saw me, She appeared to be surprised to see me, and came forward, seeming to strike me with her hand; alleging that she used not to play before men but when she was solitary, to shun melancholy. She asked how I came there. I answered : “As I was walking with my Lord of Hunsdon, as we passed by the chamber-door, I heard such melody as ravished me, whereby I was drawn in cre I knew how;'excusing my fault of homeliness as being brought up in the court of France, where such freedom was allowed; declaring myself willing to endure what kind of punishment her majesty should be pleased to inflict upon me, for so great an offence. Then she sat down low upon a cushion, and I upon my knees by her, but with her own hand she gave me a cushion to lay under my knee; which at first I refused, but she compelled me to take it. She then called for my Lady Strafford out of the next chamber, for the queen was alone. She inquired whether my qucen or she played best. In that I found myself obliged to give her the praise. She said my French was very good, and asked if I could speak Italian, which she spoke reasonally well. I told her majesty I had no time to learn the language, not having been above two months in Italy. Then she spake to me in Dutch, which was not good; and would know what ķind of books I most delighted in-whether theology, history, or love matters. I said I liked Well of all the sorts. Here I took occasion to press carnestly my dispatch: she said

E. L. v. ii. 3

I was sooner weary of her company than she was of mine. I told ner majesty, that though I had no reason of being weary, I knew my mistress her affairs called me home; yet I was stayed two days longer, that I might see her dance, as I was afterwards informed. Which being over, she inquired of me whether she or my queen danced best. I answered the queen danced not so high or disposedly as she did. Then again she wished that she might see the queen at some convenient place of meeting. I offered to convey her secretly to Scotland by post, clothed like a page, that under this disguise she might see the queen: as Jannes V. had gone in disguise with his own ambassador to see the Duke of Vendoine's sister, who should have been his wife. Telling her that her chamber might be kept in her absence, as though she were sick; that none need be privy thereto except Lady Strafford and one of the grooms of her chamber. She appeared to like that kind of language, only answered it with a sigh, saying: 'Alas! if I might do it thus !


The Latin poems of BUCHANAN, and his exquisite version of the Psalms, are the chief sources of his fame. He was, however, mixed up with public affairs of importance, wrote political treatises, and joined in the measures of the church reformers. He was born in the parish of Killearn, county of Stirling, in 1506. His father died early ; and his son was indebted for his education to a maternal uncle, who sent him in his fourteenth year to study in Paris. He afterwards taught grammar in the college of St. Barbe, was tutor to the Earl of Cassilis, and on his return to Britain, was retained by King James V. as preceptor to one of his natural sons. At the instigation of the king, Buchanan wrote a satire on the Franciscan friars, which roused the implacable hatred of the clergy; and the king having, from ayaricious motives, joined with the priests, and abandoned the Reformers, Buchanan fled to England. He shortly afterwards_removed to France, and was successively professor of Latin at Bordeanx and Paris. Having been induced to accept of a professorship at Coimbra, where the king of Portugal had founded a university, Buchanan was assailed by the priests, and thrown into the prison of the Inquisition, whence he was removed to a monastery, and whilst confined there, composed part of his version of the Psalms. He was ultimately liberated, returned to his native country, and in 1562 is found officiating as classical tutor to Queen Mary, who was then in the twentieth year of her age. Strongly attached to the Protestant doctrines, Buchanan joined the party of the Earl of Murray, and was appointed Principal of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews. In the commission against Queen Mary, Buchanan was an active coadjutor, and composed in Latin a review of the queen's life and character, Detectio Mariæ Reginæ. All tenderness for the unfortunate queen, whom he had eulogised in verse, had now ceased; the old scholar was a stern critic; but he conceived that he owed to his country the harsh task le performed. In 1570, he was appointed tutor to James VI, then only four years of age, and was so severe a task-master, that James, when on the throne of England, trembled at the recollection of his pedagogue. The young monarch's proficiency in classical learning, however, reflected credit on his early instructors. In 1579, Buchanan

published a compendium

of political philosophy and vindication of popular rights, entitled 'De Jure Regni,' which he dedicated to bis royal.pupil, at the same time warning, bim against the allurements of Hattery and adulation. The work is a bold and masterly treatise. The latter years of Buchanan's life were spent in retirement, during which he composed his 'History of Scotland,' a work equal to Livy in style, but of no historical value, as, unfortunately, its author did not attempt to investigate facts or institute research, but clothed in noble Latin the monstrous legends and fables of former annalists. Buchanan died September 28, 1582, so poor, that the cost of his funeral was defrayed by the city of Edinburgh. Two Scotch treatises are ascribed to Buchanan, “Ane Admonitioun direct to the Trew Lordis maintenaris of Justice, and Obedience to the Kingis Grace,' 1571, and 'Chamæleon,' a satire on Maitland of Lethington, which was first printed in the “Miscellanea Scotica,' 1710, but a copy among the Cotton MSS. bears the date of 1570. As this manuscript is not in Buchanan's handwriting, though ascribed to him, it may not be his composition. Boil pieces are in the most rugged, uncouth Scottish dialect and orthography, and it is difficult to believe, as Dugald Stewart has remarked, that they express the ideas and sentiments of the same writer wlrose Latin productions vie with the best models of antiquity.' We subjoin an extract:

The Chameleon. Thair is a certane kynd of Beist callit Chamæleon, engenderit in sic Countreis as the Sone hes mair Strenth in thau in this Yle of Brettane, the quhilk, (1) albeit it be small of Corporance, noghttheless it is of ane strange Nature, the qulilk makis it to be na less celebrat and spoken of than sum Beastis of greittar Quantitie. The Proprieties (2) is marvalous, for quat Thing evir it be applicat to, it semis to be of the samyn (3) Cullour, and imitatis 2īl Hewis, excepte onelie the Quhyte and Reid ; and for this caus anciene Writtaris commonlic comparis it to ane Flatterare, qubilk imitatis all the haill Maneris of qubome he fenzeis (4) him self to be Freind to, except Quhgte, quhilk is taken to be the Symboll and Tokin gevin commonlie in Devise of Colouris to signifie Sempilnes and Loyaltie, and Rtil signifying Manliness and heroyicall Courage. This Applicatioun being so usit, Zit (5) peradventure mony that hes nowther sene (6) the said Beist, por na perfyt: Portraict of it, wald beleif sick (7) thing not to be trew. I will thairfore set furth schortlie the Descriptioun of sic ali Monsture not lang ago engendrit in Scotland in the Cuntre of Lowthiane, not far from Hadingtoun, to that effect that the forme knawin, the moist pestiferus Nature of the said monsture may be moir easelie evited: (s) kor this monsture being ander coverture of a Manis Figure, may easeliar endommage (9) and wers be eschapit (10) than gif it wer moir defotine and strange of Face, Behaviour, Schap, and Membrs. Praying the Reidar to apardoun the Febilmes of my waike Spreit and Engyne,(11) gif it can not expreme perfytelie ane strange Creature, maid by Nature, other willing to schaw her greit Strunih,(12) Or be sun accidení turnit ke Force frome the common Trade and Course.

JOHN LESLIE. JouN LESLIE, bishop of Moray (1526–96), was a zealous partis !!! of Queen Mary, whom he accompinied on flir return from Franco

1 Which. 2 Properties. 3 Same, 4 Thom he feigns. 6 las peither seen.

7 Such, 8 More easily avoided. 9 Damage. 10 Worse be escaped. 11 Weak spirit and ingenuity or genius, 12 Either willing to shew her great strength.

5 Yet.

to Scotland in 1561. He was one of the commissioners chosen by Mary to defend her cause in the famous conference at York; and lie assisted in the negotiations for the marriage of Mary with the Duke of Norfolk. For this Norfolk was beheaded, and Leslie imprisonedl. He was set at liberty in 1574, and resided abroad at Rome, in France, and in Germany. He was made bishop of Coutances, in Normandy, but finally closed his checkered life in a monastery near Brussels. Leslie wrote several Latin works: a ‘Defence of Queen Mary,' a · Description of Scotland, and a work on the Origin, Manners, and Exploits of the Scottish Nation. A ‘History of Scotland,' from the death of James I. in 1436 to the year 1561, is Leslie's only work in English, or rather Scotch, which was printed by the Bannatyne Club in 1830. The homely Latin of the Bishop is a foil to Buchanan's stately periods ; but he excels the classic author in his devotiou to the early fabulous Scottish history, as he gives portraits of Fergus and his descendants !

Burning of Edinburgh and Leith by the English in 1544. Now will I return to the earnest ambition of King Henry of England, who ceased not to search by all means possible to attain to his desire, (1) and therefore sent a great army by sea into Scotland, with the Earl of Hertford, his lieutenant, and the Viscount Lisle, his admiral, with two hundred great ships, besides boats and crears (2) that carried their victuals, whereof there was great number; and the whole ficet arrived in the firth fornent Leith the third day of May, and landed at the New Haven about xx thousand men, with great artillery and all kind of munition, the fourth of May. In the meantime, the Governor being in the town of Edinburgh, hearing of their sudden arrival, departed forth of the town toward Leith, accompanied with the Cardinal, Earls of Huntly, Argyll, Bothwell, and others, with their own household men only, purposing to stop the landing of the enemy; but frae (3) they were surely advertised of the great number of their enemies, wherethrough they were not able to withstand their forces, they returned to Edinburgh, and sent Sir Adam Otterburne, provost of the town, and two of the builies, to the said Earl Hertford, lieutenant, desiring to koow for what cause he was come with such an army to invade, consideriug there was no war proclaimed betw.xt the two realms; and if there was any injuries or wrongs done whereupon the king of England was offended, they would appoint commissioners to treat with them thereupon, and to that effect thankfully would receive them within the town of Edinburgh. The said Earl of Hertford answered, that he had no commission to treat upon any matters, but only to receive the queen of Scotland, to be convoyed in England to be married with Prince Edward; and if they would deliver her, he would abstain from all pursuit, otherwise he would burn and destroy the towns of Edinburgh, Leitb. and all others where he might be master within the realm of Scotland, and desired therefore the haill (4) men, wives, bairs, and others being within the town of Edinburgh, to come forth of the same, and prerent them before him as lieutenant, and offer them into the king's will, or else he would proceed as he had spoken. To the which the provost, by the command of the Governor and council, answered that they would abide all extremity rather or (5) they fulfilled liis desires; and so the Goverüor caused furnish the Castle of Edinburgh with all kind of necessary furniture, and departed to Striveling (6). In the meantime, the Hnglish army lodged that night in Leith. Upon the mon, being the fifth of May, they marched forward toward Edinburgh by ihe Canongate, and or (5) their entering therein, there came to them six thousand horsemen of English men from Berwick by land, who joined with them, and passed up the Canongate, of purpose to enter at the Nether Bow; where some resistance was made unto them by certain Scottish

1 To en force a marriage between his son and the infant Queen Mary of Scotland, 2 A kind of lighters. 3 From the time when. 4 Whole. 5 Ere. 6 Stirling

men, and divers of the English men were slain, and some also of the Scottish side, and so held them that day occupied skirmishing, till the night came, which compelled them to return unto their camp. And on the next day, being the sixth of May, the great army came forward with the haill ordnances, and assailed the town, which they found void of all resistance, saving the ports of the town were closed, which they broke up with great artillery, and entered thereat, carrying carted ordnances before them till they came in sight of the Castle, where they placed them, purposing to siege the Castle. But the Laird of Stanehouse, captain thereof, caused shoot at them in so great abundance, and with so good measure, that they slew a great number of English men, amongst whom there was some principal captains and gentlemen; and one of the greatest pieces of the English ordnances was broken ; wherethrough they were constrained to raise the siege shortly and retire them.

The same day the English men set fire in divers places of the town, but was not suffered to maintain it, through continual shooting of ordnance forth of the Castle, wherewith they were so sore troubled, that they were constrained to return to their camp at Leith. But the next day they returned again, and did that they could to consume all the town with fires. So likewise they continued some days after, so that the most part of the town was burnt in a cruel manner; during the which time their horsemen did great hurt in the country, spoiling and burning sundry places thereabout, and in special all the castle and place of Craigmillar, where the inost part of the whole riches of Edinburgh was put by the merchants of the town in keeping, which, not without fraud of the keepers, as was reported, was betrayed to the English men for a part of the booty and spoil thereof.

When the English men of war was thus occupied in burning and spoiling, the Governor sent and relieved the Earl of Angus, Lord Maxwell, Master of Glencairn, and Sir George Douglas, forth of ward, and put them to liberty; and made such speedy preparation as he could to set forward an army for expelling the English men forth of the realm ; who hearing thereof, upon the xiiij day of May, they broke down the pier of Leith haven, burned and destroyed the same; and shipping their great artillery, they sent their ships away homeward, laden with the spoil of Edinburgh and Leith, taking with them certain Scottish ships which was in the haven, amongst the which the ships called Salainander and the Unicorn were carried in England. (pon the xv day of May, their army and their fleet departed from Leith at one time, the town of Leith being set on fire the same morning, and their said army that night lodged at Seaton, the next night beside Dunbar, the third night at Renton in the Merse, and the is day of May they entered in Berwick. In all this time, the Borderers and certain others Scottish men, albeit they were not of sufficient number to give battle, yet they held them busy with daily skirmishing, that sundry of their men ana horse were taken and therefore none of them durst in any wise stir from the great army in all their pussage from Edinburgh to Berwick.

KING JAMES I. KING JAMES was ambitious of the fame of an author, but his works are now considered merely as curiosities. His most celebrated productions are the · Basilicon Doron’ (1599), Dæmonology' (1597), and 'A Counterblast against Tobacco' (included in works, 1016, but written earlier). The first was written, for the instruction of his son Prince Henry, a short time before the union of the crowns, and seems not to have been originally intended for the press. In the 'Dæmonology,' the British Solomon displays his wisdom and learning in maintaining the existence and criminality of witches, which he says abounded in Scotland :

Sorcery and Witchcraft. The fearful abonnding at this time in this country of these detestable saves of the devil, the witches or enchanters, hath moved me, beloved reader, to despatch in post this owing treatise of mine, not in anywise, as I protest, to serve for a show of my learning and ingine, but only, moved of conscience, to press thereby, so far as I can, to resolve the doubting hearts of many; both that such assaults of Bathan are

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